|Spoken languages||Dhivehi language|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. An abugida ( from Ge‘ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida or Amharic አቡጊዳ ’abugida is a segmental Writing system which An alphabet is a standardized set of letters basic written symbols each of which roughly represents a Phoneme, a Spoken language, either Dhivehi Writing Systems Dhivehi (or Divehi) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by more than about 300000 people in the Republic of Maldives where it is the ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of Writing systems (scripts In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's|
Thaana, Taana or Tāna (written ތާނަ in Tāna script) is the modern writing system of the Divehi language spoken in the Maldives. The Dhivehi or Divehi Writing systems are the different scripts used by Maldivians during their history. Dhivehi Writing Systems Dhivehi (or Divehi) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by more than about 300000 people in the Republic of Maldives where it is the The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching Taana has characteristics of both an abugida (diacritic vowels, killer strokes) and a true alphabet (all vowels are written), with consonants derived from indigenous and Arabic numerals, and vowels derived from the vowel diacritics of the Arabic abjad. An abugida ( from Ge‘ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida or Amharic አቡጊዳ ’abugida is a segmental Writing system which Virama is a generic term for the Diacritic character in many Brahmic scripts that is used to suppress an inherent Vowel sound that occurs with every consonant An alphabet is a standardized set of letters basic written symbols each of which roughly represents a Phoneme, a Spoken language, either The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa such as Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Its orthography is largely phonemic. The phoneME project is Sun Microsystems reference implementation of Java virtual machine and associated libraries of Java ME with source licensed under the GNU
The Tāna script first appeared in a Maldivian document towards the beginning of the eighteenth century in a crude initial form known as Gabulhi Thaana. This early script slowly developed, its characters slanting 45 degrees, becoming more graceful. As time went by it gradually replaced the older alphabet Dhives Akuru. An alphabet is a standardized set of letters basic written symbols each of which roughly represents a Phoneme, a Spoken language, either See also Dhivehi Writing Systems Dhivehi language|History of the Maldives Divehi Akuru or Dhives Akuru (island letters is a script formerly used to write the
Thaana, like Arabic, is written right to left. It indicates vowels with diacritic marks derived from Arabic. Each letter must carry either a vowel or a sukun (which indicates "no vowel"). The only exception to this rule is nūnu which, when written without a diacritic, indicates prenasalization of a following stop. Prenasalized stops or consonants are phonetic sequences of nasal plus plosive that behave phonologically like single consonants A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a Consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the Vocal tract.
The vowel or diacritical signs are called fili in Divehi; there are five fili for short vowels (a,i,u,e,o), where the first two look identical to the Arabic vowel signs (fatha and kasra) and the third one (damma) looks somewhat similar. In Phonetics, a vowel is a Sound in spoken Language, such as English ah! or oh!, pronounced with an open Vocal tract The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa such as Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Long vowels (ā, ē, ī, ō and ū) are denoted by doubled fili (except ō, which is a modification of the short obofili).
The letter alifu has no sound value of its own and is used for three different purposes: It can act as a carrier for a vowel with no preceding consonant, that is, a word-initial vowel or the second part of a diphthong; when it carries a sukun, it indicates gemination (lengthening) of the following consonant; and if alifu+sukun occurs at the end of a word, it indicates that the word ends in /eh/. In Phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (from Greek grc δίφθογγος "diphthongos" literally "with two sounds" or "with In Phonetics, gemination happens when a spoken Consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short Consonant. Gemination of nasals, however, is indicated by nūnu+sukun preceding the nasal to be geminated.
The origins of Tāna are unique among the world's alphabets: The first nine letters (h–v) are derived from the Arabic numerals, whereas the next nine (m–d) were the local Indic numerals. (See Hindu-Arabic numerals. The Hindu-Arabic numeral system is a Positional Decimal Numeral system first documented in the ninth century ) The remaining letters for loanwords (z–ch) and Arabic transliteration are derived from phonetically similar native consonants by means of diacritics, with the exception of y, which is of unknown origin. This means that Thaana is one of the few alphabets not derived graphically from the original Semitic alphabet — unless the Indic numerals were (see Brahmi numerals). The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar Undeciphered scripts dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE and believed to be ancestral The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens
The order of the Tāna alphabet (hā, shaviyani, nūnu, rā, bā, etc. ) doesn’t follow the order of other Indic scripts or of the Arabic alphabet. There is no apparent logic to the order; this has been interpreted as suggesting that the script was scrambled to keep it secret from average islanders. The script was originally used primarily to write magical (fadinta) incantations. These included Arabic quotations, written from right to left. Maldivian learned men, who were all well versed in sorcery, saw the advantages of writing in this simplified hidden script, and Tāna was gradually adopted for everyday use.
Tāna nearly disappeared for a brief period in recent history. Towards the mid 1970s, during President Ibrahim Nasir's tenure, Telex machines were introduced by the Maldivian Government in the local administration. The new telex equipment was viewed as a great progress, however Tāna was deemed to be an obstacle because messages on the telex machines could only be written in the Latin script. A teleprinter ( Following this, a rough Latin transliteration for Divehi was officially approved by the Maldive government in 1976 and was quickly implemented by the administration. Dhivehi Latin or Maldivian Latin (known colloquially as Malé Latin or "Nasiri Latin" was an officially-enforced romanization scheme in the Maldives Booklets were printed and dispatched to all Atoll and Island Offices, as well as schools and merchant liners. This was seen by many as the demise of the Tāna script.
This official Latin script (Dhivehi Letin) made indiscriminate use of "h"s for non-aspirated sounds, inconsistent with the clear phonetic rules of Indic languages. It also used certain combinations of letters and apostrophes for some Arabic sounds which effectively ignored the Arabic transliterations accepted in Academic circles worldwide. The long vowels "oo" and "ee" were introduced from English, reminiscent of colonial transcriptions.
Clarence Maloney, the American anthropologist who was in the Maldives at the time of the change, lamented the crude inconsistencies of the "Dhivehi Letin" and wondered why modern Standard Indic transliteration had not been considered. The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ( IAST) is a popular Transliteration scheme that allows a lossless Romanization of Indic 
The Tāna script was reinstated by President Maumoon shortly after he took power in 1978. However, the substandard Latin transcription of 1976 continues to be widely used.
Thaana occupies Unicode codepoints 1920-1983 (hexadecimal 0780-07BF). For a sample text, see the article on Gaumii salaam, the Maldives' national anthem. Qaumee Salaam ( Dhivehi: ޤައުމީ ސަލާމް National Salute is the current National anthem of the Maldives.
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H. C. P. Bell, the first serious researcher of Maldivian documents, used the spelling Tāna, as the initial consonant is unaspirated. In Typography, a grapheme is the fundamental unit in written language. Letter Naviyani ( ޱ) used to be the used to be the nineteenth letter of the Divehi alphabet. Harry Charles Purvis Bell (1851-1937 was a British civil servant a commissioner in the Ceylon Civil Service. The spelling Thana was adopted in the mid 1970s, when the government of the Maldives embarked on a short period or Romanization. This spelling is confusing, as it implies the name is aspirated.
Naviyani ޱ represents the retroflex "n" ([ɳ]) common to many Indic languages. Letter Naviyani ( ޱ) used to be the used to be the nineteenth letter of the Divehi alphabet. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family However this letter was abolished from Maldivian official documents around 1953.
The letter's former position in the Maldivian alphabet was the nineteenth, between Daviyani and Zaviyani. It is still seen in reprints of old books like the Bodu Tartheebu, and it is used by the people of Addu Atoll when writing songs or poetry in their dialect. Addu Atoll (local administrative code Seenu) is the southernmost Atoll of the Maldives.