A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of public transport for a single passenger, or small group of passengers, typically for a non-shared ride. A taxicab is a vehicle for hire which conveys passengers between locations of their choice. See also Taxicab A vehicle for hire is a Vehicle providing Shared transportation which transports one or more passengers between locations In most other modes of public transport, the pick-up and drop-off locations are determined by the service provider, not by the passenger, although demand responsive transport and share taxis provide a hybrid bus/taxi mode. Demand responsive transport or demand responsive transit (DRT is "an advanced user-oriented form of Public transport characterised by flexible routing and scheduling Types of vehicle Share taxis come in various Vehicle types including Minibuses Midibuses covered Pickup trucks Station wagons
Four distinct forms of 'taxicab' can be identified, identified by slightly differing terms in differing countries, identified as: Hackney Carriage, also known as public hire, hailed or street taxis, available for hire and reward and for hailing on street, Private Hire Vehicles (PHVs), also known as minicabs, Private Hire Taxis, available by pre-booking, not (legally) available for hailing on street, Taxibus, also known as Jitney, operating on pre-set routes for hire and reward. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Typified by multiple stops multiple occupancy, and Limousine, specialist vehicle licensed for operation by pre-booking.
Although types of vehicles and methods of regulation, hiring, dispatching, and negotiating payment differ significantly from country to country, many common characteristics exist.
Harry Nathaniel Allen, The New York Taxicab Co. imported the first 600 gas-powered New York taxicabs from France, coined the word taxicab as a contraction of 'taximeter cab'. The City of New York This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. In time, the shortened term taxi came into common usage. 'Cab' is an abbreviation of cabriolet, a type of horse-drawn carriage. A cabriolet is a light two-wheeled Carriage drawn by a single horse with a folding hood seating two people facing forward one of whom is the driver In UK English the word 'taxicab' is rarely used and is not afforded a distinct dictionary entry: in the UK 'taximeter cab' was shortened to 'taxi' and 'cab', and these were and are used separately to distinguish different types of service/vehicle. This article is in USA English and so 'taxicab' appears throughout.
In turn, taximeter is an adaptation of the French word 'taximètre', which is a derivation of the German word 'taxameter', coined from Medieval Latin 'taxa' which means 'tax/charge' together with 'meter' from the Greek 'metron' meaning measure. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the Liturgical language of the medieval Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 
Horse-drawn for-hire hackney carriage services began operating in both Paris and London in the early 17th century. See also Taxicab ||-||-||}A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab or hack) is a Carriage or Automobile Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Royal proclamations in both cities regulated the number of carriages - the first example of taxicab regulation, In London the Hackney Carriage Act (1635) became the first legislated control on the taxi vehicle. In the 19th century, Hansom cabs largely replaced the older designs because of their improved speed and safety. A Hansom cab is a kind of Horse -drawn Carriage designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an Architect from York.
Although battery-powered vehicles enjoyed a brief success in Paris, London, and New York in the 1890s, the 1891 invention by German Wilhelm Bruhn of the taximeter (the familiar mechanical and now often electronic device that calculates the fare in most taxicabs) ushered in the modern taxi. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The City of New York The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the " Mauve Decade" because William Henry Perkin 's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in Taxicabs that calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time The first modern meter-equipped taxicab was the Daimler Victoria, built by Gottlieb Daimler in 1897; the first motorized taxi company began operating in Stuttgart the same year. Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler ( March 17, 1834 - March 6, 1900) was an Engineer, Industrial designer and Industrialist Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtgaɐ̯t is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Gasoline-powered taxicabs began operating in Paris in 1899, in London in 1903, and in New York in 1907. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The New York taxicabs were imported from France by businessperson Harry N. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Allen. Allen was the first person to paint his taxicabs yellow, after learning that yellow is the colour most easily seen from a distance. Yellow is the Color evoked by light that stimulates both the L and M (long and medium wavelength Cone cells of the Retina about equally
Taxicabs proliferated around the world in the early 20th century. The first major innovation after the invention of the taximeter occurred in the late 1940s, when two-way radios first appeared in taxicabs. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be A radiotelephone is a communications device that allows two or more people to talk using Radio. Radios enabled taxicabs and dispatch offices to communicate and serve customers more efficiently than previous methods, such as using callboxes. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. A call box or callbox is a (usually metal box containing a special-purpose direct line telephone or other Telecommunications device, which The next major innovation occurred in the 1980s, when computer assisted dispatching was first introduced. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Computer-assisted dispatch (also called CAD is a method of dispatching Taxicabs Couriers field service technicians or Emergency services assisted by computer
There has generally been a legal struggle concerning the certification of motor vehicles to be taxicabs, which take much more wear than a private car does. In London, they were additionally required to meet stringent specifications (Metropolitan Conditions of Fitness - MCF), adopted in entirety by a number of other large UK cities (including Glasgow and Edinburgh), for example, as concerns turn radius, which resulted for a time in having only one make legally usable. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. In the US, in the 1930s, the cabs were often DeSotos or Packards. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. The DeSoto (sometimes De Soto) was a brand of Automobile based in the United States, manufactured and marketed by the Chrysler Corporation Packard was an American luxury Automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation General Motors offered a specialized vehicle for a time, named the General. The firm Checker came into existence then, and stopped manufacturing cabs in the early 1980s. Checker Motors Corporation is a Kalamazoo Michigan, based automotive subcontractor that was once the manufacturer of the famed Checker automobile the iconic The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Its cars were specially built to carry "double dates. " But now New York City requires that all taxicabs be ordinary cars. They are mainly long-wheelbase versions of the Ford Crown Victoria. The Ford Crown Victoria is the current model name Ford uses for the Rear-wheel drive full-size car first produced by the Ford Motor Company for Toyota Sienna minivans are the alternate vehicle of choice in New York's cab fleet. Not to be confused with Toyota Sienta. The Toyota Sienna is a family Minivan currently manufactured in the United States by the A minivan, multi-purpose vehicle (abbreviated MPV) people-carrier, people-mover or multi-utility vehicle (shortened In the 1960s in Europe, Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot offered diesel taxicabs. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the For the article about the bicycle manufacturer see Cycles Peugeot. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum This form of engine is now the norm in europe due to its superior fuel economy, torque and reliability.
Most taxicabs were driven either by Indian immigrants to the United States, mostly in New York and many other states. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous
Taxi service is typically provided by automobiles, but various human-powered vehicles, (such as the rickshaw) and animal-powered vehicles (such as the Hansom cab) or even boats (such as water taxis or gondolas) are also used or have been used historically. Human-powered transport is the Transport of person(s and/or goods using Human Muscle power Rickshaws (or rickshas) are a mode of Human-powered transport: a runner draws a two-wheeled Cart which seats one or two persons (Non-human animal-powered Transport is a broad category of the Human use of non-human Working animals (also known as "beasts of burden" for the A Hansom cab is a kind of Horse -drawn Carriage designed and patented in 1834 by Joseph Hansom, an Architect from York. A water taxi or water bus is a Boat used to provide Public transport, usually but not always in an urban environment A Gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing Boat. Gondolas were for centuries the chief means of transportation within Venice and still have In Western Europe it is not uncommon for expensive cars such as Mercedes-Benz to be the taxicab of choice. Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the Often this decision is based upon the perceived reliability of, and warranty offered with these vehicles. These taxi-service vehicles are often equipped with four-cylinder turbodiesel engines and relatively low levels of equipment, and are not considered luxury cars. Turbodiesel refers to any Diesel engine with a Turbocharger. Turbocharging is the norm rather than the exception in modern car and truck diesel engines
In Spain, the most-seen taxicabs are vehicles like Škoda Octavia or SEAT Toledo. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Škoda Octavia is a Small family car produced by Czech automaker Škoda Auto since 1996 its name revived from a model originally produced between The SEAT Toledo is an Automobile built and marketed by Spanish automaker SEAT, a division of the Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen AG.
In Norway, many taxicabs are Mercedes E-class (usually E-220 CDI) or Volvo V70. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional E-Class redirects here For Chrysler 's rebadged version of the Dodge 600 sold from 1983-1984 see Chrysler E-Class. This article is about Volvo Group - AB Volvo Volvo Cars is the passenger vehicle maker owned by Ford Motor Company, using the Volvo Trademark The Volvo V70 is a mid-size five-door station wagon / estate manufactured by Volvo Cars since 1996 &mdash and closely related to the S70, S60 These cars are almost always equipped with diesel engines, automatic transmission, satellite navigation, and high quality trim levels.
In Australia, taxicabs are mainly Ford Falcons and less commonly, Holden Commodores. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Ford Falcon is a Full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960 The Holden Commodore is an Automobile manufactured by the Holden division of General Motors (GM in Australia and formerly in New Zealand Kia Carnivals are becoming increasingly popular due to the low price of these vehicles. First generation (1999-2005 (Sedona GQ The Kia Sedona (codename LS was a new model from Kia to compete with the minivan segment of Toyota Sienna, Honda Odyssey There are premium operators who mainly operate on Ford Fairlanes and Holden Statesmans. See also Ford Fairlane (North American The Ford Fairlane is a large luxury Automobile which was built by Ford Australia The Holden Statesman and Caprice are a series of full-size Luxury vehicles produced by the Australian General Motors division of Holden Almost all Australian taxicabs run on liquefied petroleum gas. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel There is also a Chrysler 300C Turbo Diesel Cab in the Victorian Fleet.
In New Zealand, similarly to Australia, the Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon have been the traditional taxicab of choice. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Holden Commodore is an Automobile manufactured by the Holden division of General Motors (GM in Australia and formerly in New Zealand The Ford Falcon is a Full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960 In the last decade however, a move has been made towards large front wheel drive V6 models such as the Toyota Avalon, Nissan Maxima and Toyota Camry. The Toyota Avalon is a Full-size car produced by Toyota in the United States, and is the flagship sedan of Toyota in the United States, The Nissan Maxima is a Full-size car manufactured by Nissan. The Maxima debuted in 1976 as an upscale version of the Bluebird and was spun into its own The Toyota Camry is a Mid-size car, formerly a Compact car manufactured by Toyota since 1980 At the other end of the scale, used examples of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class and BMW 5 Series are becoming popular for more upmarket companies, along with the traditional "Corporate cabs": the Ford Fairlane and Holden Statesman. The Mercedes-Benz S-Class is a series of the largest Sedans produced by Mercedes-Benz, a division of Daimler AG. The BMW 5 Series is a Mid-size Luxury car / Executive car manufactured by BMW since 1972 The Holden Statesman and Caprice are a series of full-size Luxury vehicles produced by the Australian General Motors division of Holden
In the United Kingdom a current debate exists as to the most appropriate vehicles to be licensed as taxis. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Local authorities split between those which adopt the Metropolitan Conditions of Fitness, which are widely interpreted to require London style Black taxis, and those which allow a wider range of vehicles. The debate is informed, but not solved, by a desire to implement accessible taxis, defined and required under the Disability Discrimination Act (1985), but not enforced in all authority areas. UK devolved administrations (Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales) have devolved responsibilities for taxi licensing law (but not for application, which is enforced at a local authority level). Scotland can, but chooses not to, determine a national vehicle standard. Northern Ireland, which operates as a single authority under the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland, operates a four vehicle structure.
Taxicabs in less developed places can be a completely different experience, such as the ancient French cars typically found in Cairo. The Toyota Prius is a hybrid electric Mid-size car developed and manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. However starting March 2006, newer modern taxicabs entered the service operated by various private companies. Taxicabs differ in other ways as well: London's black cabs have a large compartment beside the driver for storing bags, while many fleets of regular taxis also include wheelchair accessible taxicabs among their numbers (see below). Although taxicabs have traditionally been sedans, minivan and even SUV taxicabs are becoming increasingly common. A minivan, multi-purpose vehicle (abbreviated MPV) people-carrier, people-mover or multi-utility vehicle (shortened A sport utility vehicle ( SUV) is a generic marketing description for a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a Station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis In many cities, limousines operate as well, usually in competition with taxicabs and at higher fares. A limousine (or limo) is a longer than normal Luxury car. The chassis may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coach builder traditionally
Recently, with growing concern for the environment, there have been solar powered taxicabs. On April 20, 2008, a "solar taxi tour" was launched that aimed to tour 15 countries in 18 months in a solar taxi that can reach speeds of 90 km/h with zero emission. The aim of the tour was to spread knowledge about environmental protection. 
In recent years, some companies have been adding specially modified vehicles capable of transporting wheelchair-using passengers to their fleets. A wheelchair is a wheeled Mobility device in which the user sits Such taxicabs are variously called accessible taxis, wheelchair- or wheelchair-accessible taxicabs, modified taxicabs, and so on.
Wheelchair taxicabs are most often vans or minivans which have undergone special modifications. A van is a kind of vehicle used for Transporting goods or groups of people A minivan, multi-purpose vehicle (abbreviated MPV) people-carrier, people-mover or multi-utility vehicle (shortened Wheelchair-using passengers are loaded, with the help of the driver, via a lift or, more commonly, a ramp, at the rear of the vehicle. The wheelchair is secured using various systems, commonly including some type of belt and clip combination, or wheel locks. Most wheelchair taxicabs are capable of transporting only one wheelchair-using passenger at a time, and can usually accommodate up to four additional able-bodied passengers. Able-bodied refers in Law, to an individual's physical capacity for gainful Employment or Military service, and it is in this sense that the term is also
Wheelchair taxicabs are part of the regular fleet in most cases, and so are not reserved exclusively for the use of wheelchair users. They are often used by able-bodied people who need to transport luggage, small items of furniture, animals, and other items. Because of this, and since only a small percentage of the average fleet is modified, wheelchair users must often wait for significantly longer periods when calling for a cab, and flagging a modified taxicab on the street is much more difficult.
Originally, hackney carriage companies were distinguished from each other by their drivers' livery (uniforms) and by the colours of their carriages. A livery is a Uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane or Vehicle) to denote a relationship For example, at the end of the 19th century in Paris, Compagnie Generale carriages were painted blue, while those of Abeille were painted green ("The Paris Cabman"). During the early years of the twentieth century, private cars were usually black because paints of other colours were not durable. Taxis were the exception, as they would be touched up or worn out. Around the world today, taxi companies are still distinguished by the way their cars are painted.
In the United States and Canada, many older taxi companies are named according to their paint schemes. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Thus, "Yellow Cabs" are painted yellow, Checker taxis have a distinctive black-and-white or black-and-yellow checkerboard stripe around their bodies, "Blue and White Cabs" might have blue bodies and white roofs, and "Black Top" and "Red Top Cabs" have black and red roofs respectively. See also Taxicab The original Yellow Cab Company based in Chicago Illinois is one of the largest Taxicab companies Checker Taxi (Checker Cab was the iconic American taxi produced by the Checker Motors Company of Kalamazoo Michigan. In the 1920s, a famous company named "Brown and White" lost a lawsuit to prevent other taxi drivers from painting their cars these colours. In 1960, NYC ordered that taxis be painted yellow.
Some Canadian cities such as Toronto and Vancouver have taxis with their own custom colours, but Montreal-area taxis (mostly mid-size cars such as the Chevrolet Malibu and Toyota Camry) remain exactly the same car. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec A mid-size car (occasionally referred to as an intermediate) is the North American and Australian term for an Automobile with a size between The Chevrolet Malibu (named after Malibu California) is a Mid-size car produced in the United States by General Motors. The Toyota Camry is a Mid-size car, formerly a Compact car manufactured by Toyota since 1980
In Orange County, Florida, many of the taxicabs are painted orange. Orange County is a County located in the US state of Florida and is part of the Orlando-Kissimmee Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA.
Mexico City's ubiquitous VW Type 1 (Beetle) cabs were green and white (being firstly yellow) by law until early 2003. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen The Volkswagen Beetle, officially known as the type 1 and originally called ‘Käfer’ is an Economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen However, the tiny cars had been displaced by bigger four-door sedans, the Nissan Tsuru, a Sentra MkIII (B13) based saloon and recognized for their red/white (or silver) body colour. The Nissan Sentra is a Compact car made by Automaker Nissan Motors and is generally a rebadged export version of the Japanese Nissan Sunny No VW are coloured this way anymore. Matchbox released a scale model of the VW taxi in 2004, numbered 31.
In India, most taxicabs, especially those in Delhi and Mumbai taxicabs have distinctive black and yellow liveries with the bottom half painted black and upper half painted yellow. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Delhi (दिल्ली ਦਿੱਲੀ دلی d̪ɪlːiː sometimes referred to as Dilli) is the second largest metropolis of India, with a population Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial In Kolkatta, most taxis are painted yellow with black strip in the middle. Private companies operating taxis can have their own liveries but need to get them approved from the government.
Taxicabs of Hong Kong have three colours based on service area. See also Taxicabs by country Taxicabs of Hong Kong provide a taxi system Red with silver top for urban Hong Kong, green with white top for New Territories and blue with white top for Lantau Island. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders New Territories, abbreviated to NT or NT, is a region in Hong Kong excluding Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and Stonecutters Island Lantau Island, also Lantao, based on the old local name of Lantau Peak ( lit The colours are to even out service between less densely populated areas and urban centres of the territory.
Most taxis in Hong Kong are Toyota Comfort (YXS10 series). The, released in 1988 is designed for use as a Taxicab. It is popular in Japan, Singapore (badged as a Crown) and especially Hong This is a mid size rear wheel drive model specially manufactured as commercial use 4 door sedan, and it is very durable. All taxis in Hong Kong are powered by LPG engines nowadays. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel
In Japan,taxicabs have each colours or designs based on company. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The majority of Japanese cars are white, silver or black. So most taxis adopt showy colours, such as green, red, and orange, to attract customers' attention.
Most Japanese taxis use three types of cars, Toyota Comfort type (Toyota Crown Comfort, Toyota Comfort, Toyota Crown Sedan), Nissan Crew and Nissan Cedric Y31. The, released in 1988 is designed for use as a Taxicab. It is popular in Japan, Singapore (badged as a Crown) and especially Hong The, released in 1988 is designed for use as a Taxicab. It is popular in Japan, Singapore (badged as a Crown) and especially Hong The Nissan Crew is a Midsize sedan manufactured by Nissan Motors and only sold in Japan, where the cars are mainly used for Police and See also Nissan Cedric The Nissan Cedric Y31 is a large automobile the original version built from late 1987 through 1991 available in either Sedan or Hardtop guises
Recently, some taxi companies have selected Toyota Crown S170 and/or S180 as a taxi because cars made for taxi (such as Comfort,Crew and Cedric) have very plain interiors.
In another sense of livery, the Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers became a City of London Livery Company in 2004. See also Taxicab The FX4 is the classic London Black Cab. While the majority are black there is in fact no requirement in London for them A livery is a Uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane or Vehicle) to denote a relationship The Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically
In Germany, taxicabs are beige, a look that was officially stipulated by law as Elfenbein a light ivory-colour in 1971. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Beige is a pale Yellowish Brown Color. The term originates from beige cloth, a woolen fabric left in its natural color Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, In 2005 this legal restriction was lifted, but most taxicab drivers associations and companies still prefer the unified look and visibility of beige.
In Greece taxicabs have variable colours, according to the city they are registered. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία For example, in Athens they are yellow (see: ). Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's In all rural areas, they are usually silver-coloured. In other cities except Athens they have particular colours, such as dark red (Patra)or blue (Thessaloniki). Cars used as taxis are only 4-door sedan with great luggage space. Mostly used cars as taxis are Mercedes E-class, VW Passat, Skoda Octavia and Toyota Avensis. Most of them in urban areas are equipped with GPS navigation systems.
In Scandinavia there is no particular colour for taxicabs. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Various shades of black and silver are the most popular choices of colour. Mostly used cars are Volvo S80/V70, Mercedes C and E-class, Toyota Avensis, Skoda Octavia, VW Passat and Transporter/Caravelle bus and BMW 5-series. In Finland and Sweden taxis are equipped with GPS navigation and booking system. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
In Australia, livery is determined by state legislation. In Victoria, an all-yellow scheme is adopted. In contrast, in Queensland, livery is dependent on which company is operating the dispatch system the taxi uses. In Queensland, there are two dispatch companies only. In South Australia, most taxis are white.
In Papua New Guinea, Taxis are usually white vans marked minimally.
Taxis are often "hailed" or "flagged" on the street, either by a passenger as a taxi is driving by, or at a taxi stand (sometimes also called a "cab stand" or "hack stand," also "taxi rank" or "cab rank"). See also Taxicab A taxicab stand (also called taxi rank, cab stand, taxi stand, Cab rank, or hack stand A cab rank or taxi rank is a primarily British English term for the United States English term " taxi stand " that being a queueing Taxi stands are usually located at airports, railway stations, and hotels, as well as at other places where large numbers of passengers are likely to be found. In some places—Japan, for example—taxi stands are arranged according to the size of the taxis, so that large- and small-capacity cabs line up separately. The taxi at the front of the line, due (barring unusual circumstances) for the next fare, is referred to in America as being " on the nut ".
Passengers also commonly call a central dispatch office for taxis. In some jurisdictions private hire vehicles can only be hired from the dispatch office, and must be assigned each fare by the office by radio or phone. Picking up passengers off the street in these areas can lead to suspension or revocation of the driver's taxi license, or even prosecution.
Other areas may have a mix of the two systems, where drivers may respond to radio calls and also pick up street fares.
The activity of taxi fleets is usually monitored and controlled by a central office, which provides dispatching, accounting, and human resources services to one or more taxi companies. Taxi owners and drivers usually communicate with the dispatch office through either a 2-way radio or a computer terminal (called a mobile data terminal). A radiotelephone is a communications device that allows two or more people to talk using Radio. Computer-assisted dispatch (also called CAD is a method of dispatching Taxicabs Couriers field service technicians or Emergency services assisted by computer A mobile data terminal (MDT is a computerized device used in Police cars Taxicabs Courier vehicles service trucks commercial trucking fleets Before the innovation of radio dispatch in the 1950s, taxi drivers would use a callbox—a special telephone at a taxi stand—to contact the dispatch office. A call box or callbox is a (usually metal box containing a special-purpose direct line telephone or other Telecommunications device, which
When a customer calls for a taxi, a trip is dispatched by either radio or computer, via an in-vehicle mobile data terminal, to the most suitable cab. A mobile data terminal (MDT is a computerized device used in Police cars Taxicabs Courier vehicles service trucks commercial trucking fleets The most suitable cab may either be the one closest to the pick-up address (often determined by GPS coordinates nowadays) or the one that was the first to book in to the "zone" surrounding the pickup address. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth Cabs are sometimes dispatched from their taxi stands; a call to "Top of the 2" means that the first cab in line at stand #2 is supposed to pick someone up.
In offices using radio dispatch, taxi locations are often tracked using magnetic pegs on a "board"—a metal sheet with an engraved map of taxi zones. In computerized dispatch, the status of taxis is tracked by the computer system.
Taxi frequencies are generally licensed in duplex pairs. One frequency is used for the dispatcher to talk to the cabs, and a second frequency is used to the cabs to talk back. This means that the drivers generally cannot talk to each other. Some cabs have a CB radio in addition to the company radio so they can speak to each other. Citizens' Band radio ( CB) is in many countries a system of short-distance simplex radio communications between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within
In the United States, there is a Taxicab Radio Service with pairs assigned for this purpose. A taxi company can also be licensed in the Business Radio Service. Business frequencies in the UHF range are also licensed in pairs to allow for repeaters, though taxi companies usually use the pair for duplex communications. A duplex Communication system is a system composed of two connected parties or devices which can communicate with one another in both directions
Some companies don't operate their own radio system and instead subscribe to an Specialized Mobile Radio system. The conventional radios are most suited to companies that operate within the local area and have a high volume of radio traffic. The SMR is more commonly used by black car services that cover a wider area, and smaller companies who use less airtime and don't want to run their own radio systems. With the advent of Public Data Networks in the 1990s, operators are beginning to use PDAs and advanced mobile phones for dispatching and tracking functions in lieu of the traditional radio. A Public Data Network is a network established and operated by a Telecommunications administration or a recognized private operating agency for the specific purpose Some small car services don't use a dispatcher at all. Instead the customers' calls are forwarded to the cell phones of whichever drivers are on duty at the time.
For the distance travelled, the fare for a taxi is usually higher than for other forms of public transport (bus, tram, metro, minicab, train, bike). A fare is the Fee paid by a traveler allowing him or her to make use of a Public transport system rail, Bus, taxi, etc A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind The fare is not based on the number of people travelling together in a taxi unless it is a 'maxi-taxi' (which can carry up to 8 people). Another system is one where more than one customer shares the same taxi and fares are per person. Fares are usually calculated according to a combination of 4 elements: Tariff rate, Initial flag fall, distance and waiting time. A taximeter calculates this automatically ("meter" for short and the origin of the word "taxi"). A taximeter is a mechanical or electronic device installed in Taxicabs that calculates passenger fares based on a combination of distance travelled and waiting time Instead of a metered fare, passengers sometimes pay a flat fare. In some areas, when demand is high—for instance, late at night—a taxi driver may pick up the customer offering the highest bid (this practice may be against the law).
Most experienced taxi drivers who have been working in the same city or region for a while would be expected to know the most important streets and places where their customers might want to go. However, to aid the process of manual navigation and the taxi driver's memory (and the customer's as well at times) a cab driver is usually equipped with a detailed roadmap of the area in which they work. Navigation is the process of reading and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information There is also an increasing use of GPS driven navigational systems in the more wealthy countries around the world. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth
In London, despite the complex and haphazard road layout, such aids have only recently been employed by a small number of 'black cab' taxi (as opposed to minicab) drivers. Instead, they are required to undergo a demanding process of learning and testing called The Knowledge. This typically takes around three years and equips them with a detailed command of 25,000 streets within central London, major routes outside this area, and all buildings and other destinations to which passengers may ask to be taken. 
Taxicabs have been both criticized for creating pollution and also hailed as a environmentally responsible alternative to private car use.  Because a typical taxi is always cruising the streets, either driving a passenger or looking for a new fare, individual taxicabs see high levels of use. In cities where taxicabs use fossil fuels, this can be a significant source of pollution. On the other hand, having taxis readily available in a city enables some residents to forgo ownership of a car altogether, especially if the city has multiple modes of public transportation available. Some cities, such as Hong Kong, have converted all taxicabs to compressed natural gas. Still other cities, such as Arlington, Virginia have developed street taxi stands so that drivers do not need to cruise the streets to find passengers.
Another concern is ambient pollution affecting the driver and passenger. A project, designed at understanding exposure to air pollution in an urban environment and looking at five transport methods for travelling across London, was carried out by a team from Imperial College London and the Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton. Imperial College London (officially The Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine as given in its Royal Charter It is one of only three universities to have reached The Health and Safety Executive (HSE is a United Kingdom Non-departmental public body. Buxton is a Spa town in Derbyshire, England. Located close to the county boundary with Cheshire to the west and Staffordshire to the south
The results, published in the journal Atmospheric Environment in January 2006, showed that the level of pollution that people are exposed to differs according to the mode of transport that they use. The most risky method of transport was the back seat of a taxicab, followed by travelling by bus, cycling, walking, with a private car exposing people to the lowest amount of pollution. 
Established in 1917, the Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association (TLPA) is a non-profit trade association of and for the private passenger transportation industry. The membership spans the globe to include 1,100 taxicab companies, executive sedan and limousine services, airport shuttle fleets, non-emergency medical transportation companies, and paratransit services. A limousine (or limo) is a longer than normal Luxury car. The chassis may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coach builder traditionally An Airport bus, or airport shuttle bus or airport shuttle is a Bus used to transport people to/from or within Airports These vehicles will usually Paratransit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules