A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Elsevier, the world's largest Publisher of Medical and Scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group In Zootomy, fibrous connective tissue ( FCT) is a type of Connective tissue which has relatively high Tensile strength, due to a relatively high Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse" is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce In Physics String Tension is the magnitude of the pulling force exerted by a string cable chain or similar object on another object Tendons are similar to ligaments except that ligaments join one bone to another. In Anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures Fibrous tissue that connects Bones to other bones Tendons and muscles work together and can only exert a pulling force.
==Anatomy==The tissue by which a muscle attaches to bone. A tendon is somewhat flexible, but fibrous and tough. When a tendon becomes inflamed, the condition is referred to as tendinitis or tendonitis. Inflamed tendons are at risk for rupture.
Tendons are like ligaments in being tough, flexible cords. But tendons differ from ligaments in that tendons extend from muscle to bone whereas ligaments go from bone to bone as at a joint. Despite their tough fibrous nature, tendons and ligaments are both considered "soft tissue," that is soft as compared to cartilage or bone.
The term "tendon" comes from the Latin "tendere" and the Greek "teinein. " Both mean "to stretch. "
Normal healthy tendons are composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibers closely packed together. Collagen is the main Protein of Connective tissue in Animals and the most abundant protein in Mammals making up about 50% of the whole-body protein The fibers are mostly collagen type I, however there is also collagen type III and V present. These collagens are held together with other proteins, particularly the proteoglycan, decorin and, in compressed regions of tendon, aggrecan. Proteoglycans represent a special class of Glycoproteins that are heavily glycosylated. Decorin is a Proteoglycan on average 90 - 140 Aggrecan, or large aggregating proteoglycan, is a Proteoglycan, or a Protein modified with Carbohydrates the Human form of the protein The tenocytes produce the collagen molecules which aggregate end-to-end and side-to-side to produce collagen fibrils. Fibril bundles are organized to form fibers with the elongated tenocytes closely packed between them. Collagen fibers coalesce into macroaggregates. Groups of macroaggregates are bounded by connective tissue endotendon and are termed fascicles. Groups of fascicles are bounded by the epitendon and peritendon to form the tendon organ.
Blood vessels may be visualized within the endotendon running parallel to collagen fibers, with occasional branching transverse anastomoses. An anastomosis (plural anastomoses, from gr ἀναστόμωσις communicating opening) is a Network of streams that both branch out and reconnect
The internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibers, but the epi- and peritendon contain nerve endings, while Golgi tendon organs are present at the junction between tendon and muscle. The Golgi organ (also called Golgi tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle is a Proprioceptive Sensory receptor organ that is located
Tendon length varies in all major groups and from person to person. Tendon length is practically the discerning factor where muscle size and potential muscle size is concerned. For example, should all other relevant biological factors be equal, a man with a shorter tendons and a longer biceps muscle will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon and a shorter muscle. Successful bodybuilders will generally have shorter tendons. Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing Muscle hypertrophy. Conversely, in sports requiring athletes to excel in actions such as running or jumping, it is beneficial to have longer than average Achilles tendon and a shorter calf muscle. The Achilles tendon (or occasionally Achilles’ tendon) also known as the calcaneal tendon or the tendocalcaneous, is a Tendon of the posterior 
Tendon length is determined by genetic predisposition, and has not been shown to either increase or decrease in response to environment, unlike muscles which can be shortened by trauma, use imbalances and a lack of recovery and stretching.
Tendonitis refers to inflammation of a tendon. Tendinitis or tendonitis (from the Greek Τενοντίτις 'itis' denoting inflammation or swelling used to be thought of as a painful Inflammation
Tendinosis refers to non-inflammatory injury to the tendon at the cellular level. Tendinosis, sometimes called chronic tendinitis chronic Tendinopathy or chronic tendon injury is damage to a Tendon at a cellular level
The Achilles tendon is a particularly large tendon connecting the heel to the muscles of the calf. The Achilles tendon (or occasionally Achilles’ tendon) also known as the calcaneal tendon or the tendocalcaneous, is a Tendon of the posterior The heel is the prominence at the posterior end of the Foot. It is based on the projection of one Bone, the Calcaneus, behind the articulation of the The calf or gastroc-soleus is a pair of Muscles mdashthe gastrocnemius and soleus &mdashat the back of the lower Human leg. It is so named because the mythic hero Achilles was said to have been killed due to an injury to this area. "Achilleus" redirects here For the emperor with this name see Achilleus (emperor.
Sinew was also widely used throughout pre-industrial eras as a tough, durable fiber. Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. Some specific uses include using sinew as thread for sewing, attaching feathers to arrows (see fletch), lashing tool blades to shafts, etc. This article is about the fiber product For the type of joke see Shaggy dog story. Fletching is the ancient art of aerodynamically stabilizing Arrows from materials such as feathers It also recommended in survival guides as a material from which strong cordage can be made for items like traps or living structures. Tendon must be treated in specific ways to function usefully for these purposes. Inuit and other circumpolar people utilized sinew as the only cordage for all domestic purposes due to the lack of other suitable fiber sources in their ecological habitats. Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting
The elastic properties of particular sinews were also used in composite recurved bows favoured by the steppe nomads of Eurasia. A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together usually applied under tension The first stone throwing artillery also used the elastic properties of sinew.
Tendon (particularly beef tendon) is used as a food in some Asian cuisines (often served at Yum Cha or Dim Sum restaurants). Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Yum cha (飲茶 is a term in Cantonese which means "drink tea " Dim sum is the name for a Chinese cuisine which involves a wide range of light dishes served alongside Chinese tea. One popular dish is Suan Bao Niu Jin, where the tendon is marinated in garlic.