Table tennis is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth to each other with paddles. Wang Liqin (王励勤 (born June 18, 1978, Shanghai, China) is a Chinese Table tennis player Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Players must allow a ball played towards them only one bounce on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side. If the ball doesn't land on the opponent's side, it is a "dead ball," unless the receiving player has hit the ball before it has clearly passed the end line of the table. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. A skilled player can impart spin to the ball, which makes its bounce and reaction on the opponent paddle or racket difficult to predict or return with confidence.
Table tennis originated in England in the 1880s as an after-dinner amusement for upper-class Victorians. A line of books was used as a net, a rounded top of a champagne cork or knot of string as a ball, and a cigar box lid as a paddle. 
Table tennis evolved into the modern game in Europe, the United States and Japan. The game is controlled by the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations As of 1988, table tennis is an olympic sport which includes four events : men's singles, women's singles , men's doubles, women's doubles. The Olympic sports comprise all the Sports contested in the Summer and Winter Olympic Games. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources
Table tennis is a sport where two or four players hit a ball with rackets back and forth to each other on a table, in a manner similar to tennis. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) The rules are slightly different, but the concept is quite similar. In singles play, the serve is not required to cross from the server's right-hand court to the receiver's right-hand court (or left to left) as it is in tennis. Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) However, serving across is required in doubles play. Ball spin, speed, placement, strategy and tactics play an important part in competitive table tennis matches. The speed of the ball can vary from slow serves with much spin to smashes that travel as fast as 112. 5 kilometers per hour (70 mph). (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. 
The game is played on a 274 cm × 152. 5 cm × 76 cm high (9 ft × 5 ft × 30 inches high) playing surface. The International Table Tennis Federation requires an area not less than 14 m long, 7 m wide and 5 m high for competitions. No limitations in size or shape are specified. Modern rackets usually have a thin layer of rubber covering the racket's striking surface. The rubber may have pimples pointing outwards or inwards, as well as a thin layer of sponge between the plywood center and the rubber surface. Since spin plays a large role in the modern sport of table tennis, the composition of the rubber and the combination of sponge and rubber is designed to maximize the amount of spin and speed a player can impart onto the ball. Other technological improvements include the use of carbon or other synthetic layers as part of the blade to increase the size of the sweet spot or the stiffness of the blade.
The ball used in table tennis has a diameter of 40 mm, is made of celluloid, and is hollow. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from Nitrocellulose and Camphor, plus dyes and other agents A three star rating on a ball usually implies a top quality ball, in relation to its bounce, roundness and their respective consistency between balls of the same make and type.
The winner is the first to score 11 points, with each player alternating serves every two points. At 10-10 (or deuce) the players alternate with every serve; the winner is then the first person to gain a clear two points advantage over his opponent. The 11 point game is an International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) change which occurred in 2001. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations All games played at national level and at international tournaments (ITTF) are played to 11 points in either a best of five (5) games (preliminaries) or best of seven (7) games format (championship matches).
The game has its origins in England as an after-dinner amusement for upper-class Victorians in the 1880s. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of Electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered Mimicking the game of tennis in an indoor environment, everyday objects were originally enlisted to act as the equipment. Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) A line of books would be the net, a rounded top of a Champagne cork or knot of string as the ball, and a cigar box lid as the racket.
The popularity of the game led game manufacturers to sell the equipment commercially. Early rackets were often pieces of parchment stretched upon a frame, and the sound generated in play gave the game its first nicknames of "whiff-whaff" and "Ping-pong. Parchment is a thin material made from Calfskin, Sheepskin or goatskin. " A number of sources indicate that the game was first brought to the attention of Hamley's of Regent Street under the name "Gossima". Hamleys is one of the world's largest Toy shops It is currently located at 188&ndash196 Regent Street in London. The name "ping-pong" was in wide use before English manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual Year 1901 ( MCMI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The name "Ping-Pong" then came to be used for the game played by the rather expensive Jaques equipment, with other manufacturers calling theirs table tennis. A similar situation came to exist in the United States where Jaques sold the rights to the "Ping-Pong" name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers is a Toy and Game Manufacturer and Brand. Over nearly 115 years the company published more than 1800 games among their
The next major innovation was by James Gibb, an English enthusiast of the game, who discovered novelty celluloid balls on a trip to the U. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from Nitrocellulose and Camphor, plus dyes and other agents S. in 1901 and found them to be the ideal balls for the game. This was followed by E. C. Goode who in 1901 invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 when table tennis tournaments were being organized, books on table tennis were being written, and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. During the early 20th century the game was banned in Russia due to a belief that was held by the rulers at the time that playing the game had an adverse effect on players' eyesight. In 1921, the Table Tennis Association was founded in England, and the International Table Tennis Federation followed in 1926. London hosted the first official world championship in 1927. Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event staged in 1988 in
In the 1950s rackets that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlaying sponge layer changed the game dramatically, introducing greater spin and speed. These were introduced to England by the sports goods manufacturers S. W. Hancock Ltd. The use of speed glue increased the spin and speed even further, resulting in changes to the equipment to "slow the game down. In Table tennis speed glue is Glue that is used to re-fix the rubber surfaces to the racket or paddle "
Toward the end of 2000, the ITTF instituted several rules changes aimed at making table tennis more viable as a televised spectator sport. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations First, the older 38 mm balls were officially replaced by 40 mm balls. This increased the ball's air resistance and effectively slowed down the game. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their rackets, which made the game excessively fast, and difficult to watch on television. The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus "pore" and ferre "to bear" are Animals Secondly, the ITTF changed from a 21 to an 11 point scoring system. This was intended to make games more fast-paced and exciting. The ITTF also changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage. Variants of the sport have emerged. "Large-ball" table tennis uses a 44 mm ball which slows down the game significantly. This has seen some acceptance by players who have a hard time with the extreme spins and speeds of the 40 mm game. The ball's mass is 2. 47 grams.
There is a move towards reviving the table tennis game that existed prior to the introduction of sponge rubber. Classic table tennis or "Hardbat" table tennis players reject the speed and spin of reversed sponge rubber, preferring the 1940-60s style of no-sponge, short pimpled rubber of play which makes defense less difficult by decreasing the speed and eliminating any meaningful magnus effect of spin. Hardbat Table tennis is the classical table tennis playing style that existed prior to the advent of sponge rubber in the 1950-60s The Magnus effect is the phenomenon whereby a spinning object flying in a Fluid creates a Whirlpool of fluid around itself and experiences a force perpendicular Because hardbat killer shots are almost impossible to hit against a skilled player, hardbat matches focus on the strategic side of table tennis, requiring skillful maneuvering of the opponent before an attack can be successful.
The international rules specify that the game is played with a light 2. 7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball. For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation. Generally, it is the most-used ball. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 23cm when dropped from a height of 30cm thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0. The coefficient of restitution or COR of an object is a fractional value representing the ratio of velocities before and after an impact 88. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the 2000 Olympic Games. However, this created some controversy as the Chinese National Team argued that this was merely to give non-Chinese players a better chance of winning. A 40 mm table tennis ball is slower and spins less than a 38 mm one. The ball is made of a high-bouncing gas-filled celluloid ball, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from Nitrocellulose and Camphor, plus dyes and other agents BALL ( Biochemical Algorithms Library) is a C++ library containing common algorithms used in Biochemistry and Bioinformatics. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a grey table. A star on the ball indicates the quality of the ball. 3 stars indicates that it is of the highest quality.
The table is 2. 74 m (9 ft) long, 1. 525 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with a Masonite (a type of hardboard) or similarly manufactured timber, layered with a smooth, low-friction coating. Masonite is a type of Hardboard invented by William H Mason. It is formed using the Mason method using Wooden chips and blasting them into long fibers Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e The table or playing surface is divided into two halves by a 15. 25 cm (6 inch) high net. 
Players are equipped with a wooden blade covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the grip of the player. This is called either a paddle, racket or bat depending on where in the world the game is being played. In the USA the term "paddle" is common, in Europe the term is "bat," and the official ITTF term is "racket. " This section will use the ITTF term. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations
Table tennis regulations allow different surfaces on each side of the racket. The different types of surfaces provide various levels of spin or speed, or in some cases, nullify spin. For example, a player may have a rubber that provides much spin on one side of his racket, and no spin on the other side of the racket. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. To help a player distinguish between different types of rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. The player has the right to inspect his opponent's racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what color it is. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball.
Recent years have seen an advancement in technology of table tennis blades. Materials of different properties may be combined with the wood in the blade to enhance its playing performance. Many blades today feature one or more carbon layers within them to enhance their 'sweet spot', and to give the player a greater margin of error when playing powerful shots. A sweet spot is a place often numerical as opposed to physical where a combination of factors suggest a particularly suitable solution Materials incorporated into table tennis blades today include titanium, acrylate, aramids, fiberglass, and aluminium. Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 The acrylate ion ( C[[Hydrogen H]]2=CHC OO sup>&minus is the Ion of Acrylic acid. Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong Synthetic fibers They are used in aerospace and military applications for ballistic rated body armor Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre see Spelling differences) is material made from extremely fine Fibers of Glass. WikipediaNaming
The rubber coating may be of pimpled rubber, with the pimples outward, or it may be a rubber that is composed of two materials, a sponge layer, covered by a pimpled rubber, with the pimples pointed inwards or outwards. Some rackets are not covered with rubber at all, because a "naked" racket is believed to be more resistant to a spin. However, it is illegal to use these types of racket in competition as they are not approved by the ITTF. Some types of rubbers are also not approved. Approved rubbers have the ITTF emblem on the base of the rubber. 
Players have many choices and variations in rubber sheets on their racket. Although a racket may be purchased with rubber by the manufacturer, most serious tournament players will create a customized racket. A player selects a blank blade (i. e. a racket without rubber), based on his playing style. The type of wood and synthetic layers used to make up the blade will provide a slower or faster blade. The player can choose from different types of rubber sheets which will provide a certain level of spin, speed and specific playing characteristics.
Normally, a sheet of rubber is glued to a blade using rubber cement and not removed until the rubber wears out or becomes damaged. In the 1980s, a new technique was developed where the player would use a special glue called speed glue to apply the rubber every time he played. In Table tennis speed glue is Glue that is used to re-fix the rubber surfaces to the racket or paddle The glue would help provide more spin and speed by providing a "catapult" effect. A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a Projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various This technique is known as "regluing" and has become a standard technique for top players.
The surface of a racket will develop a smooth glossy patina with use. The rubber surface needs to be regularly cleaned to ensure it retains a high friction surface to impart spin to the ball. Players use a commercial cleaner, or just water and detergent as cleaning agents. 
Racket construction and new rubber technology (skilled elite players typically select and attach the rubber to their own rackets and glue them before every match) contribute significantly to the amount of deviation from the expected ball flight path. The fairly recent development of speed glue speeds up the departure of the ball from the rubber considerably, though at the cost of some ball control on touch shots where little or no spin is put on the ball.
In Japan, JTTA changed a policy of the glue which is used to glue rubbers and racket in September 2006. Using glues and rubber cleaner which contains some volatile organic solvents is banned in a game place, except where allowed to use them. A game place means that all of grounds, including a parking area. On the other hand, the glues ITTF or JTTA authorized can be used in a place which is located to use them. From September 1st, no one can be allowed to use the glues that contain some volatile organic solvents.
In top-flight competition, service is decided by a coin toss. Coin flipping or coin tossing is the practice of throwing a Coin in the air to resolve a Dispute between two parties or otherwise choose between two alternatives At lower levels it is common for one player (or the umpire/scorer) to hide the ball in one or the other hand (usually hidden under the table), allowing the other player to guess which hand the ball is in. The correct or incorrect guess gives the "winner" the option to choose to serve, receive, or to choose which side of the table to use. Another method is for one player to hit the ball to the other and he or she returns it. Then, they play one point to see who serves first.
In game play, the player serving the ball commences a point. Standing so that the ball is held behind the endline of the table, with the ball in the palm of the free hand - over the table's height - and the racket in the other, the server tosses the ball without spin, upward, at least sixteen centimeters (approximately 6 inches). In casual (non-tournament) games, many players do not toss the ball upward, however this is technically illegal and can give the player serving an unfair advantage.
He or she then must hit the ball such that it bounces once on his or her half of the table, and then bounces at least one time on the opponent's half. If the ball strikes the net but does not strike the opponent's half of the table, then a point is awarded to the opponent. However, if the ball hits the net, but nevertheless goes over and bounces on the other side, it is called a let (or net-in). Play stops, and the ball must be served again with no penalty. A player may commit any number of lets without penalty.
If the service is "good", then the opponent must then make a "good" return — by returning the ball before it bounces on his or her side of the table a second time. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server's first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous to him or her.
Any hitting of the ball must be done such that the ball passes over or around the net. If the ball is struck such that it travels around the net, but still lands on the opponent's side of the table, the hit is legal and play should be continued. If the opponent cannot return it over (or around) the net and make it bounce on your side, then you win the point.
Points are awarded to the opponent for any of several errors in play: 
Service alternates between opponents every two points (regardless of winner of the rally) until a player reaches 11 points with at least a two-point lead, or until both players have 10 points a piece. If both players reach 10 points, then service alternates after each point, until one player gains a two-point advantage.
In doubles, service alternates every two points between sides, but also rotates between players on the same team. At the end of every two points, the receiving player becomes the server, and the partner of the serving player becomes the receiver.
In the older 21-point game system, service would alternate every 5 points. If both players reached a score of 20, then service would alternate each point until one player gains a two-point advantage.
After each game, players switch sides of the table and in the fifth or seventh, game "for the match", players switch sides when the first player scores 5 points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. In competition play, matches are typically best of five or seven games.
In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. In doubles, all the rules of single play apply except for the following. A line painted along the long axis of the table to create doubles courts bisects the table. This line's only purpose is to facilitate the doubles service rule, which is that service, must originate from the right hand "box" in such a way that the first bounce of the serve bounces once in said right hand box and then must bounce at least once in the opponent side's right hand box (far left box for server). Play then continues normally with the exception that players must alternate hitting the ball. For example, after a player serves, the receiving player makes his or her return, the server's partner returns the ball and then the service receiver's partner would play the ball. The point proceeds this way until one side fails to make a legal return and the point is then awarded to the other team. Also, when the game reaches the final set, the teams must switch side and the team that receives the service must switch receiver when one of the teams reach 5 points. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since 1988 and the Commonwealth Games since 2002. The Commonwealth Games is a multinational Multi-sport event. Held every four years it involves the elite athletes of the Commonwealth of Nations. In 2005, the ITTF announced that doubles table tennis will only be featured as a part of teams events in the 2008 Olympics. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations
Competitive table tennis players grip their rackets in a variety of ways. Table tennis is unique among racket sports in that it supports a large variety of different styles of players The manner in which competitive players grip their rackets can be classified into two major families of styles. One is described as penhold, and the other shakehand. The Laws of Table Tennis do not prescribe the manner in which one must grip the racket, and numerous variations on gripping styles exist.
In table tennis, the strokes break down into generally offensive and defensive. You can spin, smash, block, push, chop, or lob the ball. The types of strokes include backhand and forehand.
Competitive table tennis is popular in Asia and Europe and has been gaining attention in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The most important international competitions are World Cup, World Championship, the Olympics and the ITTF Pro Tour, as well as continental competitions like European Championship, Euro Top-12, Asian Championship and Asian Games. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a Multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. China continues to dominate most world titles, while other strong teams come from East Asia and Europe including France, Germany, former Yugoslavia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Sweden, and Taiwan. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Singapore "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.
There are also professional competitions at the clubs level. The national league of countries like China (the China Table Tennis Super League), Germany, France, Belgium and Austria are some of the examples being at the highest level. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National China Table Tennis Super League (CTTSL is the top Table tennis division under the Chinese Table Tennis Association. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich There are also some important international club teams competitions such as the European Champions League and its former competition, the European Club Cup, which the top club teams from different European countries compete. History The Men’s Champions League was first organised in the 1998/99 season with the aim to replace the European Club Cup of Champions the previous highest level European club
An international hall of fame exists at the PDF (349 KiB). Jan-Ove (JO Waldner (nicknamed 老瓦 in China) is a Swedish Table tennis player born 3 October 1965. See also [[List of World Table Tennis Champions]] An international Hall of fame exists at the. A hall of fame (sometimes HOF) is a type of Museum established for any a field of endeavor to honor individuals of noteworthy achievement in that field A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International A Grand Slam is earned by a player who wins an Olympic Games gold medal, world championship title, and World Cup of Table Tennis gold medal. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games Gold Medal is an Album by American band The Donnas, released in 2004 (see 2004 in music) The world championships is held every two years starting in 1957
The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF): worldwide governing body with national bodies responsible for the sport in each country. The world championships is held every two years starting in 1957 The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations Governance relates to decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. There are other local authorities applicable as well.
For all aspects of the game refer to the ITTF official web site at http://www.ittf.com/
ng Chops & Devilish Spins: Ping-Pong and the Art of Staying Alive by Jerome
A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International