The TGV (train à grande vitesse, French for "high-speed train") is France's high-speed rail service developed by GEC-Alsthom (now Alstom) and SNCF, the French national rail operator, and operated primarily by SNCF. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Alstom ( is a large French multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and Transport markets SNCF ( Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company is a French public enterprise A railway can be broken down into two major components Basically these are the items which "move" the Rolling stock, that is the locomotives passenger carrying vehicles (coaches Following the inaugural TGV service between Paris and Lyon in 1981, the TGV network, centred on Paris, has expanded to connect cities across France and in adjacent countries. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. It holds the record for the fastest wheeled train, having reached 574. Determination of the fastest railed vehicle in the world varies depending on the definition of " rail " 8 km/h (357 mph) on 3 April 2007, and also holds the world's highest average speed for a regular passenger service. (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. TGV is a registered trademark of SNCF. SNCF ( Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company is a French public enterprise
The success of the first line led to an expansion of the network, with new lines built in the south, west, north and east of the country. Eager to emulate the success of the French network, neighbouring countries such as Belgium, Italy, Spain and Germany built their own high-speed lines. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. TGVs link with Switzerland through the French network, with Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands through the Thalys network, and the Eurostar network links France and Belgium with the United Kingdom. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Thalys is an international high-speed train operator built around the high-speed lines between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam Eurostar is a High-speed train service in Western Europe connecting London and Kent in the United Kingdom, with Paris The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Several lines are planned, including extensions within France and to surrounding countries. Towns such as Tours have become a part of a "TGV commuter belt". Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Commuting is the process of Travelling between one's place of residence and regular place of work
TGV trainsets travel at up to 320 km/h (200 mph) in commercial use. (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. A specially modified trainset reached 574.8 km/h (357 mph) on test runs. The TGV (train à grande vitesse French for "high-speed train" holds a series of world speed records achieved in the context of an active research and development The double decker TGV narrowly missed beating the overall world train speed record of 581kph (360. 8mph), which was reached in 2003 by a Japanese magnetic levitation, or maglev trains. MAGLEV, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends guides and (usually propels vehicles predominantly trains using magnetic forces It is made possible through the use of specially-designed LGVs (lignes à grande vitesse, high-speed lines) without sharp curves and with high-powered electric motors, low axle weight, articulated carriages and in-cab signalling (eliminating the need for drivers to view lineside signals at high speed). LGV construction is the process by which the land on which TGV trains are to run is prepared for their use involving carving the trackbed and laying the An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. Articulated cars are rail vehicles which are much longer than single passenger cars because they combine a number of smaller lighter cars which are semi-permanently Cab signalling is a Railroad safety system that communicates track status information to the train cab (driving position where the engineer or driver can see the information A signal is a mechanical or electrical device erected beside a Railway line to pass information relating to the state of the line ahead to train drivers/engineers.
TGV trainsets are manufactured primarily by Alstom, now often with the involvement of a subcontractor, such as Bombardier. Alstom ( is a large French multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and Transport markets Bombardier Inc (bɔ̃baʁdje is a Canadian conglomerate, founded by Joseph-Armand Bombardier as L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée in 1942 Except for a small series of TGVs used for postal freight between Paris, Lyon and Provence, the TGV is primarily a passenger service. Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects wherein written Documents typically enclosed in Envelopes and also Trains derived from TGV designs operate in South Korea (KTX), Spain (AVE) and USA (ACELA Express). South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː The Korea Train eXpress ( KTX) is South Korea 's High-speed rail system Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Ave! or aue! is a Latin phrase used by the Romans as a salutation and Greeting, meaning 'hail' The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Acela Express (often called simply Acela) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed Tilting train service operating between
Travel by TGV has largely replaced air travel between connected cities, due to shorter travel times (especially for trips taking less than three hours), reduced check-in, security and boarding formalities, and the convenient location of stations in the hearts of cities. Check-in is the process of announcing your arrival at a Hotel, Airport or Sea port. |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains The TGV is a very safe mode of transport; whilst there have been accidents, there has never been a fatality while travelling at high speed. Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different TGV accidents are events involving TGV trains which have harmful consequences such as injury to people or damage to trains or Derailments High-speed rail
The idea of the TGV was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen in 1959. The idea of a High-speed train in France was born about twenty years before the first TGVs entered service The is a Network of High-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies At the time the French government favoured new technologies, exploring the production of hovercraft and maglev trains such as Aérotrain. The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares A hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicle (ACV is an Amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface supported by MAGLEV, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends guides and (usually propels vehicles predominantly trains using magnetic forces The Aérotrain was a Hovercraft Train developed in France from 1965 to 1977 Simultaneously, SNCF began researching high speed trains that would operate on conventional track.
It was originally planned that the TGV, then standing for très grande vitesse (very high speed) or turbine grande vitesse (high speed turbine), would be propelled by gas turbine-electric locomotives. gas turbine-electric locomotive or GTEL is a Locomotive that uses a Gas turbine to drive an Electric generator or Alternator. Gas turbines were selected for their small size, good power-to-weight ratio, and ability to deliver high power over an extended period. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas Power-to-weight ratio (specific power is a calculation commonly applied to Engines and other mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another The first prototype, TGV 001, was the only TGV constructed with this engine - following the increase in the price of oil during the 1973 energy crisis, gas turbines were deemed impractical and the project turned to electricity from overhead lines. TGV 001 ( Très Grande Vitesse 001) the first TGV prototype was commissioned in 1969 and began testing in 1972 Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the The electricity was to be generated by France's new nuclear power stations. Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions
TGV 001 was not a wasted prototype.  Its gas-turbine powerplant was only one of many technologies for high-speed rail travel. It also tested high speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, high speed aerodynamics, and signalling. The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion It was articulated, meaning that two adjacent carriages shared a bogie between them, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another. A bogie (ˈboʊgi (BŌ-gē is a Wheeled wagon or trolley In mechanics terms a bogie is a Chassis or framework carrying wheels attached to a vehicle It reached 318 km/h (198 mph), which remains the world speed record for a non-electric train. Its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV designs, including the distinctive nose shape of the first TGV power cars.
Changing the TGV to electric traction required a significant design overhaul. The first electric prototype, nicknamed Zébulon, was completed in 1974, testing features such as innovative body mounting of motors, pantographs, suspension and braking. A pantograph is a device that collects electric current from Overhead lines for electric Trains or Trams The term stems from the resemblance to pantograph Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, Shock absorbers and linkages that connects a Vehicle to its Wheels Suspension A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a Machine or Vehicle, or alternatively a device to restrain it from starting to move again Body mounting of motors allowed over 3 tonnes to be eliminated from the power cars and massively reduced the amount of unsprung weight. In a ground Vehicle with a suspension, the unsprung weight (or more properly the unsprung mass) is the mass of the suspension Wheels The prototype travelled almost 1,000,000 km (621,000 miles) during testing.
In 1976 the French government funded the TGV project, and construction of the LGV Sud-Est, the first high-speed line (ligne à grande vitesse), began shortly afterwards. The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares Route The line crosses six départements, from north to south Seine-et-Marne Yonne Côte-d'Or The line was given the designation LN1, Ligne Nouvelle 1 (New Line 1).
After two pre-production trainsets (nicknamed Patrick and Sophie) had been tested and substantially modified, the first production version was delivered on 25 April 1980. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The TGV service opened to the public between Paris and Lyon on 27 September 1981. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 The initial target customers were businesspeople travelling between those two cities. The TGV was considerably faster than normal trains, cars, or airplanes. Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. The trains became popular outside their target market, the public welcoming fast and practical travel between cities.
Since then, further LGVs have opened in France, including the LGV Atlantique (LN2) to Tours/Le Mans (construction begun 1985, in operation 1989); the LGV Nord-Europe (LN3) to Calais and the Belgian border (construction begun 1989, in operation 1993); the LGV Rhône-Alpes (LN4), extending the LGV Sud-Est to Valence (construction begun 1990, in operation 1992); and the LGV Méditerranée (LN5) to Marseille (construction begun 1996, in operation 2001). The LGV Atlantique is a high-speed Railway line running from Paris ( Gare Montparnasse) to Western France. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Le Mans (ləmɑ̃ in French) is a city in France, located on the Sarthe River. The LGV Nord is a French 333 km-long High speed rail line that connects Paris to the Belgian border and the Channel Tunnel via Lille Calais (kaˈlɛ in English often kæˈleɪ traditional English pronunciation /ˈkælɨs/ Kales is a town in northern France. Route The line crosses four départements from north to south Ain Rhône Isère Valence ( Occitan Valença) is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the department of Drôme, situated Route The LGV Méditerranée begins at Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence, as the extension of the LGV Rhône-Alpes. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ The LGV Est from Paris to Strasbourg was inaugurated on 15 March 2007, and opened to the public in the summer of 2007. The LGV Est européenne (sometimes referred to as LGV Est) is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network connecting Paris and Strasbourg Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. In its first month of operation, more than 1,000,000 passengers traveled on the line. High speed lines based on LGV technology connecting with the French network have been built in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The Eurostar service began operation in 1994, connecting continental Europe to London via the Channel Tunnel with a version of the TGV designed for use in the tunnel and in the United Kingdom. Eurostar is a High-speed train service in Western Europe connecting London and Kent in the United Kingdom, with Paris Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche also known as the Chunnel, is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in England with The line used the LGV Nord-Europe in France from the outset. The first phase of the British High Speed 1 line, or Channel Tunnel Rail Link, was completed in 2003, and the second phase was completed on Wednesday 14 November 2007. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The fastest trains take 2 hours 15 minutes on the London-Paris and 1 hour 51 minutes on the London-Brussels route.
The TGV was the world's second commercial high speed service, after Japan's Shinkansen, which first connected Tokyo and Osaka on 1 October 1964. The is a Network of High-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The TGV currently holds the world speed record for conventional, wheel/rail trains. Determination of the fastest railed vehicle in the world varies depending on the definition of " rail " On 3 April 2007 a modified TGV POS train reached 574. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The TGV POS is a French TGV train which is being used on the LGV Est. 8 km/h (357. 2 mph) under test conditions on the LGV Est. The TGV (train à grande vitesse French for "high-speed train" holds a series of world speed records achieved in the context of an active research and development The LGV Est européenne (sometimes referred to as LGV Est) is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network connecting Paris and Strasbourg
The voltage on the test track between Paris and Strasbourg was boosted to 31,000 volts and extra ballast was tamped onto the right-of-way. By doing so, it beat the 1990 world speed record of 515. Determination of the fastest railed vehicle in the world varies depending on the definition of " rail " 3 km/h (320. 2 mph), set by a similarly shortened train (two power cars and three passenger cars), along with unofficial records set during weeks preceding the official record run. The test was part of an extensive research programme by Alstom. 
The TGV is in 2007 the world's fastest conventional scheduled train: one journey's average start-to-stop speed from Lorraine-TGV to Champagne-Ardenne-TGV is 279. Determination of the fastest railed vehicle in the world varies depending on the definition of " rail " 3 km/h (173. 6 mph). 
A Eurostar train broke the record for the longest non-stop high speed journey in the world on 17 May 2006 carrying the cast and filmmakers of The Da Vinci Code from London to Cannes for the Cannes Film Festival. The British Rail Class 373 or TGV-TMST train is an Electric multiple unit that operates Eurostar 's High-speed rail service between Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Da Vinci Code is a 2006 Feature film, which is based on the bestselling 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Cannes (kan in Occitan Canas) is a city in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur The Cannes Film Festival (le Festival de Cannes founded in 1946 is one of the world's oldest most influential and prestigious Film festivals alongside Venice, The 1421 km (883. 0 miles) journey took 7 hours 25 minutes (191. 6 km/h or 119 mph). 
The record for the fastest long distance run was set by a TGV Réseau train travelling from Calais-Frethun to Marseille (1067. The SNCF TGV Réseau (TGV-R trains were built by Alstom between 1992 and 1996. Calais (kaˈlɛ in English often kæˈleɪ traditional English pronunciation /ˈkælɨs/ Kales is a town in northern France. Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ 2 km, 663 mi) in 3 hours 29 minutes (306 km/h or 190 mph) for the inauguration of the LGV Méditerranée on 26 May 2001. Route The LGV Méditerranée begins at Saint-Marcel-lès-Valence, as the extension of the LGV Rhône-Alpes. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. 
In August 2007, the Dutch students Hildebrand van Kuyeren and Mart Hopman used the TGV, mainly the Paris-Marseille line, to set the world record for train traveling within one week (24,428. 2 km / 15,182. 2 miles).
On 28 November 2003 the TGV carried its one-billionth passenger, second only to the Shinkansen's five billionth passenger in 2000. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The two-billion mark is expected to be reached in 2010.
The newest high-speed lines allow speeds of up to 320 km/h (200 mph) in normal operation. LGV construction is the process by which the land on which TGV trains are to run is prepared for their use involving carving the trackbed and laying the (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. Originally, LGVs were defined as lines permitting speeds greater than 200 km/h (125 mph); this guideline was subsequently revised to 250 km/h (155 mph). TGVs also run on conventional track (lignes classiques), at the normal maximum safe speed for those lines, up to a maximum of 220 km/h (137 mph). This is an advantage that the TGV has over, for example, magnetic levitation trains, as TGVs can serve many more destinations and can use city-centre stations (as in Paris, Lyon, and Dijon). MAGLEV, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends guides and (usually propels vehicles predominantly trains using magnetic forces Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Dijon ( diʒɔ̃ is a city in eastern France, the capital of the Côte-d'Or departement and of the Bourgogne region They now serve around 200 destinations in France and abroad.
LGV construction is similar to that of normal railway lines, but with a few key differences. LGV construction is the process by which the land on which TGV trains are to run is prepared for their use involving carving the trackbed and laying the The radii of curves are larger so that trains can traverse them at higher speeds without increasing the centrifugal force felt by passengers. Remote Authentication Dial In User Service ( RADIUS) is a networking protocol that provides centralized access authorization and accounting management for people or computers The radii of LGV curves have historically been greater than 4 km (2. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand 5 miles). A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States New lines have minimum radii of 7 km (4 miles) to allow for future increases in speed.
Lines used only for high-speed traffic can incorporate steeper grades than normal. The grade (or gradient or pitch or slope) of any physical feature such as a Hill, Stream, Roof, railroad, or This facilitates the planning of LGVs and reduces the cost of line construction. The considerable momentum of TGVs at high speed allows them to climb steep slopes without greatly increasing their energy consumption. They can also coast on downward slopes, further increasing efficiency. The Paris-Sud-Est LGV features line grades of up to 3. 5%. (On the German NBS high-speed line between Cologne and Frankfurt they reach 4%. )
Track alignment is more precise than on normal railway lines, and ballast is in a deeper than normal profile, resulting in increased load-bearing capacity and track stability. Track ballast forms the trackbed upon which Railroad ties (US or railway sleepers (UK are laid In Standardization, a profile consists of an agreed-upon subset and interpretation of a Specification. LGV track is anchored by more sleepers (railroad ties) per kilometre than usual, and all are made of concrete, either mono- or bi-bloc, the latter consisting of two separate blocks of concrete joined by a steel bar. A railroad tie, cross tie, or railway sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for Railroad tracks. Heavy rail (UIC 60) is used and the rails themselves are more upright, with an inclination of 1 in 40 as opposed to 1 in 20 on normal lines. The International Union of Railways &ndash more generally known as the UIC, from its French name Union Internationale des Chemins de fer &ndash is an Use of continuous welded rails in place of shorter, jointed rails yields a comfortable ride at high speed, without the "clickety-clack" vibrations induced by rail joints.
The diameter of tunnels is greater than normally required by the size of the trains, especially at entrances. This limits the effects of air pressure changes, which could be problematic at TGV speeds.
LGVs are reserved primarily for TGVs. One reason for this limitation is that capacity is sharply reduced when trains of differing speeds are mixed. Passing freight and passenger trains also constitute a safety risk, as cargo on freight cars can be destabilised by the air turbulence caused by the TGV.
The steep gradients common on LGVs would limit the weight of slow freight trains. Slower trains would also mean that the maximum track cant (banking on curves) would be limited, so for the same maximum speed a mixed-traffic LGV would need to be built with curves of even larger radius. Such track would be much more expensive to build and maintain. Some stretches of less-used LGV are routinely mixed-traffic, such as the Tours branch of the LGV Atlantique, and the planned Nîmes/Montpellier branch of the LGV Mediterranée. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Nîmes ( Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms is a city in southern France. Montpellier ( Occitan Montpelhièr) is a City in the south of France. The British High Speed 1 from the Channel Tunnel to London has been built with passing loops to support freight use, but this facility has not been used. The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche also known as the Chunnel, is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in England with
Maintenance on LGVs is carried out at night, when no TGVs are running.
Outside France, LGVs often carry non-TGV intercity traffic, often as a requirement of the initial funding commitments. The Belgian LGV from Brussels to Liège carries 200 km/h loco-hauled trains, with both the Dutch HSL Zuid and British High Speed 1 planned to carry 200 km/h domestic intercity services. HSL-Zuid ( Hogesnelheidslijn Zuid, Southern High-Speed Line is a 125-km long high-speed railway line under construction between the Netherlands and The Channel Tunnel is not an LGV, but it uses LGV-type TVM signalling for mixed freight, shuttle and Eurostar traffic at between 100 km/h and 160 km/h. The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche also known as the Chunnel, is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in England with The "Standard Pathway" for path allocation purposes is the time taken by one of Eurotunnel's own Shuttle trains (maximum speed 140 km/h) to traverse the Tunnel. A train path is the infrastructure capacity needed to run a train between two places over a given time-period A single Eurostar running at 160 km/h occupies 2. 67 standard paths; a second Eurostar running at minimum distance (3 minutes) behind the first train only "costs" an additional 1 path, which is why the Eurostar services are often flighted 3 minutes apart throughout from London to Lille and vice versa. A freight train running at 120 km/h occupies 1. 33 paths. A freight running at 100 km/h occupies 3 paths. This illustrates the problem of mixed traffic at different speeds.
|Eurostar||160 km/h||2⅔||"catches up" with earlier trains|
|Eurostar (average for two)||160 km/h||1⅚||consecutive "flighted pair" at same speed|
|Eurotunnel Shuttle||140 km/h||1||optimal usage, all trains at same speed|
|Multi-modal freight||120 km/h||1⅓||"holds up" train behind it|
LGVs are all electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz AC. Railway electrification supplies electrical energy to railway Locomotives and Multiple units so they can operate without having a Reciprocating 25 kV 50 Hz AC is a type of Railway electrification system. Catenary wires are kept at a greater mechanical tension than normal lines because the pantograph causes oscillations in the wire, and the wave must travel faster than the train to avoid producing standing waves that would cause the wires to break. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the A pantograph is a device that collects electric current from Overhead lines for electric Trains or Trams The term stems from the resemblance to pantograph Oscillation is the repetitive variation typically in Time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of Equilibrium) or between two or more different states A wave is a disturbance that propagates through Space and Time, usually with transference of Energy. A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a Wave that remains in a constant position This was a problem when rail speed record attempts were made in 1990; power wire tension had to be increased further still to accommodate train speeds of over 500 km/h (310 mph). On LGVs, only the rear pantograph is raised, avoiding amplification of the oscillations created by the front pantograph. The front power car is supplied by a cable running along the roof of the train. Eurostar trains are long enough that oscillations are damped sufficiently between the front and rear power cars (the British are skittish towards running a high-power line through passenger carriages, thus justifying the centrally-located locomotive in their ill-fated Advanced Passenger Train), so both pantographs can be raised - there is no interconnecting high-voltage cable along the 400 m length of the train. Damping is any effect either deliberately engendered or inherent to a system that tends to reduce the amplitude of Oscillations of an oscillatory system The Advanced Passenger Train ( APT) was an experimental tilting High Speed Train developed by British Rail during the 1970s and early 1980s which On lignes classiques slower maximum speeds prevent oscillation problems, and on DC lines both pantographs must be raised.
LGVs are fenced along their entire length to prevent trespassing by animals and people. Level crossings are not permitted and bridges over the line have sensors to detect objects that fall onto the track. The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, road through railroad, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing
All LGV junctions are grade-separated, with tracks crossing each other using flyovers or tunnels, eliminating crossing other tracks on the level. Grade separation is the process of aligning a junction of two or more transport axes at different heights ( A flying junction is a Railway junction at which one or more diverging or converging tracks in a multiple-track route cross other tracks on the route by bridge to avoid conflict A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon
Because TGVs on LGVs travel too fast for their drivers to see and react to traditional lineside signals, an automated system called TVM (Transmission Voie-Machine, or track-to-train transmission) is used for signalling. Transmission Voie-Machine (TVM or track-to-train transmission, is a form of in- Cab signalling used on lignes à grande vitesse ( High-speed A signal is a mechanical or electrical device erected beside a Railway line to pass information relating to the state of the line ahead to train drivers/engineers. Information is transmitted to trains via electrical pulses sent through the rails, providing speed, target speed, and stop/go indications directly to the driver via dashboard-mounted instruments. This high degree of automation does not eliminate driver control, though there are safeguards that can safely stop the train in the event of driver error.
The line is divided into signal blocks of about 1500 m (1 mile), with the boundaries marked by blue boards with a yellow triangle. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States Dashboard instruments show the maximum permitted speed for the train's current block and a target speed based on the profile of the line ahead. The maximum permitted speed is based on factors such as the proximity of trains ahead (with steadily decreasing speeds permitted in blocks closer to the rear of the next train), junction placement, speed restrictions, the top speed of the train and distance from the end of the LGV. A junction, in the context of Rail transport, is a place at which two or more rail routes converge or diverge As trains cannot usually stop within one signal block, which can range in length from a few hundred metres to a few kilometres, drivers are alerted to slow gradually several blocks before a required stop.
Two versions of TVM signalling, TVM-430 and TVM-300, are in use on LGV. TVM-430, a newer system, was first installed on the LGV Nord to the Channel Tunnel and Belgium, and supplies trains with more information than TVM-300. The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche also known as the Chunnel, is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in England with Among other benefits, TVM-430 allows a train's on-board computer system to generate a continuous speed control curve in the event of an emergency brake activation, effectively forcing the driver to reduce speed safely without releasing the brake.
The signalling system is normally permissive: the driver of a train is permitted to proceed into an occupied block section without first obtaining authorization. Speed is limited to 30 km/h (19 mph) and if speed exceeds 35 km/h (22 mph) the emergency brake is applied. If the board marking the entrance to the block section is accompanied by a sign marked Nf, for non-franchissable, the block section is not permissive, and the driver must obtain authorisation from the Poste d'Aiguillage et de Régulation (PAR - Signalling and Control Centre) before entering. Once a route is set or the PAR has provided authorization, a white lamp above the board is lit to inform the driver. The driver acknowledges the authorization using a button on the control panel. This disables the emergency braking, which would otherwise occur when passing over the ground loop adjacent to the non-permissive board.
When trains enter or leave LGVs from lignes classiques, they pass over a ground loop that automatically switches the driver's dashboard indicators to the appropriate signalling system. For example, a train leaving the LGV for a ligne classique has its TVM system deactivated and its traditional KVB (Contrôle Vitesse par Balise, or beacon speed control) system enabled.
One of the main advantages of TGV over other fast rail technologies such as magnetic levitation is that TGVs can take advantage of existing infrastructure. These are all the TGV (train à grande vitesse French for "high-speed train" stations listed alphabetically MAGLEV, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends guides and (usually propels vehicles predominantly trains using magnetic forces This makes connecting city centres (such as Paris-Gare de Lyon to Lyon-Perrache) by TGV a simple and inexpensive proposition. The Gare de Lyon is one of the six large railway termini in Paris, France. Perrache station is a large railway station in the centre of the city of Lyon, France. TGVs often use intra-city tracks and stations built for lower speed trains.
However, LGV route designers have tended to build new intermediate stations in suburban areas or in the open countryside several kilometers away from cities. This allows TGVs to stop without incurring too great a time penalty, since more time is spent on high speed track; in addition, many cities' stations are stub-ends, while LGV tracks frequently bypass cities. In some cases, stations have been built halfway between two communities. The station serving Montceau-les-Mines and Le Creusot is an example, and a more controversial example is Haute Picardie station, between Amiens and Saint-Quentin. Montceau-les-Mines is a commune in the département of Saône-et-Loire and the Bourgogne region of France Le Creusot is a French commune in the Saône-et-Loire département and the Bourgogne région. TGV Haute-Picardie is a Railway station on the LGV Nord -Europe between Lille and Paris. Amiens (amjɛ̃ is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris. For other places with the same name see Saint-Quentin. Saint-Quentin is a commune in the Aisne départment The press and local authorities criticized Haute Picardie as being too far from either town to be convenient, and too far from connecting railway lines to be useful for travellers. The station was nicknamed la gare des betteraves, or 'beet station', as it was surrounded by sugar beet fields during construction. Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L a member of the Chenopodiaceae family is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of Sucrose.  This nickname is now applied to similar stations away from town and city centres, whether in the vicinity of beet fields or not.
New railway stations have been built for TGV services, some of which are major architectural achievements in their own right. Avignon TGV station, opened in 2001, has been praised as one of the most remarkable stations on the network, with a spectacular 340 m (1,115 ft)-long glazed roof that has been compared to that of a cathedral. Avignon (/aviɲɔ̃/ in French) ( Provençal: Avinhon in classical norm or Avignoun in Mistralian norm is a commune This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral 
TGVs are semi-permanently coupled articulated multiple units, with Jacobs bogies between the carriages, supporting both of them. An articulated vehicle is a vehicle which has a permanent or semi-permanent pivoting joint in its construction allowing the vehicle to turn more sharply The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still Jacobs bogies (named after Wilhelm Jakobs (1858 - 1942 are a type of rail vehicle Bogie commonly found on articulated Railcars and Tramway vehicles Power cars at each end of the trains have their own bogies. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. Trains can be lengthened by coupling two TGVs together, using couplers hidden in the noses of the power cars.
The articulated design is advantageous during a derailment, as the passenger carriages are more likely to stay upright and in line with the track. Normal trains, by contrast, may split at couplings and jack-knife. A coupling (or a coupler) is a mechanism for connecting Rolling stock in a train
A disadvantage of this carriage design is that it is difficult to split sets of carriages. While TGV power cars can be removed from trains via standard uncoupling procedures, specialized depot equipment is needed to split carriages, by lifting the entire train at once. Once uncoupled, one of the carriage ends is left without a bogie at the split, so a bogie frame is required to support it.
SNCF operates a fleet of about 400 TGVs. Seven types of TGV or TGV derivative currently operate on the French network; these are:
All TGVs are at least bi-current, which means that they can operate at 25 kV, 50 Hz AC on newer lines (including LGVs) and at 1. 5 kV DC on older lines (such as the 1. 5 kV lignes classiques that are common around Paris). Trains crossing the border into Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom must accommodate other voltages, requiring tri-current and quadri-current TGVs. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located TGVs have two pairs of pantographs, two for AC use and two for DC use. When passing between areas of different supply voltage, marker boards remind the driver to turn off power to the traction motors, lower the pantograph(s), adjust a switch to select the appropriate system, and raise the pantograph(s). See also Electric vehicle, Electric motor A traction motor is a type of Electric motor used to power the driving wheels of a vehicle such as Pantographs and pantograph height control are selected automatically based on the voltage system chosen by the driver. Once the train detects the correct supply, a dashboard indicator illuminates and the driver can switch on the traction motors. The train coasts across the boundary between sections.
|Equipment type||Top speed||Seating|
(under 25 kV)
|TGV Sud-Est||270 km/h (168 mph) as built|
300 km/h (186 mph) rebuilt
|345||200. Power-to-weight ratio (specific power is a calculation commonly applied to Engines and other mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another The SNCF TGV Sud-Est is a French TGV Train built by Alstom and operated by SNCF, the French national railway company (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. 2 m (657 ft)||2. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit 81 m (9. 2 ft)||385 t||6,450 kW||16. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. 7 W/kg|
|*TGV Atlantique||300 km/h (186 mph)||485||237. The SNCF TGV Atlantique (TGV-A trains were built by Alsthom between 1988 - 1991. 5 m (780 ft)||2. 90 m (9. 5 ft)||444 t||8,800 kW||19. 8 W/kg|
|TGV Réseau||320 km/h (199 mph)||377||200 m (656 ft)||2. The SNCF TGV Réseau (TGV-R trains were built by Alstom between 1992 and 1996. 90 m (9. 5 ft)||383 t||8,800 kW||23. 0 W/kg|
|Eurostar Three Capitals||300 km/h (186 mph)||750||393. Eurostar is a High-speed train service in Western Europe connecting London and Kent in the United Kingdom, with Paris 7 m (1,293 ft)||2. 81 m (9. 2 ft)||752 t||12,240 kW||16. 3 W/kg|
|Eurostar North of London||300 km/h (186 mph)||596||318. Eurostar is a High-speed train service in Western Europe connecting London and Kent in the United Kingdom, with Paris 9 m (1,033 ft)||2. 81 m (9. 2 ft)||665 t||12,240 kW||18. 4 W/kg|
|TGV Duplex||320 km/h (199 mph)||512||200 m (656 ft)||2. The TGV Duplex is a French high-speed train of the TGV family operated by SNCF, the French national railway company 90 m (9. 5 ft)||380 t||8,800 kW||23. 2 W/kg|
|Thalys PBKA||300 km/h (186 mph)||377||200 m (656 ft)||2. Thalys is an international high-speed train operator built around the high-speed lines between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam 90 m (9. 5 ft)||385 t||8,800 kW||22. 9 W/kg|
|TGV POS||320 km/h (199 mph)||357||200 m (656 ft)||2. The TGV POS is a French TGV train which is being used on the LGV Est. 90 m (9. 5 ft)||383 t||9,280 kW||24. 2 W/kg|
The Sud-Est fleet was built between 1978 and 1988 and operated the first TGV service, from Paris to Lyon in 1981. There are 107 passenger sets operating, of which nine are tri-current (including 15 kV, 16⅔ Hz AC for use in Switzerland) and the rest bi-current. There are also seven bi-current half-sets without seats that carry mail for La Poste between Paris, Lyon and Provence, in a distinctive yellow livery. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France
Each set is made up of two power cars and eight carriages (capacity 345 seats), including a powered bogie in each of the carriages adjacent to the power cars. They are 200 m (656 ft) long and 2. 81 m (9. 2 ft) wide. They weigh 385 tonnes with a power output of 6,450 kW under 25 kV.
Originally the sets were built to run at 270 km/h (168 mph) but most were upgraded to 300 km/h (186 mph) during mid-life refurbishment in preparation for the opening of the LGV Méditerranée. The few sets that still have a maximum speed of 270 km/h operate on those routes that include a comparatively short distance on LGV, such as to Switzerland via Dijon. SNCF did not consider it financially worthwhile to upgrade their speed for a marginal reduction in journey time.
The Atlantique fleet was built between 1988 and 1992. The SNCF TGV Atlantique (TGV-A trains were built by Alsthom between 1988 - 1991. 105 bi-current sets were built for the opening of the LGV Atlantique and entry into service began in 1989. They are 237. 5 m (780 ft) long and 2. 9 m (9. 5 ft) wide. They weigh 444 tonnes, and are made up of two power cars and ten carriages with a capacity of 485 seats. They were built with a maximum speed of 300 km/h (186 mph) and 8,800 kW of power under 25 kV.
Modified unit 325 set the world speed record in 1990 on the new LGV before its opening. The TGV (train à grande vitesse French for "high-speed train" holds a series of world speed records achieved in the context of an active research and development Various modifications, such as improved aerodynamics, larger wheels and improved braking, were made to enable speeds of over 500 km/h (310 mph). The set was reduced to two power cars and three carriages to improve the power-to-weight ratio, weighing 250 tonnes. Three carriages, including the bar carriage in the centre, is the minimum possible configuration because of the articulation.
The first Réseau (Network) sets entered service in 1993. The SNCF TGV Réseau (TGV-R trains were built by Alstom between 1992 and 1996. Fifty bi-current sets were ordered in 1990, supplemented by an order for 40 tri-current sets in 1992/1993. Ten of the tri-current sets carry the Thalys livery and are known as Thalys PBA (Paris-Brussels-Amsterdam) sets. Thalys is an international high-speed train operator built around the high-speed lines between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam As well as using standard French voltages, the tri-current sets can operate under the Netherlands' 1. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands 5 kV and Italian and Belgian 3 kV DC supplies. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
They are formed of two power cars (8,800 kW under 25 kV - as TGV Atlantique) and eight carriages, giving a capacity of 377 seats. They have a top speed of 300 km/h. They are 200 m (656 ft) long and are 2. 90 m (9. 5 ft) wide. The bi-current sets weigh 383 tonnes: owing to axle-load restrictions in Belgium the tri-current sets have a series of modifications, such as the replacement of steel with aluminium and hollow axles, to reduce the weight to under 17 tonnes per axle. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 WikipediaNaming
Owing to early complaints of uncomfortable pressure changes when entering tunnels at high speed on the LGV Atlantique, the Réseau sets are now pressure-sealed. They can be also coupled to a Duplex set.
The Eurostar train is essentially a long TGV, modified for use in the United Kingdom and in the Channel Tunnel. The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche also known as the Chunnel, is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in England with Differences include a smaller cross section to fit within the constrictive British loading gauge, British-designed asynchronous traction motors, and extensive fireproofing. A loading gauge is the envelope or contoured shape within which all Railroad cars, Locomotives coaches Buses Trucks and other Asynchrony, in the general meaning is the state of not being synchronized. "Fireproof" redirects here For the album see Fireproof (album.
In the UK, it is known under the TOPS classification system as class 373. Total Operations Processing System, or TOPS, is a computer system for managing the Locomotives and Rolling stock ( Railroad cars owned by In the planning stages, it was also known as the TransManche Super Train (Cross-channel Super Train). The trains were built by GEC-Alsthom (now Alstom) in La Rochelle (France), Belfort (France) and Washwood Heath (England), entering service in 1993. La Rochelle is a city in western France, and a Seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. Belfort (Beffert is a town and commune of northeastern France, Préfecture (capital of the Territoire de Belfort Washwood Heath is a ward in Birmingham, within the formal district of Hodge Hill, roughly two miles north-east of Birmingham city centre
Two types were built: the Three Capitals sets, consisting of two power cars and 18 carriages, including two with one powered bogie each, and the North of London sets, consisting of two power cars and 14 carriages, again with two with one powered bogie each. Full sets of both types consist of two identical half-sets which are not articulated in the middle, so that in case of emergency in the Channel Tunnel one half can be uncoupled and leave the tunnel. Each half-set is numbered separately.
Thirty-eight full sets, plus one spare power car, were ordered: 16 by SNCF, four by NMBS/SNCB, and 18 by British Rail, of which seven were North of London sets. The Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische Spoorwegen (NMBS Dutch) or Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Belges (SNCB French) is the Belgian See also Rail transport in Great Britain, National Rail, Network Rail This article is about the defunct entity "British Railways" Upon privatisation of British Rail by the UK Government, the BR sets were bought by London and Continental Railways, whose subsidiary Eurostar (U.K.) Ltd. is managed by a consortium of the National Express Group (40%), SNCF (35%), SNCB (15%) and British Airways (10%). See also Rail transport in Great Britain, National Rail, Network Rail This article is about the defunct entity "British Railways" London & Continental Railways (LCR is a railway company based in the United Kingdom. Eurostar (UK Limited or EUKL is a subsidiary of London and Continental Railways (LCR National Express Group plc ( is a UK -based Transport group with headquarters in London that operates Bus, coach, rail British Airways plc ( is the national Airline and Flag carrier of the United Kingdom and one of the largest in Europe
The sets operate at a maximum speed of 300 km/h (186 mph), with the power cars supplying 12,240 kW of power. The Three Capitals sets are 394 m (1,293 ft) long and have 766 seats, weighing a total of 752 tonnes. The North of London sets have 558 seats. All are at least tri-current and are able to operate on 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (on LGVs, including High Speed 1, and on UK overhead electrified lines), 3 kV DC on lignes classiques in Belgium and 750 V DC on the UK former Southern Region third rail network. A third rail is a method of providing Electricity to power a railway through a continuous rigid conductor alongside the railway track or between the rails The third-rail system became obsolete in 2007 when the second phase of High Speed 1 was brought into use between London and the Channel Tunnel, as it uses 25 kV, 50 Hz AC exclusively. Five of the Three Capitals sets owned by SNCF are quadri-current and are able to operate on French lignes classiques at 1500 V DC.
Three of the Three Capitals sets owned by SNCF are in French domestic use and carry the silver and blue TGV livery. The North of London sets, intended to provide direct regional Eurostar services from continental Europe to UK cities north of London, using the West Coast Main Line and the East Coast Main Line, have never seen regular international use: budget airlines in the UK offered lower fares. Regional Eurostar was the name given to plans to operate Eurostar train services from Paris and Brussels to locations in the United Kingdom beyond The West Coast Main Line (WCML is a busy mixed-traffic railway route in the United Kingdom. The East Coast Main Line ( ECML) is the electrified high-speed railway link between London and Edinburgh connecting Yorkshire, North East A few of the sets were leased to GNER for use on its White Rose service between London and Leeds, with two of them carrying GNER's dark blue livery. Great North Eastern Railway ( GNER) was a British train operating company, owned by Sea Containers Ltd. The lease ended in December 2005 and a year later the same sets found themselves working services to Calais in France for SNCF, remaining in the standard Eurostar livery, minus the logos.
The Chief Executive of Eurostar, Richard Brown, has suggested that the trains could be replaced by double-decker trains similar to the TGV Duplex when they are withdrawn. A double-deck fleet could carry 40 million passengers per year from England to Continental Europe, equivalent to adding an extra runway at a London airport. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European 
Eurostar has higher security measures than other TGVs. Luggage is screened and passengers are theoretically required to check in 30 minutes before departure, although this requirement is seldom if ever enforced. In addition, passengers entering or leaving the UK have to pass customs and identity checks.
The Duplex was built to increase TGV capacity without increasing train length or the number of trains. The TGV Duplex is a French high-speed train of the TGV family operated by SNCF, the French national railway company Each carriage has two levels, with access doors at the lower level, taking advantage of low French platforms. A railway platform is a section of pathway alongside Rail tracks at a Train station, Metro station or Tram stop, at which passengers may board A staircase gives access to the upper level, where the gangway between carriages is located. This layout provides 512 seats per set. On busy routes such as Paris-Marseille they are operated in pairs, providing 1,024 seats in a single train of two duplex sets but multiple transet formations of 1 duplex and 1 reseau are commonly seen for capacities of 800 people. Each set has a wheelchair accessible compartment.
After a lengthy development process starting in 1988 (during which they were known as the TGV-2N), they were built in two batches: 30 between 1995 and 1998 and 34 between 2000 and 2004. They weigh 380 tonnes and are 200 m (656 ft) long, made up of two power cars and eight bi-level carriages. Extensive use of aluminium means that they weigh not much more than the TGV Réseau sets they supplement. The bi-current power cars provide a total power of 8,800 kW, and they have a slightly increased speed of 320 km/h (199 mph).
Unlike Thalys PBA sets, the PBKA (Paris-Brussels-Köln (Cologne) -Amsterdam) sets were built exclusively for the Thalys service. The Thalys PBKA is a high-speed train derived from the French TGV. They are technologically similar to TGV Duplex sets, but without bi-level carriages. They are quadri-current, operating under 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (LGVs), 15 kV 16⅔ Hz AC (Germany, Switzerland), 3 kV DC (Belgium) and 1,5 kV DC (the Netherlands and French lignes classiques). Their top speed in service is 300 km/h (186 mph) under 25 kV, with two power cars supplying 8,800 kW. When operating under 15 kV power output drops to 4,460 kW, resulting in a very poor power-to-weight-ratio on German high-speed lines. They have eight carriages and are 200 m (656 ft) long, weighing a total of 385 tonnes. They have 377 seats.
Seventeen trains were ordered, nine by SNCB, six by SNCF and two by NS. Nederlandse Spoorwegen ( Dutch Railways) or NS, is the principal passenger Railway operating company in the Netherlands. Deutsche Bahn contributed to financing two of the SNCB sets. Deutsche Bahn AG ( DB AG, DBAG or DB) is the German national Railway company
TGV POS (Paris-Ostfrankreich-Süddeutschland or Paris-Eastern France-Southern Germany) are used on the LGV Est. The TGV POS is a French TGV train which is being used on the LGV Est.
They consist of two power cars with eight TGV Réseau type carriages, with a total power output of 9,600 kW and a top speed of 320 km/h (199 mph). Unlike TGV-A, TGV-R and TGV-D, it has asynchronous motors, and isolation of an individual motor in a powered bogie is possible in case of failure.
France has around 1,700 km of LGV, with three lines under construction. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The current lines and those under construction can be grouped into four routes radiating from Paris:
In addition, the LGV Interconnexion Est connects the LGV Sud-Est to the LGV Nord around Paris, and the LGV Rhin-Rhône (under construction) will connect Strasbourg and Lyon. The LGV Interconnexion Est is a French high-speed rail line that connects the LGV Nord and LGV Sud-Est through the Île de France. The LGV Rhin-Rhône is a high-speed Railway line under construction running between Strasbourg and Lyon, in France.
Amsterdam and Cologne are served by Thalys TGVs running on ordinary track, and these connections are being upgraded to high-speed rail. Thalys is an international high-speed train operator built around the high-speed lines between Paris, Brussels, Cologne and Amsterdam London is served by Eurostar trains running on High Speed 1 - Eurostar now runs on fully-segregated line once in the United Kingdom. Eurostar is a High-speed train service in Western Europe connecting London and Kent in the United Kingdom, with Paris The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
TGV technology has been adopted in a number of other countries separately from the French network:
SNCF and Alstom are investigating new technology that could be used for high-speed transport.
The development of TGV trains is being pursued in the form of the AGV, automotrice à grande vitesse (high speed multiple unit). The AGV is an Alstom train intended as the successor to France ’s TGV high-speed trains the name stands for a utomotrice à The AGV design has motors under each carriage. Investigations are being carried out with the aim of producing trains at the same cost as existing TGVs with the same safety standards. AGVs of the same length as TGVs could have up to 450 seats. The target speed is 360 km/h. The prototype AGV was unveiled by Alstom on February 5, 2008. Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
In the short term, plans are being considered to increase the capacity of TGVs by 10% by replacing the central two power cars of a double TGV with passenger carriages. These carriages would have motorized bogies underneath them, as would the first and last carriage of the train, to make up for the lost power. 
Italian operator NTV is the first customer for the AGV, and intends to become the first open access high speed rail operator in Europe, when it starts operation of its AGVs in Italy in 2011. Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori is an Italian company which plans to be Europe's first private open access high speed train operator
In more than two decades of high-speed operation, the TGV has not recorded a single fatality due to accident while running at high speed. TGV accidents are events involving TGV trains which have harmful consequences such as injury to people or damage to trains or Derailments High-speed rail There have been several accidents, including three derailments at or above 270 km/h (168 mph), but in none of these did any carriages overturn. This is credited in part to the stiffness that the articulated design lends to the train. There have been fatal accidents involving TGVs on lignes classiques, where the trains are exposed to the same dangers as normal trains, such as level crossings. The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, road through railroad, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing
Following the number of accidents at level crossings, an effort has been made to remove all level crossings on lignes classiques used by TGVs. The ligne classique from Tours to Bordeaux at the end of the LGV Atlantique has no level crossings as a result. Tours is a city in France the Préfecture (capital city of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate
The first environmental protests against the building of a high-speed line in France occurred in May 1990 during the planning stages of the LGV Méditerranée. Protesters blocked a railway viaduct to protest against the planned route, arguing that it was unnecessary, and that trains could use existing lines to reach Marseille from Lyon. 
Lyon Turin Ferroviaire (Lyon-Chambéry-Turin), which would connect the TGV to the Italian TAV network, has been the subject of demonstrations in Italy. Lyon Turin Ferroviaire ( LTF) subsidiary of Réseau Ferré de France (RFF and Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI is the promoter of the joint French ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Chambéry (Ciamberì or Sciamberì) is the capital of the department of Savoie, France. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Treno Alta Velocità SpA is Special purpose entity owned by RFI (itself owned by Ferrovie dello Stato) for the planning and construction of a high-speed While most Italian political parties agree on the construction of this line, inhabitants of the towns where construction would take place are vehemently opposing it. The concerns of the protesters centre around storing dangerous materials mined from mountain, like asbestos and uranium, in the open air. Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the This serious health danger could be avoided by using more appropriate but expensive techniques for handling radioactive materials. A six-month delay in the start of construction has been decided in order to study solutions. In addition to the concerns of the residents, RFB - a ten year old national movement - opposes the development of Italy's TAV high-speed rail network as a whole. Treno Alta Velocità SpA is Special purpose entity owned by RFI (itself owned by Ferrovie dello Stato) for the planning and construction of a high-speed 
General complaints about the noise of TGVs passing near towns and villages have led the SNCF to build acoustic fencing along large sections of LGVs to reduce the disturbance to residents, but protests still take place where SNCF has not addressed the issue. 
Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.