A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibres, linen, cotton, or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands known as yarn. Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic Fibers are twisted together to form Yarn (or thread Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Linen is a Textile made from the Fibers of the Flax plant Linum usitatissimum. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or Yarn from natural or Synthetic Fibers History Technology in World Civilization This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story.  Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt). This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. "Knit" redirects here See also KNIT and Knitted fabric. Crochet (kroʊˈʃeɪ is a process of creating fabric from Yarn or thread using a Crochet hook. Macramé or macrame is a form of Textile -making using Knotting rather than Weaving or Knitting. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting condensing and pressing fibers
The words fabric and cloth are commonly used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. A tailor is a person whose occupation is to sew and scissor menswear style jackets and the skirts or trousers that go with them For other uses see Dressmaker (disambiguation A dressmaker is a person who makes custom Clothing for women such as However, there are subtle differences in these terms. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, crocheting, or bonding. Cloth refers to a finished piece of fabric that can be used for a purpose such as covering a bed.
The production of textiles is an important craft, whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Plain or tabby weave is the most basic of the three fundamental types of Textile weaves. Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs Satin weave is one of the three important Textile weaves. (The other two are Plain weave and Twill weave
Incan Indians have been crafting quipus (or khipus) made of fibres either from a protein, such as spun and plied thread like wool or hair from camelids such as alpacas, llamas and camels or from a cellulose like cotton for thousands of years. Quipu or khipu (sometimes called talking knots) were recording devices used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean Khipus are a series of knots along pieces of string. They have been believed to only have acted as a form of accounting, although new evidence conducted by Harvard professor, Gary Urton, indicates there may be more to the khipu than just numbers. Gary Urton is the Dumbarton Oaks Professor of Pre-Columbian Studies at Harvard University. Preservation of khipus found in museum and archive collections follow general textile preservation principles and practice. Textile preservation refers to the processes by which Textiles are cared for and maintained to be preserved from future damage
Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and containers such as bags and baskets. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather A bag (also known as a Sack) is a non- rigid or semi-rigid container made of Paper, Cloth, Plastic, Leather, A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibres often made of Willow. In the household, they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, covering for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. A carpet is any loom-woven felted textile or grass floor covering Furniture is the Mass noun for the movable objects which may support the human body (seating furniture and beds, provide storage or hold objects on horizontal For other uses see Blinds (disambiguation For the desktop theming software see WindowBlinds. A towel is a piece of absorbent fabric or Paper used for drying or wiping Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual In the workplace, they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, nets, cleaning devices, such as handkerchiefs; transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes; strengthening in composite materials such as fibre glass and industrial geotextiles, and smaller cloths are used in washing by "soaping up" the cloth and washing with it rather than using just soap. A flag is a piece of Cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used Symbolically for signaling or identification A backpack (also called A tent is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over or attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope A net, in its primary meaning comprises fibers woven in a grid-like structure Cleanliness is the absence of dirt including Dust, Stains bad smells and Garbage. A handkerchief (also called handkercher or hanky) is a form of a Kerchief, typically a square of fabric that can be carried in the Pocket Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another A balloon is a flexible bag filled with a type of Gas, such as Helium, Hydrogen, Nitrous oxide or air. A kite is a flying tethered object that depends upon the tension of a tethering system A sail is any type of surface intended to generate Thrust by being placed in a Wind &mdashin essence a vertically-oriented Wing. A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Composite materials (or composites for short are engineered Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre see Spelling differences) is material made from extremely fine Fibers of Glass. Geotextiles are permeable Fabrics which when used in association with Soil, have the ability to separate filter reinforce protect or drain
Textiles used for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles is the term given to Textile products manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes where function is the primary criterion Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (e. g. implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (e. g. against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests. A bullet is a solid Projectile propelled by a Firearm or Air gun and is normally made from metal (usually Lead) In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Zinc oxide is a Chemical compound with the formula ZnO It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in Acids and Bases It occurs A nanowire is a wire of diameter of the order of a nanometer (10−9 meters 
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others. Marisol Deluna, Nicole Miller, Lilly Pulitzer, the late Gianni Versace and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs. Marisol Patricia Luna (born June 20, 1967, in San Antonio Texas) also known as Marisol Deluna, is an American Fashion Nicole Miller (born 1952 Lenox Massachusetts) is an American Fashion designer. Lilly Pulitzer (b 1931 Roslyn New York) is a Socialite and prominent Fashion designer. Gianni Versace ( December 2, 1946 &ndash July 15, 1997) was an Italian Fashion designer and founder of Gianni Versace S Emilio Pucci, Marchese di Barsento ( November 20 1914 &ndash 29 November 1992) was an Italian fashion designer and politician
Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four main sources: animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic. In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The manufacture of Textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty plain-woven fabric used for making Sails Tents Marquees Backpacks and other functions The relative thickness of fibres in cloth is measured in deniers. Denier Denier is a unit of measure for the Linear mass density of Fibers. Microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier. Microfiber ( British spelling: Microfibre) refers to synthetic fibers ( Fiber) that measure less than one denier.
Animal textiles are commonly made from hair or fur. Hair is a keratinised protein filament that grows through the epidermis from follicles deep within the Dermis. Fur is a body hair of any non-human Mammal, also known as the Pelage.
Wool refers to the hair of the domestic goat or sheep, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with an oil known as lanolin, which is waterproof and dirtproof. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, anhydrous wool fat or wool grease, is a greasy yellow substance secreted by Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn which is spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Woollen ( American English: woolen) is the name of a Yarn and Cloth usually made from Wool. Worsted (pronunciation) is the name of a Yarn, the Cloth made from this yarn and a yarn weight category Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, and sometimes known as Pashmina, is a fiber obtained from the Cashmere goat. The changthangi or pashmina goat is a breed of Goat from Ladakh, usually raised for meat or Cashmere wool (also known as Pashmina Mohair usually refers to a Silk -like fabric or Yarn made from the Hair of the Angora goat. The Angora goat (Ankara keçisi is a Goat from the Angora region in Anatolia, near present-day Ankara, Turkey.
Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, and camel hair, generally used in the production of coats, jackets, ponchos, blankets, and other warm coverings. The Alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American Camelid. The vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna) is one of two wild South American Camelids along with the Guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the A jacket is a type of sleeved hip - or Waist -length garment for the upper body A poncho is a simple garment designed to keep the body warm or if made from a watertight material to keep dry during Rain. A blanket is a type of Bedding, generally speaking a large piece of cloth intended to keep the user warm especially while Sleeping Blankets are distinguished from Angora refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the angora rabbit. The Angora rabbit is a variety of domestic Rabbit bred for its long soft hair
Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500CE.
Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons A pupa ( Latin pupa for doll pl pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some Insects undergoing transformation This is spun into a smooth, shiny fabric prized for its sleek texture.
Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. The Juncaceae, or the Rush Family, is a rather small monocot Flowering plant family This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. Sisal or sisal hemp is an Agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff Fiber used in making Rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking. Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a Coconut. The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family Twine is a strong Thread or String composed of two or more smaller strands or Yarns twisted together A mat is a generic term for a piece of fabric or flat material generally placed on a Floor or other flat surface and serving a range of purposes including "Paintbrush" redirects here For other uses see Paintbrush (disambiguation. A mattress is a mat or pad usually placed atop a Bed, upon which to sleep or lie
Straw and bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw is an agricultural By-product, the dry stalk of a Cereal plant after the Grain or Seed has been removed Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is kapok. For the children's book see The Great Kapok Tree. Kapok ( Ceiba pentandra) is a tropical Tree of the order
Fibres from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice, hemp, and nettle are used in making paper. Pulpwood refers to Timber grown with the principal purpose of making Wood pulp for Paper production Rice paper usually refers to paper made from parts of the Rice plant like rice straw or rice flour Nettle is the common name for between 30-45 species of Flowering plants of the genus Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmopolitan though Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging
Cotton, flax, jute, hemp and modal are all used in clothing. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum Jute is a long soft shiny Vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse strong threads Modal is a bio-based Fiber made by spinning reconstituted Cellulose from Beech trees Piña (pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fabrics such as cotton. Piña is a fiber made from the leaves of a Pineapple and is commonly used in the Philippines. Pineapple ( Ananas comosus) is the common name for an edible Tropical Plant and also its Fruit It is native to the southern part of Brazil Ramie ( Boehmeria nivea) is a Flowering plant in the Nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia.
Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks, velvets, and taffetas. Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865 is the Acetate Ester of Cellulose. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed with a short dense pile giving it a distinct feel Taffeta (formerly sometimes spelled taffety) is a crisp smooth woven fabric made from Silk or synthetic fibers
Seaweed is used in the production of textiles. Seaweed is a loose colloquial term encompassing macroscopic Multicellular, benthic marine Algae. A water-soluble fibre known as alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area
Tencel is a man-made fabric derived from wood pulp. Alginic acid ( algin, alginate) is a viscous gum that is abundant in the cell walls of Brown algae. It is often described as a man-made silk equivalent and is a tough fabric which is often blended with other fabrics - cotton for example.
Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting, and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Basalt fiber or fibre is a Material made from extremely fine Fibers of Basalt, which is composed of the Minerals Plagioclase
Glass Fibre is used in the production of spacesuits, ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre see Spelling differences) is material made from extremely fine Fibers of Glass. A space suit is a complex system of Garments equipment and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space Composite materials (or composites for short are engineered Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical
Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewelry. Cloth of gold is a fabric woven with a Gold -wrapped or Spun Weft - referred to as "a spirally spun gold strip" Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones Hardware cloth is a coarse weave of steel wire, used in construction.
All synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing.
Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. Polyester is a category of Polymers which contain the Ester Functional group in their main chain
Aramid fibre (e. Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong Synthetic fibers They are used in aerospace and military applications for ballistic rated body armor g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armor. Twaron is the brandname of Teijin Aramid for a para-aramid. History Twaron is a heat-resistant and strong Synthetic fiber developed
Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. Acrylic fibers are Synthetic fibers made from a polymer ( Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100000
Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Overview Nylon is a Thermoplastic silky material first used commercially in a nylon- Bristled Toothbrush (1938 followed more famously by Pantyhose (also called tights) are sheer, close fitting coverings of the body from the Waist to the feet Thicker nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing. A rope is a length of Fibers twisted or Braided together to improve strength for pulling and Connecting.
Spandex (trade name Lycra) is a polyurethane fibre that stretches easily and can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. Spandex or elastane is a Synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. A polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any Polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links It is used to make activewear, bras, and swimsuits. A swimsuit, bathing suit or swimming costume is an item of Clothing designed to be worn for Swimming.
Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefin fiber is a synthetic fiber made from Alkenes. It is used in the manufacture of various Textiles as well as clothing upholstery wallpaper ropes Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting condensing and pressing fibers Tyvek (TIE-veck is a Brand of flashspun High-density polyethylene Fibers a synthetic Material; the name is a Registered
Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. Ingeo is a Trademark for a man-made Fiber made from renewable resources Polylactic acid or polylactide ( PLA) is a Biodegradable, Thermoplastic, Aliphatic Polyester derived from renewable resources It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration.
Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment. Lurex is the brand name for a type of Yarn with a metallic appearance
Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. In Weaving, the warp is the set of lengthwise Yarns through which the Weft is woven WEFT Champaign 901FM is a Community radio station in Champaign Illinois, founded in 1981 and owned by Prairie Air Inc This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. A loom is a Machine or device for Weaving thread or Yarn into Textiles Looms can range from very small hand-held frames to large free-standing Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.
Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. "Knit" redirects here See also KNIT and Knitted fabric. Crochet (kroʊˈʃeɪ is a process of creating fabric from Yarn or thread using a Crochet hook. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. A knitting needle or knitting pin is a Tool in Hand-knitting to produce Knitted fabrics They generally have a long shaft and taper A crochet hook is a type of needle with a hook at one end used to draw thread through knotted loops The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle.
Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. A braid (also called plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by intertwining three or more strands of flexible material such as textile fibers wire or human hair Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame. Macramé or macrame is a form of Textile -making using Knotting rather than Weaving or Knitting.
Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.
Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile. A carpet is any loom-woven felted textile or grass floor covering Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed with a short dense pile giving it a distinct feel Velour is a plush knitted fabric or Textile. It is usually made from Cotton but can also be made from synthetic materials such as Polyester. Velveteen is a Cotton cloth made in imitation of Velvet. The term is sometimes applied to a mixture of Silk and cotton Primarily nap is the raised (fuzzy surface on certain kinds of cloth, such as Velvet. In Textiles pile is the raised surface or nap of a Fabric, which is made of upright loops or strands of Yarn.
Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they become tangled. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting condensing and pressing fibers A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.
Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. Dyeing is the process of imparting Colours to a textile material in loose fibre Yarn, Cloth or garment form by treatment with a Dye. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dye), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Tartan is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours Embroidery is the Art or Handicraft of decorating fabric or other Materials with designs stitched in strands of thread or Resist dyeing ( resist-dyeing) is a term for a number of traditional methods of Dyeing Textiles with patterns Tie-dye is typically brightly colored patterned Textile or clothing which is made from knit or woven fabric usually Cotton, through a Resist dyeing Batik ( pronunciation:, but often in English is or) is a wax-resist Dyeing technique used on Textile. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220CE in China. For the use of the technique in art see Woodcut on the technique and Old master print for the history in Europe and Woodblock printing in Japan. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Textiles are also sometimes bleached. A bleach is a Chemical that removes color or whitens often via Oxidation. In this process, the original colour of the textile is removed by chemicals or exposure to sunlight, turning the textile pale or white.
Textiles are sometimes finished by chemical processes to change their characteristics. In the 19th century and early 20th century starching was commonly used to make clothing more resistant to stains and wrinkles. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free. A permanent press is a fabric that has been chemically processed to resist Wrinkles and hold its shape  More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. In Nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties