ภาษาไทย phasa thai
|Spoken in:||Thailand, North Malaysia|
|Total speakers:||60-65 million|
|Official language in:||Thailand|
|Regulated by:||The Royal Institute|
Thai (ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration: p̣hās̄ʹāthịy; IPA: [pʰāːsǎːtʰāj]), is the national and official language of Thailand and the mother tongue of the Thai people, Thailand's dominant ethnic group. The Royal Thai General System of Transcription ( RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet. ISO 11940 is an ISO standard for the Romanization of the Thai alphabet, published in 1998 (updated September 2003 A national language is a Language (or language variant, ie Dialect) which has some connection - de facto or de jure - with An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth The Thai (or Tai) are the main ethnic group of Thailand and are part of the larger Tai ethnolinguistic peoples found in Thailand and adjacent countries Thai is a member of the Tai group of the Tai-Kadai language family. The Tai languages (ภาษาไต are a subgroup of the Tai-Kadai Language family. The Tai-Kadai languages, also known as Kadai, Kradai, or Kra-Dai languages and in China as Zhuang-Dong languages are a tonal List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family The Tai-Kadai languages are thought to have originated in what is now southern China, and some linguists have proposed links to the Austroasiatic, Austronesian, or Sino-Tibetan language families. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large Language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. The Sino-Tibetan languages form a Language family composed of at least the Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of It is a tonal and analytic language. A tonal language is a language that uses tone to distinguish words In morphological typology (in linguistics an isolating language (also analytic language) is any Language in which words are composed of The combination of tonality, a complex orthography, relational markers and a distinctive phonology can make Thai difficult to learn for those who do not already speak a related language. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language For other meanings see the disambiguation page Marker In Linguistics, a marker is a free or bound Morpheme that indicates Phonology ( Greek φωνή (phōnē voice sound + λόγος (lógos word speech subject of discussion is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning
Standard Thai, also known as Central Thai or Siamese, is the official language of Thailand, spoken by about 65 million people (1990) including speakers of Bangkok Thai (although the latter is sometimes considered as a separate dialect). An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Khorat Thai is spoken by about 400,000 (1984) in Nakhon Ratchasima; it occupies a linguistic position somewhere between Central Thai and Isan on a dialect continuum, and may be considered a variant or dialect of either. Khorat Thai refers to an Ethnic group that lives mainly in Khorat Province, Thailand. Nakhon Ratchasima (นครราชสีมา naˡkʰon ˡraːtʃasiːˈmaː is a city ( thesaban nakhon) in the north-east ( Isan (Isan ภาษาอีสาน RTGS: phasa isan IPA: pʰaːsaː iːsaːn is the principal language of the Isan (northeastern region of A dialect continuum is a range of Dialects spoken across a large geographical area differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close and gradually decreasing A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of
In addition to Standard Thai, Thailand is home to other related Tai languages, including:
Statistics are from Ethnologue 2003-10-4.
Many of these languages are spoken by larger numbers outside of Thailand. Most speakers of dialects and minority languages speak Central Thai as well, since it is the language used in schools and universities all across the kingdom.
Numerous languages not related to Thai are spoken within Thailand by ethnic minority hill tribespeople. Hill tribe is a term used in Thailand for all of the various tribal peoples who migrated from China and Tibet over the past few centuries These languages include Hmong-Mien (Yao), Karen, Lisu, and others. The Hmong-Mien or Miao-Yao languages are a small Language family of southern China and Southeast Asia. The Karen languages are Tonal languages spoken by the Karen people and are classified as part of the Tibeto-Burman group of the Sino-Tibetan language Lisu is a Sino-Tibetan Tonal language spoken in Yunnan (southwestern China) northern Burma, and Thailand and a small
Standard Thai is composed of several distinct registers, forms for different social contexts:
Many Thais can speak at only the first and second levels, though they will understand the others.
The Thai alphabet is derived from the Khmer alphabet (อักขระเขมร), which is modeled after the Brahmic script from the Indic family. The Thai Alphabet (อักษรไทย àksŏn thai) is used to write the Thai language and other minority languages in Thailand The Khmer script (អក្ខរក្រមខេមរភាសា âkkhârâkrâm khémârâ phéasa informally aksar Khmer អក្សរខ្មែរ is used to write the Brāhmī script refers to the oldest members of the Brahmic family of alphabets. The Brahmic family is a family of syllabaries (writing systems used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and parts of Central Asia and East Asia, The language and its alphabet are closely related to the Lao language and alphabet. Lao or Laotian (BGN/PCGN phasa lao IPA: pʰaːsaː laːw is a Tonal Language of the Tai-Kadai language family The Lao script is used mainly to write the Lao language. The minority languages of Laos are also written in the Lao script and officially it is the only script Most Laotians are able to read and understand Thai, as more than half of the Thai vocabulary, grammar, intonation, vowels and so forth are common with the Lao language. Much like the Burmese adopted the Mon script (which also has Indic origins), the Thais adopted and modified Khmer script to create their own writing system. While the oldest known inscription in the Khmer language dates from 611 CE, inscriptions in Thai writing began to appear around 1292 CE. Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. Notable features include:
There is no universal standard for transcribing Thai into the Latin alphabet. For example, the name of King Rama IX, the present monarch, is transcribed variously as Bhumibol, Phumiphon, phuuM miH phohnM, or many other versions. Guide books, text books and dictionaries may each follow different systems. For this reason, most language courses recommend that learners master the Thai alphabet.
What comes closest to a standard is the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS), published by the Thai Royal Institute only in Thai at . The Royal Thai General System of Transcription ( RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet. This system is increasingly used in Thailand by central and local governments, especially for road signs. Its main drawbacks are that it does not indicate tone or vowel length. It is not possible to reconstruct the Thai spelling from the RTGS transcriptions.
The ISO published an international standard for the transliteration of Thai into Roman script in September 2003 (ISO 11940) . ISO 11940 is an ISO standard for the Romanization of the Thai alphabet, published in 1998 (updated September 2003 ISO 11940 is an ISO standard for the Romanization of the Thai alphabet, published in 1998 (updated September 2003 By adding diacritics to the Latin letters, it makes the transcription reversible, making it a true transliteration. Transliteration is the practice of Transcribing a Word or text written in one Writing system into another writing system or system of rules for such practice This system is intended for academic use and is hardly ever used in Thailand for the common public.
From the perspective of linguistic typology, Thai can be considered to be an analytic language. Linguistic Typology is an international Peer-reviewed journal in the field of Linguistic typology, founded in 1997 In morphological typology (in linguistics an isolating language (also analytic language) is any Language in which words are composed of The word order is Subject Verb Object, although the subject is often omitted. In Linguistics, word order typology refers to the study of the different ways in which languages arrange the constituents of their sentences relative to each other and the systematic In Linguistic typology, subject-verb-object ( SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first the Verb second and the object The Thai pronominal system varies according to the sex and relative status of speaker and audience.
There is no morphological distinction between adverbs and adjectives. In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the Many words can be used in either function. They follow the word they modify, which may be a noun, verb, or another adjective or adverb. Intensity can be expressed by a duplicated word, which is used to mean "very" (with the first occurrence at a higher pitch) or "rather" (with both at the same pitch) (Higbie 187-188). Usually, only one word is duplicated per clause.
Comparatives take the form "A X กว่า B" (kwa, IPA: [kwaː]), A is more X than B. In Grammar, the comparative is the form of an Adjective or Adverb which denotes the degree or grade by which a person thing or other entity has a property The superlative is expressed as "A X ที่สุด" (thi sut, IPA: [tʰiːsut]), A is most X. In Grammar the superlative of an Adjective or Adverb is the greatest form of adjective or adverb which indicates that something has some feature
Because adjectives can be used as complete predicates, many words used to indicate tense in verbs (see Verbs:Tense below) may be used to describe adjectives.
Verbs do not inflect (i. For English usage of verbs see the wiki article English verbs. For fusion in Word formation, see Compound (linguistics. A fusional language (also called inflecting language) is a e. do not change with person, tense, voice, mood, or number) nor are there any participles. In Linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a Calque of Greek μετοχη "partaking" is a derivative of a non-finite Duplication conveys the idea of doing the verb intensively.
The passive voice is indicated by the insertion of ถูก (thuk, IPA: [tʰuːk])) before the verb. In Grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state that the verb expresses and the participants identified For example:
To convey the opposite sense, a sense of having an opportunity arrive, ได้ (dai, IPA: [daj], can) is used. For example:
Note, dai (IPA: [daj] and IPA: [daːj]), though both spelled ได้ , convey two separate meanings. The short vowel dai (IPA: [daj]) conveys an opportunity has arisen and is placed before the verb. The long vowel dai (IPA: [daːj]) is placed after the verb and conveys the idea that one has been given permission or one has the ability to do something. Also see the past tense below.
Negation is indicated by placing ไม่ (mai, not) before the verb.
Tense is conveyed by tense markers before or after the verb.
Nouns are uninflected and have no gender; there are no articles. In Linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called Noun classes are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words every noun must belong
Nouns are neither singular nor plural. SINGULAR is a Computer algebra system for Polynomial computations with special emphasis on the needs of Commutative algebra, Algebraic geometry Plural is a Grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the Referent in the real world Some specific nouns are reduplicated to form collectives: เด็ก (dek, child) is often repeated as เด็กๆ (dek dek) to refer to a group of children. Reduplication, in Linguistics, is a morphological Process by which the root or stem of a Word, or part of it is repeated In Linguistics, singulative number and collective number are terms used when the Grammatical number for multiple items is the unmarked form The word พวก (phuak, [pʰûak]) may be used as a prefix of a noun or pronoun as a collective to pluralize or emphasise the following word. (พวกผม, phuak phom, [pʰûak pʰǒm], we, masculine; พวกเรา phuak rao, [pʰûak raw], emphasised we; พวกหมา phuak ma, (the) dogs) Plurals are expressed by adding classifiers, used as measure words (ลักษณนาม), in the form of noun-number-classifier (ครูห้าคน, "teacher five person" for "five teachers"). A classifier, in Linguistics, is a Word or Morpheme used in some languages to classify a Noun according to its meaning In Linguistics, measure words, known more formally as numeral classifiers and also called counters, count words, counter words, or While in English, such classifiers are usually absent ("four chairs") or optional ("two bottles of beer" or "two beers"), a classifier is almost always used in Thai (hence "chair four item" and "beer two bottle").
Subject pronouns are often omitted, while nicknames are often used where English would use a pronoun. In Linguistics and Grammar, a pronoun is a Pro-form that substitutes for a (including a noun phrase consisting of a single Noun) with or A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. There are specialised pronouns in the royal and sacred Thai languages. The following are appropriate for conversational use:
|ผม||phom||[pʰǒm]||I/me (masculine; formal)|
|ดิฉัน||dichan||[dìːtɕʰán])||I/me (feminine; formal)|
|ฉัน||chan||[tɕʰǎn]||I/me (masculine or feminine; informal)|
|ท่าน||thaan||[thâan]||you (polite to a person of high status)|
|เธอ||thoe||[tʰɤː]||you (informal), she/her (informal)|
|เรา||rao||[raw]||we/us, I/me (casual)|
|พวกเขา||phuak khao||[pʰûak kʰǎw]||they/them|
|พี่||phi||[pʰîː]||older brother, sister (also often used loosely for older cousins and non-relatives)|
|น้อง||nong||[nɔːŋ]||younger brother, sister (also often used loosely for younger cousins and non-relatives)|
|ลูกพี่ ลูกน้อง||luk phi luk nong||[luːk pʰiː luːk nɔːŋ]||cousin (male or female)|
The particles are often untranslatable words added to the end of a sentence to indicate respect, a request, encouragement or other moods (similar to the use of intonation in English), as well as varying the level of formality. The Royal Thai General System of Transcription ( RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet. In Linguistics, the term particle is a word lacking a strict definition but has the function of changing the relation of the parts of the sentence to one another and is therefore In Linguistics, intonation is variation of pitch whilst speaking which is not used to distinguish words They are not used in elegant (written) Thai. The most common particles indicating respect are ครับ (khrap, IPA: [kʰráp], with a high tone) for a man, and ค่ะ (kha, [kʰâ], with a falling tone) for a woman; these can also be used to indicate an affirmative.
Other common particles are:
|จ๊ะ||cha||[tɕaʔ]||indicating a request|
|จ้ะ, จ้า or จ๋า||cha||[tɕaː]||indicating emphasis|
|ละ or ล่ะ||la||[laʔ]||indicating emphasis|
|สิ||si||[siʔ]||indicating emphasis or an imperative|
|นะ||na||[naʔ]||softening; indicating a request|
There are five phonemic tones: middle, low, high, rising and falling. The Royal Thai General System of Transcription ( RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet. Tone is the use of pitch in Language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning—that is to distinguish or inflect words The table shows an example of both the phonemic tones and their phonetic realization, in the IPA. The phoneME project is Sun Microsystems reference implementation of Java virtual machine and associated libraries of Java ME with source licensed under the GNU Phonetics (from the Greek φωνή ( phonê) "sound" or "voice" is the study of the physical sounds of human speech The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic
|high||น้า||/náː/||[naː˧˥]||aunt/uncle(younger than your parents)|
Thai distinguishes among three voice/aspiration patterns for plosive consonants:
Where English has only a distinction between the voiced, unaspirated /b/ and the unvoiced, aspirated /p/, Thai distinguishes a third sound which is neither voiced nor aspirated, which occurs in English only as an allophone of /p/, approximately the sound of the p in "spin. " There is similarly an alveolar /t/, /tʰ/, /d/ triplet. In the velar series there is a /k/, /kʰ/ pair and in the postalveolar series the /tɕ/, /tɕʰ/ pair.
In each cell below, the first line indicates International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the second indicates the Thai characters in initial position (more letters appearing in the same box have identical pronunciation).
|Nasal||[ m ]|
|[ n ]|
|[ ŋ ]|
|Plosive||[ p ]|
|[ pʰ ]|
|[ b ]|
|[ t ]|
|[ tʰ ]|
|[ d ]|
|[ k ]|
|[ kʰ ]|
|[ ʔ ]|
|Fricative||[ f ]|
|[ s ]|
|[ h ]|
|Affricate||[ tɕ ]|
|[ tɕʰ ]|
ฉ, ช, ฌ
|Trill||[ r ]|
|Approximant||[ j ]|
|[ w ]|
|[ l ]|
The basic vowels of the Thai language, from front to back and close to open, are given in the following table. The top entry in every cell is the symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet, the second entry gives the spelling in the Thai alphabet, where a dash (–) indicates the position of the initial consonant after which the vowel is pronounced. The Thai Alphabet (อักษรไทย àksŏn thai) is used to write the Thai language and other minority languages in Thailand A second dash indicates that a final consonant must follow.
The vowels each exist in long-short pairs: these are distinct phonemes forming unrelated words in Thai, but usually transliterated the same: เขา (khao) means he or she, while ขาว (khao) means white. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and A front vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far forward A back vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as A close vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in many spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a close vowel is that the tongue is positioned as close as A close-mid vowel is a type of Vowel sound used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of a close-mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned two-thirds The open-mid vowels make a class of Vowel sounds used in some spoken Languages The defining characteristic of an open-mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned An open vowel is a Vowel sound of a type used in most spoken Languages The defining characteristic of an open vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far as In Linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a Vowel sound The phoneME project is Sun Microsystems reference implementation of Java virtual machine and associated libraries of Java ME with source licensed under the GNU
The long-short pairs are as follows:
|Thai script||IPA||Gloss||Thai script||IPA||Gloss|
|–า||/aː/||/fǎːn/||'to slice'||–ะ||/a/||/fǎn/||'to dream'|
|แ–||/ɛː/||/pʰɛ́ː/||'to be defeated'||แ–ะ||/ɛ/||/pʰɛ́ʔ/||'goat'|
|–ื||/ɯː/||/kʰlɯ̂ːn/||'wave'||–ึ||/ɯ/||/kʰɯ̂n/||'to go up'|
|โ–||/oː/||/kʰôːn/||'to fell'||โ–ะ||/o/||/kʰôn/||'thick (soup)'|
The basic vowels can be combined into diphthongs. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and In Phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (from Greek grc δίφθογγος "diphthongos" literally "with two sounds" or "with Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993) analyze those ending in high vocoids as underlyingly /Vj/ and /Vw/. Thai (th ภาษาไทย, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration:; pʰāːsǎːtʰāj is the national and For purposes of determining tone, those marked with an asterisk are also classified as long:
|–าย||/aːj/||ไ–*, ใ–*, ไ–ย||/aj/|
Additionally, there are three triphthongs, all of which are long:
For a guide to written vowels, see the Thai alphabet page. In Phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos" literally "with three sounds" or "with three The Thai Alphabet (อักษรไทย àksŏn thai) is used to write the Thai language and other minority languages in Thailand
Other than compound words and words of foreign origin, most words are monosyllabic. In Linguistics, a compound is a Lexeme (less precisely a Word) that consists of more than one stem. A syllable ( Greek:) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds Historically, words have most often been borrowed from Sanskrit and Pāli; Buddhist terminology is particularly indebted to these. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Old Khmer has also contributed its share, especially in regard to royal court terminology. Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. Since the beginning of the 20th century, however, the English language has had the greatest influence. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Many Teochew Chinese words are also used, some replacing existing Thai words.
Thailand also uses the distinctive Thai six hour clock in addition to the 24 hour clock. The six hour clock is one of two time systems used by Thais (the other being the 24-hour clock) Description A time of day is written in the 24-hour notation in the form hhmm (for example 0123 or hhmmss (for example 012345 where hh (00 to 23 is the decimal number