|Paranormal / Parapsychology|
|An experiment in sensory deprivation aiming to demonstrate TP|
|Definition:||The purported transference of thoughts or feelings between two or more subjects through Psi|
|Signature:||One subject said to gain information from another that was shielded from their traditional senses by distance, time, or physical barriers. Sensory deprivation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses Psi is a term from Parapsychology derived from the Greek, ψ psi twenty-third letter of the Greek alphabet; from the Greek ψυχή|
|Coined by:||Fredric W. H. Myers (1882) |
|See Also:||Extra-sensory perception,|
Telepathy, from the Greek τελε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθεια, patheia meaning "to be affected by", describes the purported transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses (See Psi). Extrasensory perception (ESP is the apparent ability to acquire information by Paranormal means independent of any known physical Senses or deduction from previous Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method A ganzfeld experiment (from the German for “entire field” is a technique used in the field of Parapsychology to test individuals for Extra-sensory perception Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Senses are the physiological methods of Perception. The senses and their operation classification and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields Psi is a term from Parapsychology derived from the Greek, ψ psi twenty-third letter of the Greek alphabet; from the Greek ψυχή  The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Fredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, specifically to replace the earlier expression thought-transference. Frederic William Henry Myers ( February 6, 1843 - January 17, 1901) was an English Poet and Essayist He was The Society for Psychical Research ( SPR) is a Non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and was later imitated in other countries  A person who is able to make use of telepathy is said to be able to read the minds of others. Telepathy, along with psychokinesis forms the main branches of parapsychological research, and many studies seeking to detect and understand telepathy have been done within the field. The term psychokinesis (from the Greek ψυχή, "psyche" meaning mind soul heart or breath; and κίνησις, "kinesis" Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method
Telepathy is a common theme in fiction and science fiction, with many superheroes and supervillains having telepathic abilities. A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do A supervillain or supervillainess is a variant of the Villain character type commonly found in Comic books, Action movies and Such abilities include both sensing the thoughts of others, and controlling the minds of other people. Transhumanists believe that technologically enabled telepathy, called "techlepathy", will be the inevitable future of humanity, and seek to develop practical, safe devices for directly connecting human nervous systems. Transhumanism (sometimes symbolized by >H or H+) a term often used as a synonym for " Human enhancement " is an international intellectual
Telepathy is commonly used in fiction, with a number of superheroes and supervillains, as well as figures in many science fiction novels, etc. A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do A supervillain or supervillainess is a variant of the Villain character type commonly found in Comic books, Action movies and , use telepathy. Notable fictional telepaths include the Jedi in Star Wars or Jean Grey in X-Men. The Jedi are members of a fictional monastic order in the ''Star Wars'' galaxy, created by George Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded Jean Grey-Summers ( née Jean Grey is a Fictional Comic book superheroine appearing in books published by Marvel Comics. The X-Men is a team of fictional Superhero characters in Comic books published by Marvel Comics. The mechanics of telepathy in fiction vary widely. Some fictional telepaths are limited to receiving only thoughts that are deliberately sent by other telepaths, or even to receiving thoughts from a specific other person. For example, in Robert A. Heinlein's 1956 novel Time for the Stars, certain pairs of twins are able to send telepathic messages to each other. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Time for the Stars is a Science fiction Novel by Robert A Heinlein published by Scribner's in 1956 as one of the Some telepaths can read the thoughts only of those they touch, such as Vulcans in the Star Trek media franchise. Vulcans are a Humanoid species in the fictional Star Trek universe who hail from the planet Vulcan, and are noted for their attempt At the opposite end of the spectrum, some telepathic characters continuously sense the thoughts of those around them and may control or dampen this ability only with difficulty, or not at all. In such cases, telepathy is often portrayed as a mixed blessing or as a curse.
Some fictional telepaths possess mind control abilities, which can include "pushing" thoughts, feelings, or hallucinatory visions into the mind of another person, causing pain, paralysis, or unconsciousness, altering or erasing memories, or completely taking over another person's mind and body (similar to spiritual possession). Mind control is a broad range of psychological tactics able to subvert an individual's control of his own thinking, behavior emotions or decisions Spirit possession is a concept of Paranormal, Supernatural and/or Superstitious belief in which spirits, gods, daemons Examples of this type of telepath include the Carpathians from the novels in the Dark Series, the White Queen from Marvel Comics. See Rusyns for non-fictional people of Carpathian heritage Carpathians are a race of people in the fictional universe of the Dark Series, a group of Christine Feehan is an American romance - Paranormal Writer. She has published more than 26 Novels, including five series and Emma Grace Frost is a Fictional character that appears in Comic books published by Marvel Comics. Marvel Comics is an American comic book company owned by Marvel Publishing Inc Characters with this ability may or may not also have the ability to read thoughts.
Technological Telepathy is also present in science fiction, typically involving the usage of neural implants of some description. A good example is the Conjoiners in the Revelation Space series by Alastair Reynolds. This is a list of Fictional factions in in Revelation Space. The human factions are found in the Revelation Space universe Revelation Space is a 2000 Hard science fiction Space opera Novel by Welsh author Alastair Reynolds. Alastair Preston Reynolds (born in 1966 in Barry, Wales) is a Welsh Science fiction author. Conjoiners rely on their technological telepathy (referred to by them as "Transenlightenment") to the extent that they no longer actually speak. Certain Conjoiners are able to read, attack and control the minds of other Conjoiners and machines (though not standard humans) using digital attacks, often having similar effects to other telepaths in fiction.
See also a composite list of fictional characters with telepathy.
Some people, occasionally referred to by themselves or others as "transhumanists", believe that technologically enabled telepathy, coined "technopathy", will be the inevitable future of humanity. Transhumanism (sometimes symbolized by >H or H+) a term often used as a synonym for " Human enhancement " is an international intellectual Kevin Warwick of the University of Reading, England is one of the leading proponents of this view and has based all of his recent cybernetics research around developing practical, safe devices for directly connecting human nervous systems together with computers and with each other. Kevin Warwick (born 9 February 1954 Coventry, UK is a British scientist and professor of Cybernetics at the University of Reading The University of Reading is a University in the English town of Reading Berkshire England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the Structure of Complex systems especially Communication processes control mechanisms and Feedback He believes techno-enabled telepathy will in the future become the primary form of human communication. He predicts that this will happen by means of the principle of natural selection, through which nearly everyone will have the need for such technology for economic and social reasons. Natural selection is the process by which favorable Heritable traits become more common in successive Generations of a Population of 
Within the field of parapsychology, telepathy is considered to be a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) or anomalous cognition in which information is transferred through Psi. Numerous scientific experiments seeking evidence of Telepathy have been conducted over more than a century in the field of Parapsychology. Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method A ganzfeld experiment (from the German for “entire field” is a technique used in the field of Parapsychology to test individuals for Extra-sensory perception Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method Extrasensory perception (ESP is the apparent ability to acquire information by Paranormal means independent of any known physical Senses or deduction from previous Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method It is often categorized similarly to precognition and clairvoyance. Precognition (from the Latin præ- “prior to” + cognitio “a getting to know” denotes a form of Extrasensory perception where in a person is said to perceive Clairvoyance (from 17th century French with clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "visibility" is the apparent ability to gain  Various experiments have been used to test for telepathic abilities. Among the most well known are the use of Zener cards and the Ganzfeld experiment. A ganzfeld experiment (from the German for “entire field” is a technique used in the field of Parapsychology to test individuals for Extra-sensory perception
Zener cards are cards marked with five distinctive symbols. When using them, one individual is designated the "sender" and another the "receiver". The sender must select a random card and visualize the symbol on it, while the receiver must attempt to determine that symbol using Psi. Statistically, the receiver has a 20% chance of randomly guessing the correct symbol, so in order to demonstrate telepathy, they must repeatedly score a success rate that is significantly higher than 20%.  If not conducted properly, this method can be vulnerable to sensory leakage and card counting. Sensory leakage is a term used to refer to information that transferred to a person by conventional means (means other than Psi during an experiment into Psi Card counting is a Card game strategy used to determine when a player has a probability advantage 
When using the Ganzfeld experiment to test for telepathy, one individual is designated the receiver and is placed inside a controlled environment where they are deprived of sensory input, and another is designated the sender and is placed in a separate location. Sensory deprivation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses The receiver is then required to receive information from the sender. The exact nature of the information may vary between experiments. 
Parapsychology describes several different forms of telepathy, including latent telepathy and precognitive telepathy. Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method 
Precognitive Telepathy is described as being the transfer of information, through Psi, about the future state of an individual's mind
The field which studies certain types of paranormal phenomena such as telepathy is called parapsychology. Paranormal is an Umbrella term used to describe unusual Phenomena or experiences that lack an obvious Scientific explanation Parapsychology is a discipline that seeks to demonstrate the existence and causes of Psychic abilities and life after death using the Scientific method There is a consensus within that field that some instances of telepathy are real.  Skeptics say that instances of what seem to be telepathy are explained as the result of fraud or self-delusion and that telepathy does not exist as a paranormal power. 
Parapsychologists and skeptics agree that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena, such as mediumism, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading. Mediumship is a practice in religious beliefs such as Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Louisiana Voodoo, and Cold reading is a technique used by mentalists and fortune tellers, Psychics and mediums to determine details about another person in order to  Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, but they proffer psychological explanations instead of paranormal ones. Ian Rowland is a writer and entertainer who lives in South Croydon just outside London, England. Derren Victor Brown (born 27 February 1971 is an English magician, psychological Illusionist, Mentalist, painter and They have identified, described, and developed complex psychological techniques of cold reading and hot reading. Cold reading is a technique used by mentalists and fortune tellers, Psychics and mediums to determine details about another person in order to Hot reading is the use of foreknowledge when giving a " Psychic " reading in Stage magic performances
A technique which shows statistically significant evidence of telepathy on every occasion has yet to be discovered. This lack of reliable reproducibility has led skeptics to argue that there is no credible scientific evidence for the existence of telepathy at all.  Skeptics also point to historical cases in which were discovered flaws in experimental design and occasional cases of fraud.  Parapsychologists such as Dean Radin, president of the Parapsychological Association, argues that the statistical significance and consistency of results shown by a meta-analysis of numerous studies provides evidence for telepathy that is almost impossible to account for using any other means. Dean Radin (born February 29, 1952) is a researcher and author in the field of Parapsychology. The Parapsychological Association was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by J In Statistics, a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses 
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