Tamil literature refers to the literature in the Tamil language. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than two thousand years. The oldest extant works show signs of maturity indicating an even longer period of evolution. Contributors to the Tamil literature mainly were Tamil people from Tamil Nadu, however there have been notable contributions from European authors. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. The history of Tamil literature follows the history of Tamil Nadu, closely following the social and political trends of various periods. The region of Tamil Nadu in modern India has been under continuous human habitation since prehistoric times and the history of Tamil Nadu and the civilization The secular nature of the early Sangam poetry gave way to works of religious and didactic nature during the Middle Ages. Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 300 BCE and 600 CE Jain and Buddhist authors during the medieval period and Muslim and European authors later, contributed to the growth of Tamil literature. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
A revival of Tamil literature took place from the late nineteenth century when works of religious and philosophical nature were written in a style that made it easier for the common people to enjoy. Nationalist poets began to utilise the power of poetry in influencing the masses. With growth of literacy, Tamil prose began to blossom and mature. Short stories and novels began to appear. The popularity of Tamil Cinema has also provided opportunities for modern Tamil poets to emerge. Tamil cinema or Kollywood ( Tamil: கோலிவுட் kōlivūṭ) is the English name of the popular Tamil Film Industry based in the
குறிஞ்சி - தலைவன் கூற்று
யாயும் ஞாயும் யாரா கியரோ
Red earth and pouring rain
What could my mother be
A poem from the Eight Anthologies collection.
Sangam literature comprises some of the oldest extant Tamil literature, and deals with love, war, governance, trade and bereavement. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 300 BCE and 600 CE The Tamil Sangams are legendary assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that according to traditional Tamil accounts existed in the remote past The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil Kumari Kandam (ta குமரிக்கண்டம் Kumarikkaṇṭam) is the name of a legendary sunken landmass said to have been located to the south of present-day The Sangam landscape is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature. Unfortunately much of the Tamil literature belonging to the Sangam period had been lost.  The literature currently available from this period is perhaps just a fraction of the wealth of material produced during this golden age of Tamil civilisation. The available literature from this period has been broadly divided in antiquity into three categories based roughly chronology. These are: the Major Eighteen Anthology Series comprising the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Idylls and the Five Great Epics. Pathinenmaelkanakku (பதினெண்மேல்கணக்கு is the collection of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature are Silappatikaram, Manimegalai, Civaka Cintamani, Valayaapathi Tolkaappiyam, a commentary on grammar, phonetics, rhetoric and poetics is dated from this period. The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. Phonetics (from the Greek φωνή ( phonê) "sound" or "voice" is the study of the physical sounds of human speech Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Poetics refers generally to the theory of literary Discourse and specifically to the theory of Poetry, although some speakers use the term so broadly as to denote 
Tamil legends hold that these were composed in three successive poetic assemblies (Sangam) that were held in ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India. The Tamil Sangams are legendary assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that according to traditional Tamil accounts existed in the remote past Kumari Kandam (ta குமரிக்கண்டம் Kumarikkaṇṭam) is the name of a legendary sunken landmass said to have been located to the south of present-day India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  A significant amount of literature could have preceded Tolkappiyam as grammar books are usually written after the existence of literature over long periods. Tamil tradition holds the earliest Sangam poetry to be over twelve millennia old. Modern linguistic scholarship places the poems between the first century BC and the third century AD. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields 
Sangam age is considered by the Tamil people as the golden era of Tamil language. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. This was the period when the Tamil country was ruled by the three 'crowned kings' the Cheras, Pandyas and the Cholas. History In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral Kuttuvan Irumporai Kollipurai and Athan Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation The land was at peace with no major external threats. Asoka's conquests did not impact on the Tamil land and the people were able to indulge in literary pursuits. Ashoka ( Devanāgarī: अशोकः IAST: Aśokaḥ, aɕoːkə(hə Prakrit Imperial title Devanampriya Priyadarsi The poets had a much casual relationship with their rulers than can be imagined in later times. They could chide them when they are perceived to wander from the straight and narrow. The greatness of the Sangam age poetry may be ascribed not so much to its antiquity, but due to the fact that their ancestors were indulging in literary pursuits and logical classification of the habitats and society in a systematic manner with little to draw from precedents domestically or elsewhere. The fact that these classifications were documented at a very early date in the grammatical treatise Tolkappiyam, demonstrates the organised manner in which the Tamil language has evolved. The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil Tolkappiyam is not merely a textbook on Tamil grammar giving the inflection and syntax of words and sentences but also includes classification of habitats, animals, plants and human beings. Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. The discussion on human emotions and interactions is particularly significant. Tolkappiyam divided into three chapters: orthography, etymology and subject matter (Porul). The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time While the first two chapters of Tolkappiyam help codify the language, the last part, Porul refers to the people and their behaviour. The grammar helps to convey the literary message on human behaviour and conduct, and uniquely merges the language with its people.
The literature was classified in to the broad categories of 'subjective' (akam) and 'objective' (puram) topics to enable the poetic minds to discuss any topic under the sun, from grammar to love, within the framework of well prescribed, socially accepted conventions. Subjective topics refer to the personal or human aspect of emotions that cannot be verbalized adequately or explained fully. It can only be experienced by the individuals and includes love and sexual relationship. Generally speaking human sexuality is how people experience and express themselves as sexual beings
Recognizing that human activities cannot take place in vacuum and are constantly influenced by environmental factors, human experiences, in general, and subjective topics in particular, are assigned to specific habitats. The Sangam landscape is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature. Accordingly land was classified into five genres (thinai): kurinji (mountainous regions), mullai (forests), marutham (agricultural lands), neithal (seashore), paalai (wasteland). The images associated with these landscapes – birds, beasts, flowers, gods, music, people, weather, seasons – were used to subtly convey a mood, associated with an aspect of life. Kuruntokai, a collection of poems belonging to the Ettuthokai anthology demonstrates an early treatment of the Sangam landscape. The Sangam landscape is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature. Such treatments are found to be much refined in the later works of Akananuru and Paripaatal. Paripaatal takes its name from the musical Paripaatal meter meter utilised in these poems. This is the first instance of a work set to music. Akaval and kalippa were the other popular meters used by poets during the Sangam age. The Tamil Sangams are legendary assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that according to traditional Tamil accounts existed in the remote past
எப்பொருள் யார்யார்வாய்க் கேட்பினும் அப்பொருள்
The three hundred years after the Sangam age witnessed an increase in the mutual interaction of Sanskrit and Tamil. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. A number of words and concepts in the subjects of ethic, philosophy and religion were mutually borrowed and exchanged. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Around 300 CE, the Tamil land was under the influence of a group of people known as the Kalabhras. Identification Kalabhras The identification of the Kalabhras is difficult Kalabhras were Buddhist and a number of Buddhist authors flourished during this period. Jainism and Buddhism saw rapid growth. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices These authors perhaps reflecting the austere nature of their faiths, created works mainly on morality and ethics. A number of Jain and Buddhist poets contributed in the creation of these didactic works as well as grammar and lexicography. The collection the minor eighteen anthology was of this period.
The best known of these works on ethics is the Tirukkural by Thiruvalluvar. Kural as it is popularly known, uses the Venpa meter and is a comprehensive manual of ethics, polity and love. Venpa ( in Tamil) is a form of classical Tamil Poetry. Classical Tamil poetry has been classified based upon the rules of metric prosody It contains 1,330 distichs divided into chapter of ten distichs each: the first thirty-eight on ethics, the next seventy on polity and the remainder on love. A couplet is a pair of lines of verse. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter 
Other famous works of this period are Kalavali, Nalatiyar, Inna Narpathu and Iniyavai Narpathu. Nalatiyar and Pazhamozhi Nanuru, a work of four hundred poems each citing a proverb and illustrating it with a story, were written by Jain authors. A proverb (from the Latin proverbium) also called a byword or nayword, is a simple and concrete Saying popularly known and repeated Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India.
After the fall of the Kalabhras around 600 CE saw a reaction from the thus far suppressed Hindus. The Kalabhras were replaced by the Pandyas in the south and by the Pallavas in the north. Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation Even with the exit of the Kalabhras, the Jain and Buddhist influence still remained in Tamil Nadu. The early Pandya and the Pallava kings were followers of these faiths. The Hindu reaction to this apparent decline of their religion was growing and reached its peak during the later part of the seventh century. There was a widespread Hindu revival during which a huge body of Saiva and Vaishnava literature was created. Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and Many Saiva Nayanmars and Vaishnava Alvars provided a great stimulus to the growth of popular devotional literature. The Nayanars or Nayanmars were Shaivite devotional poets of Tamil Nadu, active between the fifth and the tenth centuries CE The Alvars (ஆழ்வார்கள் (aːɻʋaːr ‘those immersed in god’ were Tamil poet saints of south India who lived between sixth and ninth centuries and espoused Karaikkal Ammaiyar who lived in the sixth century CE was the earliest of these Nayanmars. The celebrated Saiva hymnists Sundaramurthi, Thirugnana Sambanthar and Thirunavukkarasar (also known as Appar) were of this period. Of Appar's verses 3066 have survived. Sambandar sang 4169 verses. Together these form the first six books of the Saiva canon, collected by Nambi Andar Nambi in the tenth century. Sundarar wrote Tiruttondartokai which gives the list of sixty-two Nayanmars. This was later elaborated by Sekkilar in his Periyapuranam(4272 verses). Manikkavasagar, who lived around the eight century CE was a minister in the Pandya court. Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation His Tiruvasakam consisting of over 600 verses is noted for its passionate devotion.
Along with the Saiva Nayanmars, Vaishnava Alvars were also producing devotional hymns and their songs were collected later into the Four Thousand Sacred Hymns (Naalayira Divyap Prabhandham). The Alvars (ஆழ்வார்கள் (aːɻʋaːr ‘those immersed in god’ were Tamil poet saints of south India who lived between sixth and ninth centuries and espoused The Nalayira Divya Prabandha (or Nalayira Divya Prabhandham) is a collection of 4000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means 'four thousand' composed before 8th century The three earliest Alvars were Poygai, Pudam and Pey. Each of these wrote one hundred Venpas. Venpa ( in Tamil) is a form of classical Tamil Poetry. Classical Tamil poetry has been classified based upon the rules of metric prosody Tirumalisai Alwar who was a contemporary of the Pallava Mahendravarman I wrote such works as Naanmugantiruvadiandadi. Tirumazhisai-aazhvaar is one of the twelve Alvars of Vaishnavism, and is so called because he was born in Tirumazhisai. Origins See also Origin of Pallava The exact origin of the Pallavas is shrouded in mystery Mahendravarman I ( Tamil: மகேந்திரவர்மன் (600 - 630 CE was a Pallava king who ruled the Northern regions of what forms present-day Tirumangai Alvar who lived in the eighth century CE was a more prolific writer and his works constitute about a third of the Diyaprabhandam. Periyalvar and his adopted daughter Andal contributed nearly 650 hymns to the Vaishnava canon. One of the Alvars, he was born in a brahmin family in Srivilliputhur, near Madurai in the 6th to 9th century CE and was named vishnuchittar meaning "one who has Aandaal (ஆண்டாள் is a 10th century Tamil saint and one of the twelve Alvars (saints and the only woman Alvar of Vaishnavism. Andal symbolised purity and love for the God and wrote her hymns addressing Vishnu as a lover. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific The hymn of Andal which starts with Vaaranam Aayiram (One Thousand Elephants) tells of her dream wedding to Vishnu and is sung even today at Tamil Vaishnava weddings. Nammalvar, who lived in the ninth century, wrote Tiruvaimoli. It comprises 1,101 stanzas and is held in great esteem for its elucidation of the Upanishads. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings This corpus was collected by Nathamuni, around 950 CE and formed the classical and vernacular basis for Sri Vaishnavism. Nathamuni was a Vaishnava scholar who founded the Sri Vaishnava tradition
Cilappatikaram is one of the outstanding works of general literature of this period. South India's 75 Apostles of Bhakti are the twelve Alvars (also Aazhvaars Aazhwaars and sixty-three Nayanmars (also Nayanars Naayanars Naayanmaars Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்; siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature The authorship and exact date of the classic Cilappatikaram are not definitely known. Ilango Adigal, who is credited with this work was reputed to be the brother of the Sangam age Chera king Senguttuvan. History In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral Kuttuvan Irumporai Kollipurai and Athan However we have no information of such a brother in the numerous poems sung on the Chera king. The Cilappatikaram is unique in its vivid portrayal of the ancient Tamil land. This is unknown in other works of this period. Cilappatikaram and its companion epic Manimekalai are Buddhist in philosophy. Manimekalai ( மணிமேகலை) written by Seethalai Saathanar is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and is considered as one of the Manimekalai was written by Sattanar who was a contemporary of Ilango Adigal. Manimekalai contains a long exposition of fallacies of logic which is considered to be based on the fifth century Sanskrit work Nyayapravesa by Dinnag.  Kongu Velir, a Jain author wrote Perunkathai based on the Sanskrit Brihat-katha. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi are the names of two other narrative poems of this period written by a Jain and a Buddhist author respectively. Kundalakesi ( Tamil: குண்டலகேசி) is a fragmentary Tamil epic. These works have been lost and only a few poems of Valayapathi have been found so far.
|Topics in Sangam literature|
|Inna Narpathu||Iniyavai Narpathu|
|Kar Narpathu||Kalavazhi Narpathu|
|Ainthinai Aimpathu||Thinaimozhi Aimpathu|
|Ainthinai Ezhupathu||Thinaimalai Nurru Aimpathu|
|Tamil history from Sangam literature||Tamil literature|
|Ancient Tamil music||Sangam society|
The medieval period was the period of the Imperial Cholas when the entire south India was under a single administration. Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 300 BCE and 600 CE Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 300 BCE and 600 CE Agattiyam (அகத்தியம் according to mentions in Sangam Literature, was the first known book on Tamil grammar The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil Pathinenmaelkanakku (பதினெண்மேல்கணக்கு is the collection of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. Ainkurunooru ( Tamil: ஐங்குறுநூறு a classical Tamil poetic work containing five hundred short poems and is part of Ettuthokai, a Kaliththokai (கலித்தொகைa classical Tamil poetic workis the sixth book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology Kainnilai, and Innilai are Tamil poetic works belonging to the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. Tamil people (also called Tamils or Tamilians) ( are an Ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, a state in India, and the north-eastern The Tamil Sangams are legendary assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that according to traditional Tamil accounts existed in the remote past The Sangam landscape is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature. Sangam Literature is one of the main sources used for documenting the early history of the Ancient Tamil country. The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people, who resided in the lands of the Ancient Tamil country. Chola literature, mostly written in Tamil, is the literature created during the period of Chola reign in South India between the ninth and the thirteenth The period between the eleventh and the thirteenth centuries, during which the Chola power was at its peak, there were relatively few foreign incursions and the life for the Tamil people was one of peace and prosperity. It also provided the opportunity for the people to interact with cultures beyond their own, as the Cholas ruled over most of the South India, Sri Lanka and traded with the kingdoms in southeast Asia. The Cholas built numerous temples, mainly for their favourite god Siva, and these were celebrated in numerous hymns. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva The Prabhanda became the dominant form of poetry. The religious canons of Saiva and Vaishnava sects were beginning to be systematically collected and categorised. Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and Nambi Andar Nambi, who was a contemporary of Rajaraja Chola I, collected and arranged the books on Saivism into eleven books called Tirumurais. Rajaraja Chola I (இராஜராஜ சோழன் is one of the greatest kings of the Chola Empire, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE The hagiology of Saivism was standardised in Periyapuranam (also known as Tiruttondar Puranam) by Sekkilar, who lived during the reign of Kulothunga Chola II (1133 – 1150 CE). Shaivism, also spelled "Saivism" names the oldest of the four sects of Hinduism. Periya Puranam (the great purana or epic sometimes also called Tiruttontarpuranam (the purana of the holy devotees is a Tamil poetic account depicting Kulothunga Chola II was a 12th century king of the Chola Dynasty, among the Tamil people in the region that now primarily in southern India. Religious books on the Vaishnava sect were mostly composed in Sanskrit during this period. Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The great Vaishnava leader Ramanuja lived during the reigns of Athirajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I, and had to face religious persecution from the Cholas who belonged to the Saiva sect. Ramanuja ( traditionally 1017&ndash1137 also known as Ramanujacharya, was a Theologian, Philosopher, and Scriptural Exegete. Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 CE reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. Kulothunga Chola reigned from 1070 until 1120 CE over the vast Chola Empire One of the best know Tamil work of this period is the Ramavatharam by Kamban who flourished during the reign of Kulottunga III. Ramavataram ( இராமாவதாரம்) popularly referred to as Kamba Ramayanam (கம்ப இராமாயணம் is a Tamil epic Ramavatharam is the greatest epic in Tamil Literature, and although the author states that he followed Valmiki, his work is not a mere translation or even an adaptation of the Sanskrit epic. Kamban imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time. A contemporary of Kamban was the famous poetess Auvaiyar who found great happiness in writing for young children. Auvaiyar ( Tamil:ஔவையார்(also Auvayar was the name of more than one poet who was active during different periods of Tamil literature. Her works, Athichoodi and Konraiventhan are even now generally read and taught in schools in Tamil Nadu. Her two other works, Mooturai and Nalvali were written for slightly older children. All the four works are didactic in character. They explain the basic wisdom that should govern mundane life.
Of the books on the Buddhist and the Jain faiths, the most noteworthy is the Jivaka-chintamani by the Jain ascetic Thirutakkadevar composed in the tenth century. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Civaka-cintamani (transliterated with innumerable variations is a classical Tamil language epic poem Viruttam style of poetry was used for the first time for the verses in this book. A viruttam or virutham is a Hindu devotional verse sung in Carnatic music concerts The five Tamil epics Jivaka-chintamani, Cilappatikaram, Manimekalai, Kundalakesi and Valayapathi are collectively known as the The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்; siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature Manimekalai ( மணிமேகலை) written by Seethalai Saathanar is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and is considered as one of the Kundalakesi ( Tamil: குண்டலகேசி) is a fragmentary Tamil epic. The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature are Silappatikaram, Manimegalai, Civaka Cintamani, Valayaapathi There were a number of books written on Tamil grammar. Yapperungalam and Yapperungalakkarigai were two works on prosody by the Jain ascetic Amirtasagara. In Linguistics, prosody (from Greek προσωδία) is the Rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech Buddamitra wrote Virasoliyam, another work on Tamil grammar, during the reign of Virarajendra Chola. Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 CE it must be said at the outset was one of the most under-rated Chola Kings mainly because of the fact that a major part of his life was Virasoliyam attempts to find synthesis between Sanskrit and Tamil grammar. Other grammatical works of this period are Nannul by Pavanandi, Vaccanandi Malai by Neminatha, and the annotations on the puram theme, Purapporul Venpamalai by Aiyanaridanar.
There were biographical and political works such as Jayamkondar's Kalingattupparani, a semi-historical account on the two invasion of Kalinga by Kulothunga Chola I. Kalinga was a Kingdom in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa, as well as some northern areas of the bordering state Kulothunga Chola reigned from 1070 until 1120 CE over the vast Chola Empire Jayamkondar was a poet-laureate in the Chola court and his work is a fine example of the balance between fact and fiction the poets had to tread. Ottakuttan, a close contemporary of Kambar, wrote three Ulas on Vikrama Chola, Kulothunga Chola II and Rajaraja Chola II. Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C Kulothunga Chola II was a 12th century king of the Chola Dynasty, among the Tamil people in the region that now primarily in southern India. Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150 C
The period from 1300 CE to 1650 was a period of constant change in the political situation of Tamil Nadu. The Tamil country was invaded by the armies of the Delhi Sultanate and defeated the Pandya kingdom. The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation The collapse of the Delhi Sultanate triggered the rise of the Bahmani Sultans in the Deccan. The Delhi Sultanate ( Urdu: دلی سلطنت, दिल्ली सलतनत or Sultanat e Hind ( سلطنتِ هند; सलतनत ए The Bahmani Sultanate (Also called the Bahmanid Empire was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms Vijayanagar empire rose from the ashes of the kingdoms of Hoysalas and Chalukyas and eventually conquered the entire south India. The Vijayanagara Empire ( Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ Telugu: విజయనగర సామ్రాజ్యము was a South The Hoysala Empire ( Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ ( pronunciation: in Kannada was a prominent South Indian Kannadiga The Chalukya dynasty ( Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು ʧaːɭukjə was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and Central The Vijayanagar kings appointed regional governors to rule various territories of their kingdom and Tamil Nadu was ruled by the Madurai Nayaks and the Thanjavur Nayaks. Prelude Decline of Pandya Rule Muslim Invasion and Vijayanagar Domination Early in the fourteenth century a dispute arose over the succession to the Pandya throne Origins of Nayak rule With the demise of the Chola dynasty in 1279 Thanjavur was ruled by various small chieftains until the Vijayanagara Empire conquered This period saw a large output of philosophical works, commentaries, epics and devotional poems. A number of monasteries (Mathas) were established by the various Hindu sects and these began to play a prominent role in educating the people. Numerous authors were of either the Saiva or the Vaishnava sects. The Vijayanagar kings and their Nayak governors were ardent Hindus and they patronised these mathas. Although the kings and the governors of the Vijayanagar empire spoke Telugu they encouraged the growth of Tamil literature as we find no slowing down in the literary output during this period.
There was a large output of works of philosophical and religious in nature, such as the Sivananabodam by Meykandar. At the end of the fourteenth century Svarupananda Desikar worte two anthologies on the philosophy os Advaita, the Sivaprakasapperundirattu. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the Arunagirinatha who lived in Tiruvannamalai in the fourteenth century wrote Tiruppugal. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Thiruvannamalai (திருவண்ணாமலை is a pilgrimage town and Municipality in Thiruvannamalai Thiruppugazh ( Tamil திருப்புகழ் tiruppukazh "Glory to the Lord" or "Divine glory" is a 15th century Anthology Around 1,360 verses of unique lilt and set to unique metres these poems are on the god Muruga. Madai Tiruvengadunathar, an official in the court of the Madurai Nayak, wrote Meynanavilakkam on the Advaita Vedanta. Advaita Vedanta ( IAST Advaita Vedānta; Sanskrit अद्वैत वेदान्त əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə is a sub-school of the Sivaprakasar, in the early seventeenth century wrote a number of works on the Saiva philosophy. Notable among these is the Nanneri which deals with moral instructions. A considerable par to the religious and philosophical literature of the age took the form of Puranas or narrative epics. A number of these were written on the various deities of the temples in Tamil Nadu and are known as Sthala Puranas, based on legend and folklore. One of the most important of the epics was the Mahabharatam by Villiputturar. He translated Vyasa's epic into Tamil and named it Villibharatam. Vyāsa ( Devanāgarī: व्यास is a central and revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions Kanthapuranam on the god Murugan was written by Kacchiappa Sivachariyar who lived in the fifteenth century. This work was based broadly on the Sanskrit Skandapurana. Varatungarama Pandya, a Pandya king of the period was a litterateur of merit and wrote Paditrruppattanthathi. Origin The origin of the word “Pandya” has been a subject of much speculation He also translated into Tamil the erotic book known as Kokkoha from Sanskrit.
This period also an age of many commentaries of ancient Tamil works. Adiyarkunallar wrote an annotation on Cilappatikaram. Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்; siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature Senavaraiyar wrote a commentary on the Tolkappiyam. The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil Then came the famous Parimelalagar whose commentary on the Tirukural is still considered one of the best available. Other famous annotators such as Perasiriyar and Naccinarikiniyar wrote commentaries on the various work of Sangam literature. The first Tamil dictionary was attempted by Mandalapurusha who compiled the lexicon Nigandu Cudamani. Thayumanavar, who lived in the early eighteenth century, is famous for a number of short poems of philosophical nature. Thayyumanavar (1706 - 1744 was a Tamil philosopher and Hindu saint
The seventeenth century also saw for the first time literary works by Muslim and Christian authors. The population of Muslims and Christians were growing in Tamil Nadu with the influences of the Delhi Sultanate and the growing European missionaries. Syed Khader known in Tamil as Sithaakkathi, lived in the seventeenth century and was a great patron of all Tamil poets. He commissioned the creation of a biography on the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In Religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has encountered the Supernatural or the divine and serves as an intermediary IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Omar known in Tamil as Umarupulavar, wrote Seerapuranam on the life of Muhammad.  Costanzo Giuseppe Beschi (1680-1746), better known as Veeramamunivar, compiled the first dictionary in Tamil. Constanzo Beschi, also known under his Tamil name of Vīramāmunivar (வீரமாமுனிவர் or Constantine Joseph Beschi (in English (8 November 1680 His Chathurakarathi was the first to list the Tamil words in alphabetical order. Veeramamunivar is also remembered for his Christian theological epic Thembavani on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ. Thembavani (ேதம்பாவனி in Tamil) (The Unfading Garland one of the Tamil classicsa poetical work of Veeramamunivar ( Constanzo Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE)
During the eighteenth and the nineteenth century Tamil Nadu witnessed some of the most profound changes in the political scene. The traditional Tamil ruling clans were superseded by European colonists and their sympathisers. The Tamil society underwent a deep cultural shock with the imposition of western cultural influences. The Hindu religious establishments attempted to stem the tide of change and to safeguard the Tamil cultural values. Notable among these were the Saiva monasteries at Tiruvavaduthurai, Dharmapuram, Thiruppananthal and Kundrakudi. Meenakshisundaram Pillai (1815-1876) was a Tamil scholar who taught Tamil at one of these monasteries. He wrote more than eighty books consisting of over 200,000 poems. He is more famous however for encouraging U.V.Swaminatha Iyer to go search for Tamil books that have been lost for centuries. Dr U V Swaminatha Iyer (Uttamadhanapuram Venkatasubbaiyer Swaminatha Iyer Tamil: உத்தமதானபுரம் வேங்கடசுப்பையர் சாமிநாதையர் Gopalakrishna Bharathi lived during the early nineteenth century. Gopalakrishna Bharati (கோபாலகிருஷ்ண பாரதி (1811 - 1896 was a Tamil poet and a composer of Carnatic music. He wrote numerous poems and lyrics set to tune in Carnatic music. Carnatic music (also spelled Karnatak music or Karnatik music, and originally called Karṇāṭaka sangīta or Karṇāṭaka sangītam in India His most famous work is the Nandan Charitam on the life of Nandanar who having been born in a sociologically lower caste, faces and overcomes the social obstacles in achieving his dream of visiting the Chidambaram temple. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Chidambaram is a Municipality and taluk ( Tehsil) headquarters in the Cuddalore district This work is a revolutionary social commentary considering the period in which it was written, although Gopalakrishna Bharati expanded on the story in Periyapuranam. Periya Puranam (the great purana or epic sometimes also called Tiruttontarpuranam (the purana of the holy devotees is a Tamil poetic account depicting Ramalinga Adigal (Vallalar) (1823-1874) wrote the devotional poem Tiruvarutpa is considered to be a work of great beauty and simplicity. Maraimalai Adigal (1876-1950) advocated for the purity of Tamil and wanted to clean it of words with Sanskrit influences. Maraimalai Adigal (மறைமலை அடிகள் (1876-1950 was an important Tamil scholar who was also well read in Sanskrit and English. One of the great Tamil poets of this period was Subramanya Bharathi. Subramania Bharati (சுப்ரமணிய பாரதி ( December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) was a Tamil poet from Tamil Nadu His works are stimulating in their progressive themes like freedom and feminism. Bharathy introduced a new poetic style into the somewhat rigid style of Tamil poetry writing, which had followed the rules set down in the Tolkaappiyam. The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் is a work on the Grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil His puthukkavithai (Lit. :new poetry) broke the rules and gave poets the freedom to express themselves. He also wrote Tamil prose in the form of commentaries, editorials, short stories and novels. Some of these were published in the Tamil daily Swadesamitran and in his Tamil weekly India. Swadesamitran (1899 (? - 1970 (? was the first Tamil language Newspaper owned and operated by Indians It was published from Chennai Inspired by Bharathi, many poets resorted to poetry as a means of reform. Bharathidasan was one such poet. Bharathidasan (பாரதிதாசன் ( April 29, 1891 - April 1, 1964; also spelt Bharatidasan) was a twentieth century U.V.Swaminatha Iyer, was instrumental in the revival of interest in the Sangam age literature in Tamil Nadu. Dr U V Swaminatha Iyer (Uttamadhanapuram Venkatasubbaiyer Swaminatha Iyer Tamil: உத்தமதானபுரம் வேங்கடசுப்பையர் சாமிநாதையர் He travelled all over the Tamil country, collecting, deciphering and publishing ancient books such as Cilappatikaram, Kuruntokai, etc. Silappatikaram ( Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம்; siləppəd̪iɡɑːrəm is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature He published over 90 books and wrote En caritham, an autobiography.
The novel as a genre of literature arrived in Tamil in the third quarter of nineteenth century, more than a century after it became popular with English writers. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Its emergence was perhaps facilitated by the growing population of Tamils with a western education and exposure to popular English fiction. Mayuram Vedanayagam Pillai wrote the first Tamil novel Prathapa Mudaliar Charithram in 1879. Prathapa Mudaliar Charithram ("The Life of Prathapa Mudaliar" written in 1857 and published in 1879 was the first Novel in the Tamil language This was a romance with an assortment of fables, folk tales and even Greek and Roman stories, written with the entertainment of the reader as the principal motive. It was followed by Kamalambal Charitram by B. R. Rajam Iyer in 1893 and Padmavathi Charitram by A. Madhaviah in 1898. These two portray the life of Brahmins in 19th century rural Tamil Nadu, capturing their customs and habits, beliefs and rituals. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Although it was primarily a powerful narration of the common man's life in a realistic style spiced with natural humour, Rajam Iyer's novel has a spiritual and philosophical undertone. Madhaviah tells the story in a more realistic way with a searching criticism of the upper caste society, particularly the sexual exploitation of girls by older men.
The increasing demand of the literate public caused a number of journals and periodicals to be published and these in turn provided a platform for authors to publish their work. Rajavritti Bodhini and Dina Varthamani in 1855 and Salem Pagadala Narasimhalu Naidu's fornightlies, Salem Desabhimini in 1878 and Coimbatore Kalanidhi in 1880, were the earliest Tamil journals. In 1882, G. Subramaniya Iyer started the newspaper Swadesamitran. It became the first Tamil daily in 1899. This was the start of many journals to follow and many novelists began to serialise their stories in these journal. The humour magazine Ananda Vikatan started by S. Ananda Vikatan ஆனந்த விகடன் is the leading Tamil language weekly magazine published from Chennai, India. S. Vasan in 1929 was to help create some of the greatest Tamil novelists. Kalki Krishnamurthy (1899-1954) serialised his short stories and novels in Ananda Vikatan and eventually started his own weekly Kalki for which he wrote the immortal novels Parthiban Kanavu, Sivagamiyin sabadham and the popular Ponniyin Selvan. Kalki (கல்கி was the pen name of R Krishnamurthy (ரா Parthiban Kanavu (பார்த்திபன் கனவு - Parthiban's dream) is a famous Tamil novel written by Kalki Krishnamurthy Sivagamiyin sabatham ( The vow of Sivagami &mdash சிவகாமியின் சபதம் in Tamil) is a Tamil Historical novel written Ponniyin Selvan ( Tamil: பொன்னியின் செல்வன், "The Son of Ponni " is a famous 2400 page Pudhumaipithan (1906-1948) was a great writer of short stories and provided the inspiration for a number of authors who followed him. The 'new poetry or pudukkavithai pioneered by Bharathi in his prose-poetry was further developed by the literary periodicals manikkodi and ezhuttu (edited by Si Su Chellappa). Poets such as Mu Metha contributed to these periodicals. Muhammed Metha ( Mu Metha) is a Tamil poet and songwriter He popularised modern poetry ( Pudukavithai) in the 1970s and has written more than 30 books Tamil Christian poets also added to the body of Tamil literature. Tamil Muslim poets like Pavalar Inqulab and Rokkiah too have made significant contributions to social reforms. Tamil Muslim refers to Muslims of Tamil ethnicity found in South Asia and South East Asia. Makkal Pavalar Inkulab (also spelt Inquilab, Inkulab or Ingulab) (மக்கள் பாவலர் இன்குலாப் is The pioneering fortnightly ournal Samarasam was established in 1981 to highlight and cater to the ethnic Tamil Muslim community's issues.
The rise of the Internet has triggered a dramatic growth in the number of Tamil blogs and specialist portals catering to political and social issues. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of