- Water (%)
- Total (2002)
29. Kapan (Կապան former names include Ghapan, Ghap’an, Kafin, Kafan, Katan, Qafan, Zangezur, and A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Suren Khachatryan ( Armenian: hy Սուրեն Խաչատրյան born August 1, 1956 in Goris) is an Armenian politician and the current Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Administrative divisions The following is a list of the provinces with population area and density information In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Administrative divisions The following is a list of the provinces with population area and density information 8/km²
- Postal code
- ISO 3166-2
- FIPS 10-4
AM. Armenian postal codes consist of four digits Until April 1, 2006, they consisted of six digits ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO The FIPS 10-4 standard Countries Dependencies Areas of Special Sovereignty and Their Principal Administrative Divisions, lists two-letter country codes that SU
Syunik (Armenian: Սյունիք, also transliterated as Siunik, Siwnik, or Syunig) is the southernmost province (marz) of Armenia. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Over the years Armenia has developed a modern unique and successful culture Cinema of Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee on Cinema was established by the government decree Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous Folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan 's well-known Over the years Armenia has developed a modern unique and successful culture A wide array of Sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being Wrestling, Weightlifting, Judo, football, Chess Vartavar (also known as Vardevar or Vardavar, Armenian: hy Վարդավար or Վարդնար is a festival in Armenia where people of all ages see History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene for the historiographical work Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President is the Head of government Armenia maintains good relations with almost every country in the world the major exceptions being two of its immediate neighbors Turkey and Azerbaijan. Armenia is the only republic of the former Soviet Union that boasts a nearly-homogeneous population Administrative divisions The following is a list of the provinces with population area and density information Gegharkunik may refer to Gegharkunik Province Gegharkunik Gegharkunik town Gegharkunik Lake now called Lake Sevan Shirak may refer to Shirak Province, Armenia Shirak (town, Armenia Shirak Airport, Armenia Shirak historic region Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Administrative divisions The following is a list of the provinces with population area and density information Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani It borders the Vayots Dzor marz to the north, Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave to the west, Azerbaijan proper to the east, and Iran to the south. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն Нахичеванская Автономная For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Its capital is Kapan. Kapan (Կապան former names include Ghapan, Ghap’an, Kafin, Kafan, Katan, Qafan, Zangezur, and Other important cities and towns include Goris, Sisian, Meghri, Agarak, and Dastakert. Goris ( Armenian: hy Գորիս until 1924 Geryusy, Geryusi or Gerusi; formerly Goraik, Gores, Hin Kores, For the town southwest of Sisian formerly also called Sisian see Hatsavan Syunik. Meghri ( Armenian: Մեղրի also Romanized as Mergi, Megry, Megri, and Mogri) is a city in southern Armenia Agarak may refer to Agarak Lori, Armenia Agarak Talin, Armenia Agarak Ashtarak, Armenia Agarak For the village in Azerbaijan see Dostagir. Dastakert (Դաստակերտ also Dastakern and Dastakyurd) is a town in the
Historically, Syunik was one of the 15 provinces of the Kingdom of Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to AD 387 and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until At various times, the region of present-day Syunik has also been known by other names such as Syunia, Sisakan, and Zangezur. The area's many Armenian cultural sites (such as the Tatev monastery) testify to its rich history. The monastery of Tatev ( Armenian: Տաթեվ, Russian: Татев) - established in 895 - is located in the Tatev village.
Syunik is a green but mountainous area. The high-water major rivers are the Meghri, Voghdji, and Vorotan. Voghdji (Ողջի is a river on the south slopes of the Lesser Caucasus range and is a left tributary of Araks River. Vorotan ( Armenian: hy Որոտան Azerbaijani: az Bazarçay is a river in Transcaucasia, a left tributary of the Araks River. Summertime temperatures can reach more than 50°C, although the average temperature is around 22°C. Its border with Nakhchivan to the west is defined by the Zangezur Mountains. The Zangezur Mountains comprise a Mountain range that defines the border between Armenia 's southern province of Syunik and Azerbaijan 's
Inscriptions found in the region around Lake Sevan attributed to the same king (King Artashes I) confirm that in the 2nd century B. Lake Sevan (Սևանա լիճ is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high-altitude lakes in the world C. the District of Syunik constituted part of the Ancient Armenia. The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to AD 387 and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until   
The first dynasty to rule Syunik was the Siak, beginning in the 1st century. The first known ruler was Valinak Siak (c. 330). His successor was his brother Andok (c. 340).
Syunik was occupied by the Persian Empire, c. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia 369. In 379, King Babik, son of Andok, was re-established as ruler by the Mamikonians. Mamikonian or Mamikoneans (Մամիկոնյան was a noble family which dominated Armenian politics between the 4th and 8th century His sister, Pharantzem, was married to Gnel, nephew of Archak II, King of Armenia. This lasted for less than ten years and by about 386 or 387, King Dara was deposed by the Persians.
King Valinak (c. 400-409) was followed by Vasak (409-452). Vasak of Syunik was King of Syunik from 409-452 and also served for a time as Marzpan of Armenia Vasak had two sons, Bagben and Bakur, and a daughter who married Vasak's successor, Varazvahan (452-472). His son Gelehon ruled from 470 to 477 and died in 483. Babik (Bagben) the brother of Varazvahan, became the new king in 477. Hadz, brother of Gelehon, died on September 25, 482. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France
A dynasty was formed, governed by a branch of the Bagratuni, with minor vassal princes from one or more previous dynasties, perhaps of Persian origin. The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family Vasak III (c. 800) suffered an assault from the emir of Manazkert, Sevada. Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Malazgirt (also Malâzgird; Մանզիկերտ Manzikert) is a town in Muş Province in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23697 (year 2000 He established a garrison in Chalat, in the district of Dzoluk. He then called for help from the Persian revolutionary chief Babak Khorramdin, who married a daughter of the king. Bābak Khorram-Dīn ( Persian: بابک خرمدین; alternative spelling Bâbak Xoramdin; 795 according to some other
After Vasak III (821) died, Babak inherited the country, which revolted against him. Babak suppressed the revolt, but was harassed by both Muslims and Armenians. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Finally, he abdicated and the children of Vasak, Philipo, and Sahak regained power. Philipo governed Eastern Syunik, with the districts of Vayots Dzor and Balq (Goucha). Sahak governed in Western Syunik, also known as Gelarquniq, with capital in Khoth. These local dynasties disappeared during the ephemeral domination from Babak.
In 826, Sahak allied with his ancient enemy - Sevada, the Qaisite emir of Manazkert - against the governor of Caliph, but he was defeated and died in Kavakert. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah His son Grigor-Sufan succeeded him as prince of Western Syunik. In the Eastern region, Philipo died on August 10, 848. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire Events By Place Europe The Saracens destroy Leontini. Charles the Bald, Louis the German and He was succeeded by three children (Babgen, Vasak-Ichkhanik and Achot) that ruled jointly. Babgen fought with Grigor-Sufan and killed him (sometime in 849-851) but Babgen died shortly after (851) and Vasak-Ichkhanik (Vasak IV) followed him. Vasak-Ichkhanik had peaceful relations with Vasak-Gabor, who had ascended to the throne of Western Syunik, replacing his father Grigor-Sufan. Nerseh, brother of Babgen, directed (851?) an expedition to Aghuania defeating and killing the prince Varaz-Terdat (of the Persian dynasty Mihrakane of Aghuania) in Morgog. For other historical figures with similar names see Narses (disambiguation. A general sent by the Caliph, Bogha al-Kabir, destroyed Armenia and Aghuania in these years, and sent a detachment to Eastern Syunik where was governing Vasak IV with his brother Achot. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah The Syunik people were protected in the fortress of Balq, but Vasak fled to Kotaiq, and was pursued to the region of Gardman on the eastern border of Lake Sevan. Gardman (in Armenian: Գարդման was an old region of the province of Utik in the Kingdom of Armenia and Caucasian Albania. Lake Sevan (Սևանա լիճ is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high-altitude lakes in the world Gardman's prince (ichkhan) Ketridj or Ketritchn betrayed him and delivered him to Bogha (859). Achot was also seized (859). But Bogha invaded Gardman and imprisoned Kertridj. He then went to Outi where he captured the prince of Sevordiq, Stephannos Kun.
The Caliphate tried to control all these regions, and for this reason Bogha decided to repopulate the city of Chamkor in the Kura river with Muslims. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history Chamkor, being near Barda and Ganja, was intended to act as a regional monitoring post. Barda (Bərdə also Bärdä) is the capital city of Barda Rayon, Azerbaijan. By order of the new Caliph in 862, the imprisoned princes were to be released and allowed to return to their former domains on the condition of becoming Muslim. (However, they all abandoned Islam after their return. )
The prince of Western Syunik, Vasak-Gabor, was married to a daughter of the Bagratid prince Achot the Great named Miriam, and received the title of Ichkhan from the Syunik people - delivered to him by Achot in name of the Caliph. His successor was his son, Grigor-Sufan II (887-909). The prince of Eastern Syunik, Vasak IV, died around 887, and was followed by his brother Achot who died c. 906.
The son of Vasak IV, Sembat, that received the fiefdom from Vayots Dzor. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Chahaponk (Jahuk) governed from 887 until sometime after 920. He revolted in 903 against the Bagratid Sembat I, refusing to pay him taxes. Smbat I (Սմբատ Ա (known as "the Martyr" 850 &ndash 912 was King of Armenia (890 &ndash 912 of the Bagratuni dynasty son of Ashot I and the Because of this, he was assaulted by the prince of Vaspurakan, Sargis-Achot. Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian; Վասպուրական meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes" was first a province Sembat submitted, was forgiven and married to the sister of the prince of Vaspurakan, receiving the city and district of Nakhchivan, which in 902 was upset with the Kaysites or Qaisids. The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն Нахичеванская Автономная
A few years later, the prince allied with the emir of Sadjid, Yusuf, against Eastern Syunik, which they invaded together. For the music director see Sajid (music director The Sajid dynasty was an Islamic dynasty that ruled the Iranian region of Azerbaijan from 889 Sembat was sheltered in the fortress of Erendchak (today Alindja, northeast of Nakhchivan) and Yusuf remained owner of Eastern Syunik. Sembat requested refuge from his brother-in-law Khatchik-Gagik, which was granted. In the same year (909), the prince of Western Syunik, Grigor Sufan II, submitted to the emir Yusuf in Dwin. For the modern town see Dvin (town. Dvin (Դվին Δουσιος Τισιον was a large commercial city the capital of Early medieval Only Byzantine movements and the withdrawal of the Sadjids permitted him to recover the throne some time later. Sembat, with his three brothers Sahak, Babgen, and Vasak, governed again. Also in Western Syunik, Sahak, Achot and Vasak, brothers of Grigor-Sufan II, were governing the country. After them the dynasty of Western Syunik became extinct and the territory was subsumed by the Muslims.
The eastern part remained divided: Sembat, which had the main title, governed the western part of the Eastern Syunik with the Vayots Dzor, bordered by Vaspurakan. Sahak governed the eastern part until the river Hakar. Babgen governed the district of the Balq, and Vasak (who died in 922) an indeterminate territory. Nasr, the emir of Azerbaijan, captured territory through perfidy against Babgen and Sahak in Dwin. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Perfidy is an act of deliberate Treachery or Deception. Under the 1977 Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 ( Protocol After the invasion, Sembat unseated Nasr and obtained the freedom of his brothers. Sembat was followed by his son Vasak, and Sahak in turn by his son Sembat. Vasak received the royal title from the Muslims at the end of his reign, which lasted until 963.
The throne was inherited by his nephew Sembat (963-998) who was recognized as king by the emirs of Tauris and of Arran. Arran ( also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian) Al-Ran (in Arabic) including the highland and lowland Karabakh) He was married to the princess of Aghuania, Chahandoukht. At his death, he was followed by Vasak (c. 998-1019). Vasak was succeeded by two nephews (the children of his sister and a Prince Achot) called Sembat and Grigor (1019-1084). The latter was married with the princess Chahandoukht, daughter of Sevada of Aghuania. The only successor to the two princes, was a daughter of Grigor's called Chahandoukht. Rule passed to the prince of Aghuania, Seneqerim Ioan who governed both territories from 1084 until his death in 1105. Seneqerim Ioan was followed by his son Grigor of Syunik and Aghuania, who governed until 1166, when the country was conquered by the Seljucids Turks. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in
Later, the dynasty of the Orbeliani, one of whose members wrote an important history of the country, governed Syunik in times of Timur (Tamerlan) as vassals. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Between mid-17th c and early 19th c, the region was part of the Karabakh khanate of the Safavid Empire. The Karabakh khanate was a Turkic Muslim khanate founded in 1747, which remained under a nominal Persian suzerainty but was De facto The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz It was during this period in the region's history that David Bek headed an armed struggled against the Safavids and the Ottoman Empire, both of which were fighting for control of the area. For the town see Davit Bek. David Bek (Դավիդ Բեկ Died 1728 was one of the most prominent figures of the Armenian liberation movement The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
Following the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813, Syunik passed into Imperial Russian possession by the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 together with the rest of the Karabakh khanate. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор Persian: عهدنامه گلستان was a Peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia The khanate was then abolished by the Russian government in 1822 and the region was made the Zangezur uyezd within the Elisabethpol Governorate. Elisabethpol Governorate or Elizavetpol Governorate (Елизаветпольская губерния in pre-1918 Russian spellingЕлисаветпольская губернiя
The beginning of 20th century saw an outbreak in ethnic tensions between the Armenian and Azerbaijani populations in the Caucasus, culminating in the Armenian-Tatar massacres. The Armenian-Tatar massacres (also known as the Armenian-Tartar War and the Armeno-Tartar War) refers to the bloody inter-ethnic confrontation between the During these events, the Armenians of Syunik were massacred "without distinction of sex or age" by Azeri forces.  Tensions were accelerated with the collapse of the Russian Empire. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The region fell under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 after the February Revolution and the Abdication The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР Zakavkazskaya When the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Syunik, Nakhchivan, and Nagorno-Karabakh became heavily contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն Нахичеванская Автономная For the republic see Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh is a Region in the South Caucasus. The Democratic Republic of Armenia ( DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic ( ADR; Azərbaycan Xalq Cümhuriyyəti was the first Democratic and Secular Republic in the Muslim world At the time, Syunik had an Armenian majority of 350,000 and a Muslim population of 180,000.  According to Thomas de Waal, the dispute over Syunik resulted in the ethnic cleansing of region's local Azeri minority through direct military action. Thomas de Waal is a British journalist writer and an expert on the Caucasus. 
Armenian forces eventually secured the region but their efforts were in vain when the Bolsheviks, successful in the Russian Civil War, pushed deep into the Caucasus. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed Syunik was one of the last major holdouts of the DRA whose leaders were eventually expelled by incoming Soviet authorities to Iran.  During Sovietization, Syunik became part of Soviet Armenia, while the two other disputed territories, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh became part of Soviet Azerbaijan. Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related meanings the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils It then became part of Armenia under the Transcaucasian SFSR and part of the Armenian SSR in 1936. The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Հայաստանի Խորհրդային Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Azerbaijani: The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Հայկական ՍովետականՍոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Haykakan Sovetakan Sotsialistakan Hanrapetutyun Under Soviet rule, Syunik suffered a devastating earthquake in April 1931, leaving 80% of its villages destroyed.  A subsequent earthquake hit the region in May during the same year, destroying 27 of 38 villages in the Sisian district. For the town southwest of Sisian formerly also called Sisian see Hatsavan Syunik. 
Despite the region's troubled early years in the Soviet Union, it gradually began to recover with much of the area's infrastructure rebuilt and improved. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 During the Soviet era, Syunik was noted as a source of metal and ore production.  However, the region was shook by the renewal of the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh with neighboring Azerbaijan. In 1988-1989, the remaining Azeri inhabitants fled the region as Armenian refugees from Azerbaijan entered.  This exchange in population made Syunik and Armenia in general more homogeneous.
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Syunik has been a constituent part of the Republic of Armenia. The republic's southernmost province, it has become strategically and ecomically important for Armenia, sharing a border with Iran from which vital energy resources are exported. Recently, a new 140-kilometer-long Armenia-Iran pipeline has been opened that is "projected to supply Armenia with up to 1. The Iran-Armenia Gas Pipeline is a 140 km pipeline from Iran to Armenia. 1 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas per year until 2019, when that supply target is expected to rise to 2. 3 bcm annually. " The new pipeline has attracted Armenia's northern neighbor, Georgia which seeks to lessen its dependence on energy from Russia.  Still, the pipeline is being built under Armrosgazprom, Armenia's Russian-owned national gas company controlled by Russia's Gazprom monopoly. ArmRosGazprom (ARG was founded in 1997 as a joint Russian Armenian Natural gas pipeline project OJSC Gazprom, (Газпром long version Открытое Aкционерное Oбщество Газпром sometimes transcribed as Gasprom is the largest Russian company