|الجمهورية العربية السورية|
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah as-Sūriyyah
Syrian Arab Republic
|Anthem: Homat el Diyar|
Guardians of the Land
(and largest city)
|Government||Presidential republic Single party state|
|-||Prime Minister||Muhammad Naji al-Otari|
|-||First declaration||September 19361|
|-||Second declaration||January 1, 1944|
|-||Recognized||April 17, 1946|
|-||Total||185,180 km² (88th)|
71,479 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The current flag of Syria ( علم سوريا) was re-adopted in 1980. The symbol of the Coat of arms of Syria ( شعار سوريا) is the Syrian Hawk or "hawk of Qureish " which holds a shield A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's “Ħumāt ad-Diyār” ( حُمَاةَ الدِّيَار, translated Guardians of the Homeland, is the National anthem of Syria, with Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people closely related to their immediate neighbours like the Lebanese and (to a lesser extent Jordanians Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people closely related to their immediate neighbours like the Lebanese and (to a lesser extent Jordanians For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary This page lists prime ministers of Syria. Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Syria 1920 Rida Pasha al-Rikabi: March - May 1920 Muhammad Naji al-Otari ( محمد ناجي عطري also Etri, Itri and Otri) (born 1944 is the current prime minister of Syria Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 06|
|-||2007 estimate||19,405,000 (55th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2005 estimate|
|-||Total||$71. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 74 billion (65th)|
|-||Per capita||$5,348 (101st)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 724 (medium) (109th)|
|Currency||Syrian pound (|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|-||Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|1||The Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence (1936), not ratified by France. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Syrian pound ( Arabic: الليرة السورية al-līra as-sūriyya, French: livre syrienne) is the Currency of Syria ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Eastern European Time ( EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Eastern European Summer Time ( EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 Time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence was a treaty negotiated between France and Syria to provide for Syrian independence from French authority which had been|
Syria (Arabic: سوريا Sūriyā or سورية Sūriyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية ), is a country in Southwest Asia, bordering Lebanon, the Mediterranean Sea and the island of Cyprus to the west, Israel to the southwest, Jordan to the south, Iraq to the east, and Turkey to the north. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The modern state of Syria was formerly a French mandate and attained independence in 1946, but can trace its roots to the fourth millennium BC. The French Mandate of Syria was a League of Nations Mandate created after the First World War and the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Its capital city, Damascus, was the seat of the Umayyad Empire and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Empire. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria.
Since 1963 the country has been governed by the Baath Party; the head of state since 1970 has been a member of the Assad family. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Syria's current president is Bashar al-Assad, son of Hafez al-Assad, who held office from 1970 until his death in 2000. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد) ( October 6, 1930 &ndash June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three 
The name Syria derives from the ancient Greek name for Syrians, Σύριοι Syrioi, which the Greeks applied without distinction to various Assyrian people. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Modern scholarship confirms the Greek word traces back to the cognateἈσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur, 
The area designated by the word has changed over time. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Assur also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was one of the capitals of ancient Assyria. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Arabia to the south and Cilicia to the north, stretching inland to include Mesopotamia, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene, "formerly known as Assyria". This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author For the kingdom please see Kingdom of Commagene. Commagene or Kommagene ( Greek: Kομμαγηνή, Kommagênê Կոմմագենէ For the kingdom please see Kingdom of Sophene. Sophene (Ծոփք - Tsopk) was a province of the Armenian Kingdom and of the Roman Empire Adiabene (from the Αδιαβηνή Adiabene, itself derived from Aramaic syr ܚܕܝܐܒ Ḥaḏy’aḇ or Ḥḏay’aḇ) was  By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern day Palestine and Israel, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest, Phoenicia corresponding to Lebanon, with Damascena to the inland side of Phoenicia, Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Mesopotamia. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Kingdom of Judea redirects here For the 10th-6th century BCE kingdom see Kingdom of Judah Iudaea ( Hebrew: יהודה Standard Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Coele-Syria, meaning 'hollow' Syria was the region of southern Syria disputed between the Seleucid dynasty and the Ptolemaic dynasty. An Nahr al Kabir ( Arabic: the great river, النهر الكبير) is a River in the Middle East flowing into the Mediterranean
Around the excavated city of Ebla in northern Syria, discovered in 1975, a great Semitic empire spread from the Red Sea north to Turkey and east to Mesopotamia from 2500 to 2400 B. History of Bahrein, AND COMPARE THE TRUE IMPORTANCE OF THE TWO STATES Ebla ( Arabic: عبيل، إيبلا modern Tell Mardikh, Syria) was an ancient city about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. Eblaite (also known as Eblan 639-3 is an extinct perhaps East Semitic language, which was spoken in the 3rd millennium BCE in the ancient city of Ebla Ebla ( Arabic: عبيل، إيبلا modern Tell Mardikh, Syria) was an ancient city about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding C. Ebla appears to have been founded around 3000 BC, and gradually built its empire through trade with the cities of Sumer and Akkad, as well as with peoples to the northwest. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar  Gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Ebla's contact with Egypt. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be among the oldest known written Semitic languages, designated as Paleo-Canaanite. The Semitic languages are a Language family whose living representatives are spoken by more than 467 million people across much of the Middle East,  However, more recent classifications of the Eblaite language has shown that it was an East Semitic language, closely related to the Akkadian language. Eblaite (also known as Eblan 639-3 is an extinct perhaps East Semitic language, which was spoken in the 3rd millennium BCE in the ancient city of Ebla The East Semitic languages constitute one of the three major subdivisions of Semitic languages, the other being West Semitic and South Semitic.  The Eblan civilization was likely conquered by Sargon of Akkad around 2260 BC; the city was restored, as the nation of the Amorites, a few centuries later, and flourished through the early second millennium BC until conquered by the Hittites. You may be looking for the Assyrian kings Sargon I Amorite ( Sumerian MARTU, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm, Egyptian Amar, Hebrew ’emōrî The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established
During the second millennium BC, Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Arameans as part of the general disruptions and exchanges associated with the Sea Peoples. Canaanites redirects here For the 1940s social and political movement in Israel, see Canaanites (movement. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun The Aramaeans (also Arameans) ( Aramaic / Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ, Ārāmāye' were a Semitic (West Semitic language group The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political The Hebrews eventually settled south of Damascus, in the areas later known as Israel and Judah; the Phoenicians settled along the coast of Palestine, as well as in the west (Lebanon), which was already known for its towering cedars. The history of Ancient Israel and Judah is known to us from classical sources including Judaism 's Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Egyptians, Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians and Hittites variously occupied the strategic ground of Syria during this period; the land between their various empires being marsh. Sumer ( Sumerian: sux-Latn [[Ki (earth ki]]-[[EN (cuneiform en]]-'''ĝir15''', Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established Eventually, the Persians took Syria as part of their hegemony of Southwest Asia; this dominion was transferred to the Ancient Macedonians after Alexander the Great's conquests and, thence, to the Romans and the Byzantines. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Ancient Macedonians (Μακεδόνες Makedónes were an ancient tribe which inhabited the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axius, north Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC 
In the Roman period, the great city of Antioch (called the Athens of the East at that time) was the capital of Syria and one of the largest cities in the world, with a total estimated population of 500,000. Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also Antioch was one of the major centres of trade and industry in the ancient world. The population of Syria, during the Early Roman Empire, was only exceeded in the 19th century; this, along with its vast wealth, made Syria, in its heyday, one of the most important of the Roman provinces. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
In the 3rd century Syria was home to Elagabalus, a Roman emperor of the Severan dynasty who reigned from 218 to 222. Elagabalus (c 203 &ndash March 11 222) also known as Heliogabalus or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, was a Roman Emperor of the The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. Elagabalus's family held hereditary rights to the priesthood of the sun god El-Gabal, of whom Elagabalus was the high priest at Emesa (modern Homs) in Syria. Elagabalus was a Syro - Roman Sun god. Cult Elagabalus was initially venerated at Emesa in Syria. For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle" For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle"
Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Saul of Tarsus was converted on the Road to Damascus, thereafter being known as the Apostle Paul, and established the first organized Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys. The Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul is a feast celebrated during the Liturgical year on January 25, recounting the Conversion of Saul of Tarsus, who Antioch on the Orontes (Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη Antiochia ad Orontem also
In the 7th century, Syria was conquered by Muslims, resulting in the area becoming part of the Islamic empire. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. In the mid 7th century, the Umayyad dynasty, then rulers of the empire, placed the capital in Damascus. However, rival factions within the empire disputed the Umayyad right to rule, based on their place in the line of succession from Mohammad. This resulted in a civil war and their overthrow by the Abbasid dynasty, who moved the capital to Baghdad.
In the late 10th century the Byzantine Empire defeated the Arabs of Cilicia and conquered the city of Antioch and Aleppo in 969 AD. His successor, John Tzmiskes of the Byzantine Empire briefly occupied Damascus as Imperial armies marched south. Nonetheless, Byzantine rule in Syria would end when the Seljuk Turks consolidated their hold in the region in the late 11th century.
Sections of the coastline of Syria were briefly held by Frankish overlords during the Crusades of the 12th century, and were known as the Crusader state of the Principality of Antioch. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the Crusader states created during the First Crusade The area was also threatened by Shiite extremists known as Assassins (Hashshashin). The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia In 1260, the Mongols arrived, led by Hulegu with an army 100,000 strong, destroying cities and irrigation works. This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Aleppo fell in January 1260, and Damascus in March, but then Hulegu needed to break off his attack to return to China to deal with a succession dispute. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The command of the remaining Mongol troops was placed under Kitbugha, a Christian Mongol. Kitbuqa Noyan (d 1260 ( Turkic: Kitbuga, Mongolian: Хитбух) was a Christian Turk belonging to the tribe of A few months later, the Mamluks arrived with an army from Egypt, and defeated the Mongols in the Battle of Ayn Jalut, in Galilee. The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between "Galil" redirects here For the weapon see IMI Galil. Galilee (הגליל ha-Galil, lit the province, The Mamluk leader, Baybars, made his capitals in Cairo and Damascus, linked by a mail service that traveled by both horses and carrier pigeons. Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. When Baybars died, his successor was overthrown, and power was taken by a Turk named Qalawun. Saif al-Din Qalawun Al-Salihi (also Qala'un or Kalavun) (قلاوون الصالحي ( epithet al-Malik al-Mansour Saif al-Din Qalawun al-Alfi In the meantime, an emir named Sunqur al-Ashqar had tried to declare himself ruler of Damascus, but he was defeated by Qalawun on June 21, 1280, and fled to northern Syria. Al-Ashqar, who had married a Mongol woman, appealed for help from the Mongols, and in 1281, they arrived with an army of 50,000 Mongols, and 30,000 Armenian, Georgian, and Turkish auxiliaries, along with Al-Ashqar's rebel force. The Mongols of the Ilkhanate took the city, but Qalawun arrived with a Mamluk force, persuaded Al-Ashqar to switch sides and join him, and they fought against the Mongols on October 29, 1281, in the Battle of Homs, a close battle which resulted in the death of the majority of the combatants, but was finally won by the Mamluks. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in 
In 1400, Timur Lenk, or Tamerlane, invaded Syria, sacked Aleppo and captured Damascus after defeating the Mamluk army. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand. Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of  It was during the conquests of Timur that the indigenous Christian population of Syria began to suffer under greater persecutions.
By the end of the 15th century, the discovery of a sea route from Europe to the Far East ended the need for an overland trade route through Syria. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Shattered by the Mongols, Syria was easily absorbed into the Ottoman Empire from the 16th through 20th centuries, and found itself largely apart from, and ignored by, world affairs. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish see also Ottoman Syria
Fighting on the side of Germany during World War I, plans by the Entente powers to dissolve this great Ottoman territory could now begin. Ottoman Syria refers to the Levant within the Ottoman Empire from 1516 to 1918 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Two allied diplomats (Frenchman François Georges-Picot and Briton Mark Sykes) secretly agreed, long before the end of the war, how to split the Ottoman Empire into several zones of influence. François Marie Denis Georges-Picot ( Paris, 21 December 1870 &ndash Paris, 20 June 1951) son of Historian The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 set the fate of modern Southwest Asia for the coming century; providing France with the northern zone (Syria, with later the upcoming Lebanon), and the United Kingdom with the southern one (Jordan, Iraq and later, after renegotiations in 1917, Palestine - 'to secure daily transportation of troops from Haifa to Baghdad' - agreement n° 7). Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Haifa (חֵיפָה; حَيْفَا) is the largest City in Northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country with Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The two territories were only separated with a straight border line from Jordan to Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. But early discoveries of oil in the region of Mosul just before to end of the war led to yet another negotiation with France in 1918 to cede this region to 'Zone B', or the British zone of influence. An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is For the village in Azerbaijan see Mosul Azerbaijan. Mosul (الموصل Al Mūṣul, Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa, Musul The borders between the 'Zone A' and 'Zone B' have not changed from 1918 to this date. In 1920, the two sides have been recognized internationally under mandate of the League of Nations by the two dominant countries; France and the United Kingdom. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
In 1920, an independent Arab Kingdom of Syria was established under Faisal I of the Hashemite family, who later became the King of Iraq. Faisal bin Al Hussein Bin Ali El-Hashemi, GCB, GCMG ( فيصل بن حسين Fayṣal ibn Ḥusayn; 20 May 1883 &ndash September 8 Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. However, his rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the clash between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces at the Battle of Maysalun. The Battle of Maysalun, also called The Battle of Maysalun Pass, took place between Syrian and French forces about 12 miles west of Damascus French troops occupied Syria later that year after the League of Nations put Syria under French mandate. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Syria and France negotiated a treaty of independence in September of 1936, and Hashim al-Atassi, who was Prime Minister under King Faisal's brief reign, was the first president to be elected under a new constitution, effectively the first incarnation of the modern republic of Syria. The Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence was a treaty negotiated between France and Syria to provide for Syrian independence from French authority which had been Hashim Bay Khalid al- Atassi ( 1875 - December 5, 1960) ( هاشم الأتاسي was a Syrian nationalist, statesman and its President However, the treaty never came into force because the French Legislature refused to ratify it. With the fall of France in 1940 during World War II, Syria came under the control of the Vichy Government until the British and Free French occupied the country in July 1941. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Syria-Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the Allied invasion of Vichy French -controlled Syria and Lebanon Syria proclaimed its independence again in 1941 but it wasn't until January 1, 1944 that it was recognised as an independent republic. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalist groups and British pressure forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate. 
Although rapid economic development followed the declaration of independence, Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s were marked by upheaval. Between 1946 and 1956, Syria had 20 different cabinets and drafted four separate constitutions. In 1948, Syria was involved in the Arab-Israeli War, intervening on the side of the Palestinians and attempting to prevent the establishment of Israel. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Syrian army was pressed out of most of the Israel area, but fortified their strongholds on the Golan Heights and managed to keep their old borders and some additional territory (this was converted into demilitarized zones under UN supervision, but then gradually seized by Israel in the inter-war years; the status of these territories have proved a stumbling-block for Syrian-Israeli negotiations). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous However, the economy was strained by the influx of more than 100,000 Palestinian refugees.
The humiliating defeat suffered by the army was one of several trigger factors for Col. Husni al-Za'im's seizure of power in 1949, in what has been described as the first military coup d'état of the Arab world. Colonel ( RP ˈkɜnəl GA ˈkɜrnəl is a Military rank of a Commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every country Husni al-Za'im (1897 - 1949 (حسني الزعيم was a Syrian military man and politician This was soon followed by a new coup, by Col. Sami al-Hinnawi, who was then himself quickly deposed by Col. Colonel Sami Hilmy al-Hinnawi (1898 - 1950 ( Arabic: محمد سامي حلمي الحناوي was a Syrian politician and military man Adib Shishakli, all within the same year. Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli born 1909 in Hamah Syria died Sept 27 1964 in Ceres Brazil assassinated After exercising influence behind the scenes for some time, dominating the ravaged parliamentary scene, Shishakli launched a second coup in 1951, entrenching his rule and eventually abolishing multipartyism altogether. Only when president Shishakli was himself overthrown in a 1954 coup, was the parliamentary system restored, but it was fundamentally undermined by continued political maneuvering supported by competing factions in the military. By this time, civilian politics had been largely gutted of meaning, and power was increasingly concentrated in the military and security establishment, which had now proven itself to be the only force capable of seizing and -- perhaps -- keeping power. Parliamentary institutions remained weak and ineffectual, dominated by competing parties representing the landowning elites and various Sunni urban notables, while economy and politics were mismanaged, and little done to better the role of Syria's peasant majority. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic This, as well as the influence of Nasserism and other anti-colonial ideologies, created fertile ground for various Arab nationalist, Syrian nationalist and socialist movements, who represented disaffected elements of society, notably including the religious minorities, and demanded radical reform. Nasserism is an Arab nationalist Political ideology based on the thinking of the former Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. Arab nationalism ( Arabic: القومية العربية is a Nationalist ideology which rose to prominence amongst Arabs from the early 20th century onwards Syrian nationalism refers to the Nationalism of Syria, as a cultural or political entity
During the Suez Crisis of 1956, after the invasion of the Sinai Peninsula by Israeli troops, and the intervention of British and French troops, martial law was declared in Syria. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice The November 1956 attacks on Iraqi pipelines were in retaliation for Iraq's acceptance into the Baghdad Pact. The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad In early 1957 Iraq advised Egypt and Syria against a conceivable takeover of Jordan. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
In November 1956 Syria signed a pact with the Soviet Union, providing a foothold for Communist influence within the government in exchange for planes, tanks, and other military equipment being sent to Syria. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based With this increase in the strength of Syrian military technology worried Turkey, as it seemed feasible that Syria might attempt to retake Iskenderun, a matter of dispute between Syria and Turkey. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches İskenderun, also Iskenderon (formerly in Greek Ἀλεξανδρέττα Alexandretta; in Arabic الإسكندرون al-ʼIskandarūn On the other hand, Syria and the U.S.S.R. accused Turkey of massing its troops at the Syrian border. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 During this standoff, Communists gained more control over the Syrian government and military. Only heated debates in the United Nations (of which Syria was an original member) lessened the threat of war.
Syria's political instability during the years after the 1954 coup, the parallelism of Syrian and Egyptian policies, and the appeal of Egyptian President Gamal Abdal Nasser's leadership in the wake of the Suez crisis created support in Syria for union with Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President On February 1, 1958, Syrian president Shukri al-Quwatli and Nasser announced the merging of the two countries, creating the United Arab Republic, and all Syrian political parties, as well as the Communists therein, ceased overt activities. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shukri al-Quwatli (1891 Damascus, Syria &mdash June 30, 1967, Beirut, Lebanon) ( Arabic: شكري القوتلي was The United Arab Republic ( الجمهورية العربية المتحدة al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah / al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah 
The union was not a success, however. Following a military coup on September 28, 1961, Syria seceded, reestablishing itself as the Syrian Arab Republic. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Instability characterised the next 18 months, with various coups culminating on March 8, 1963, in the installation by leftist Syrian Army officers of the National Council of the Revolutionary Command (NCRC), a group of military and civilian officials who assumed control of all executive and legislative authority. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Resurrection Party (Baath Party), which had been active in Syria and other Arab countries since the late 1940s. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus The new cabinet was dominated by Baath members. 
The Baath takeover in Syria followed a Baath coup in Iraq the previous month. The new Syrian Government explored the possibility of federation with Egypt and with Baath-controlled Iraq. An agreement was concluded in Cairo on April 17, 1963, for a referendum on unity to be held in September 1963. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However, serious disagreements among the parties soon developed, and the tripartite federation failed to materialize. Thereafter, the Baath regimes in Syria and Iraq began to work for bilateral unity. These plans foundered in November 1963, when the Baath regime in Iraq was overthrown. In May 1964, President Amin Hafiz of the NCRC promulgated a provisional constitution providing for a National Council of the Revolution (NCR), an appointed legislature composed of representatives of mass organizations—labour, peasant, and professional unions—a presidential council, in which executive power was vested, and a cabinet. Gen Amin al-Hafiz (or Hafez; born 1911 (أمين الحافظ was a Syrian politician military officer and a member of the Ba'th Party. On February 23, 1966, a group of army officers carried out a successful, intra-party coup, imprisoned President Hafiz, dissolved the cabinet and the NCR, abrogated the provisional constitution, and designated a regionalist, civilian Baath government on March 1. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant The coup leaders described it as a "rectification" of Baath Party principles.
The new government generally aligned itself with the hawkish Nasser in intra-Arab conflicts over how hard of a line to take against Israel. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt When Nasser closed the Gulf of Aqaba to Eilat-bound ships, the Baath regime supported the Egyptian leader, amassed troops in the strategic Golan Heights, and joined the clamor for the elimination of the Jewish state. The Gulf of Aqaba ( Arabic: خليج العقبة transliterated: Khalyj al-'Aqabah in Israel known as the Gulf of Eilat ( Hebrew Eilat (Hebrew אילת should not be confused with the nearby kibbutz of Eilot (Hebrew אילות Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous Despite these aggressive moves, the Syrian regime was largely inactive when Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egypt to begin the June 1967 war. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt In the final days of the war, after having captured the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, as well as the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, Israel turned its attention to Syria. The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria East Jerusalem refers to the part of Jerusalem captured by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and subsequently by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. With a U. N. mandated cease-fire fast approaching, Israel invaded and captured the entire Golan Heights in under 48 hours. The war was widely viewed as a humiliating defeat for the radical socialist regime established by the 1966 coup.
Conflict developed between an extremist military wing and a more moderate civilian wing of the Baath Party. The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this political disagreement within the ruling Baath leadership. The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary September 1970 is known as the Black September ( in Arab history and sometimes is referred to as the "era of regrettable events Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern By November 13, 1970, Minister of Defense Hafez al-Assad was solidly established as the strongman of the regime, when he effected a bloodless military coup ("The Corrective Movement") which ousted his rival, Salah Jadid. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد) ( October 6, 1930 &ndash June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three The Corrective Revolution (الثورة التصحيحية is an expression used by some self-described Revolutionary governments to describe an internal political or bureaucratic Salah Jadid (1926? &mdash August 19, 1993, Arabic: صلاح جديد was a Syrian General and Political figure in the
Upon assuming power, Hafez al-Assad moved quickly to create an organizational infrastructure for his government and to consolidate control. Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد) ( October 6, 1930 &ndash June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three The Provisional Regional Command of Assad's Arab Baath Socialist Party nominated a 173-member legislature, the People's Council, in which the Baath Party took 87 seats. The remaining seats were divided among "popular organizations" and other minor parties. In March 1971, the party held its regional congress and elected a new 21-member Regional Command headed by Assad. In the same month, a national referendum was held to confirm Assad as President for a 7-year term. In March 1972, to broaden the base of his government, Assad formed the National Progressive Front, a coalition of parties led by the Baath Party, and elections were held to establish local councils in each of Syria's 14 governorates. In March 1973, a new Syrian constitution went into effect followed shortly thereafter by parliamentary elections for the People's Council, the first such elections since 1962. 
On October 6 1973, Syria and Egypt began the Yom Kippur War by staging a surprise attack against Israel (Arabs call it the "Ramadan War" or "October War" because Syria and Egypt attacked during Ramadan in the month of October). The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Ramadan or Ramazan ( Arabic: رمضان Ramaḍān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic But despite the element of surprise, the war was undecided , and Israel continued to occupy the Golan Heights as part of the Israeli-occupied territories. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous The are the territories captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967 consisting of the West In early 1976, the Lebanese civil war was going poorly for the Maronite Christians. The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac Syria sent 40,000 troops into the country to prevent them from being overrun, but soon became embroiled in the Lebanese Civil War, beginning the 30 year Syrian occupation of Lebanon. The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (sometimes called the Syrian military presence in Lebanon) is the period 1976-2005 when Syria had a military presence in and Many crimes in Lebanon were associated to the Syrians forces and intelligences: Kamal Jumblat, Bachir Gemayel, Moufti Hassan Khaled, Rene Mouawad,. . . Over the following 15 years of civil war, Syria fought both for control over Lebanon, and as an attempt to undermine Israel in southern Lebanon, through extensive use of Lebanese allies as proxy fighters. Many see the Syrian Army's presence in Lebanon as an occupation, especially following the end of the civil war in 1990, after the Syrian-sponsored Taif Agreement. The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces comprising some 400000 troops upon mobilization Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The Taif Agreement ( Arabic: اتفاقية الطائف) (also "National Reconciliation Accord" or "Document of National Accord" was an agreement Syria then remained in Lebanon until 2005, exerting a heavy-handed influence over Lebanese politics, that was deeply resented by many. .
About one million Syrian workers came into Lebanon after the war ended to find jobs in the reconstruction of the country. Syrian workers were preferred over Palestinian and Lebanese workers because they could be paid lower wages, but some have argued that the Syrian government's encouragement of citizens entering its small and militarily dominated neighbour in search of work, was in fact an attempt at Syrian colonization of Lebanon. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area Now, the economies of Syria and Lebanon are completely interdependent. In 1994, under pressure from Damascus, the Lebanese government controversially granted citizenship to over 200,000 Syrian residents in the country. (For more on these issues, see Demographics of Lebanon)
The authoritarian regime was not without its critics, though most were quickly murdered. About 91% of the population of Lebanon is urban and comprises many different ethnic groups and religions including numerous Christian and Muslim sects A serious challenge arose in the late 1970s, however, from fundamentalist Sunni Muslims, who reject the basic values of the secular Baath program and object to rule by the Alawis, whom they consider heretical. From 1976 until its suppression in 1982, the arch-conservative Muslim Brotherhood led an armed insurgency against the regime. The Muslim Brothers ( Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان In response to an attempted uprising by the brotherhood in February 1982, the government crushed the fundamentalist opposition centered in the city of Hama, leveling parts of the city with artillery fire and causing between 10. The Hama massacre ( مجزرة حماة) occurred on February 2, 1982 when the Syrian army bombarded the town of Hama in order 000 and 25. 000 of dead and wounded. Since then, public manifestations of anti-regime activity have been very limited. 
Syria's 1990 participation in the U. S. -led multinational coalition aligned against Saddam Hussein marked a dramatic watershed in Syria's relations both with other Arab states and with the Western world. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Syria participated in the multilateral Southwest Asia Peace Conference in Madrid in October 1991, and during the 1990s engaged in direct, face-to-face negotiations with Israel. The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. These negotiations failed, and there have been no further Syrian-Israeli talks since President Hafiz al-Assad's meeting with then President Bill Clinton in Geneva in March 2000. Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد) ( October 6, 1930 &ndash June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking
Hafiz al-Assad died on June 10, 2000, after 30 years in power. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Immediately following al-Assad's death, the Parliament amended the constitution, reducing the mandatory minimum age of the President from 40 to 34. This allowed his son, Bashar al-Assad, to become legally eligible for nomination by the ruling Baath party. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary On July 10, 2000, Bashar al-Assad was elected President by referendum in which he ran unopposed, garnering 97. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. 29% of the vote, according to Syrian Government statistics. He was inaugurated into office on July 17, 2000 for a 7-year term. 
On October 5, 2003, Israel bombed a site near Damascus, charging it was a terrorist training facility for members of Islamic Jihad. Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين - Harakat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn The raid was in retaliation for the bombing of a restaurant in the Israeli town of Haifa that killed 19. Haifa (חֵיפָה; حَيْفَا) is the largest City in Northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country with Islamic Jihad said the camp was not in use; Syria said the attack was on a civilian area.
The German Chancellor said that the attack "cannot be accepted" and the French Foreign Ministry said "The Israeli operation… constituted an unacceptable violation of international law and sovereignty rules. " The Spanish UN Ambassador Inocencio Arias called it an attack of "extreme gravity" and "a clear violation of international law. Inocencio F Arias, also known as Chencho (born April 20 1940 in Albox, Almería province) is a multifarious Spanish " However, the United States moved closer to imposing sanctions on Syria, following the adoption of the Syria Accountability Act by the House of Representatives International Relations committee.  Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Hezbollah, all included in what the EU and the U. Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة S view as terrorist groups, all take refuge and enjoy strong relationships with the Syrian regime.
Syrian Kurds protest in Brussels, Geneva, in Germany at the US and UK embassies and in Turkey, against violence in north-east Syria starting Friday, March 12, and reportedly extending over the weekend resulting in several deaths, according to reports. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving The Kurds allege the Syrian government encouraged and armed the attackers. Signs of rioting was seen in the towns of Qameshli and Hassakeh.
On September 6, 2007, Israeli jet fighters carried out an air strike in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate, known as Operation Orchard, on a target claimed to be a nuclear reactor under construction by North Korean technicians. Events 3114 BC - According to the Proleptic Julian calendar the current era in the Maya Long Count Calendar started Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. An airstrike is a Military strike by Air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Operation Orchard was an Israeli Airstrike on a target in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria carried out just after midnight on September 6 This article is a subarticle of Nuclear power. A nuclear reactor is a device in which Nuclear chain reactions are initiated controlled North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Reportedly a number of the technicians were killed. 
In April, 2008, President Assad told a Qatari newspaper that Syria and Israel had been discussing a peace treaty for a year, with Turkey as a go-between. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary Qatar ( قطر; ˈqɑtˁɑr local pronunciation giṭar officially the State of Qatar (Arabic دولة قطر transliterated Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This was confirmed in May, 2008, by a spokesman for Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. Ehud Olmert (אהוד אולמרט ɛˈhud ˈolmeʁt born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel and the former leader As well as a peace treaty, the future of the Golan Heights is being discussed. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous President Assad was quoted in the The Guardian as telling the Qatari paper:
Syria has fourteen governorates, or muhafazat (singular: muhafazah). Syria has fourteen Governorates or muhafazat (singular Muhafazah) The 14 Governorates or muhafazat (sing Muhafazah) of Syria are divided into sixty Districts or manatiq (sing Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Quneitra Governorate (مُحافظة القنيطرة is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Daraa Governorate (مُحافظة درعةis one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. As Suwayda (also Sweida)(السويداء is one of Syria 's 14 Governorates. Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Tartus Governorate ( Arabic: مُحافظة طرطوس is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Hama Governorate ( Arabic: مُحافظة حماه is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب is one of the fourteen governorates ( Provinces of Syria. Aleppo Governorate ( Arabic: مُحافظة حَلَب is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Ar Raqqah Governorate (مُحافظة الرقة is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. The Al Hasakah Governorate ( Arabic: مُحافظة الحسكة Aramaic: Gozarto is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria A Governorate is an Administrative division of a country It is headed by a Governor. The Arabic word muhafazah (محافظة muḥāfaẓä plural محافظات muhafazat) is usually translated to Governorate in English occasionally to The governorates are divided into sixty districts, or manatiq (sing. mintaqah), which are further divided into sub-districts, or nawahi (sing. nahia).
A governor, whose appointment is proposed by the minister of the interior, approved by the cabinet, and announced by executive decree, heads each governorate. The governor is assisted by an elected provincial council. Note that parts that used to be under the Quneitra governorate are under Israeli control since 1967 (see Golan Heights). Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous
Al-Hasakah - Deir ez-Zor - Ar-Raqqah - Idlib - Daraa - As-Suwayda - Tartus. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Hama (ancient Hamath; Arabic: حماة meaning fortress is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria north of For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle" Latakia or Latakiyah (اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Λαοδικεία transliterated as Laodicea, Laodikeia or Laodiceia, Al-Hasakah ( الحسكة) is the capital city of the Al Hasakah Governorate and is located in the far north-east corner of Syria. Deir ez Zor, also spelled Dayr az-Zawr, Deir al-Zur and other variants (دير الزور Armenian: Տէր Զօր or Der Zor) is a city in Ar-Raqqah ( الرقة, also spelled Rakka) is a city in north central Syria located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km Idlib (ادلب is a City in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate. Daraa (درعا also Dera ("fortress" compare Dura-Europos) is a city in southwestern Syria Suada redirects here For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Suada (butterfly. Tartus ( طرطوس, also transliterated Tartous) is a city in Syria, the capital of Tartus Governorate.
al-Haffeh - Al Qamishli - Nawa - Ar-Rastan - Masyaf - Safita - Jableh - Ath-Thawrah - Duma - Baniyas - An-Nabk- Qusair - Maaloula - Zabadani - Bosra - Jaramana - At-Tall - Salamieh- Kharbah gazala- Saidnaya. Qamishli ( Arabic: القامشلي, Syriac: ܩܡܫܠܝ ܩܡܫܠܐ or Beth-Zalin ܒܝܬ ܙܠܝܢ Kurdish: Qamişlo Ar-Rastan or Al-Rastan ( الرستن) is a one of the biggest cites of the Homs Governorate and is situated 20 kilometers north of the capital city Masyaf ( Arabic مصياف is a city in Syria,in the Hama Governorate, notable for its large medieval castle Safita ( صا فيتا,) is a city in north-western Syria, located to the southeast of Tartous and to the northwest of Krak des Chevaliers Jableh (also spelt Jebleh, Jabala, Jablah and Gabala; Arabic: جبلة is a coastal city on the Mediterranean in Syria Ath Thawrah ( الثورة) is a Syrian city in Ar-Raqqah Governorate, and is located about 55km west of its capital city Ar-Raqqah. Duma ( دوما,) is a Syrian City administratively belonging to Rif Dimashq and the Duma District. Baniyas (بانياس is a city of northwestern Syria, located at the foot of the hill of Qalcat el-Marquab 55 km to the south of Latakia (ancient Laodicea An-Nabk ( النبك, also transliterated al-Nabk) is a Syrian City administratively belonging to Rif Dimashq and the capital Al Qusayr Syria or Al-Qusayr ( القصير) is a Syrian City administratively belonging Ma'loula ( معلولا, Ma‘lūlā, from the Aramaic word ܡܥܠܐ, ma‘lā, meaning 'entrance' is a Aramean-Syriac Zabadani (الزبداني is a city in southwestern Syria in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, close to the border with Lebanon. Bosra ( بصرى, also Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra, Busra Eski Şam, Busra ash-Sham, Nova Trajana Jaramana ( جرمانا) is a city in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in southern Syria. At-Tall (التل is the Syrian Capital city of the At-Tall District, which administratively belongs to Rif Dimashq. Salamieh ( سلمية) is a city in western Syria, close to Hama. Saidnaya (also transliterated Saydnaya or Sednaya from the صيدنايا) is a city located in the mountains 1500 metres (0
Kafr Buhum - Albaida - Marmarita - Mashta Al helou - Rhablee - Sirghaya - Fairouzeh - Zaidal - Jaibool - Qunaya - al-Hwash - Oum Walad - Yabroud. Kafr Buhum ( كفربهم, Syriac: ܟܟܦܪ ܒܚܡ,) is a big town located in the middle of Syria and administratively belonging to the Albaida ( Arabic: البيضة) is a small village in Syria. It is located 95 km Southeast of the port city of Latakia, 2 km south of Marmarita ( مرمريتا, Syriac: ܡܪܡܪܝܬܐ,) is a Village located in Western Syria close to the Governorate Mashta Al Helou ( مشتى الحلو, also known as Mashta Al Hulw or Mashta Al Helo) is a nice picturesque village amid Helou Mountain Geography It is 60 km from Damascus and 1446 m above sea level Fairouzeh (Arabic فيروزه is a village near the city of Homs, Syria. Qunaya or Al-Qunaya ( القنية, Syriac: ܟ,) is a Syrian village located in northwestern Syria in the Levant
Syria consists mostly of arid plateau, although the northwest part of the country bordering the Mediterranean is fairly green. Geographical regions The area includes about 185180 square kilometers of deserts plains and mountains The Northeast of the country "Al Jazira" and the South "Hawran" are important agricultural areas. The Euphrates, Syria's most important river, crosses the country in the east. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת It is considered to be one of the fifteen states that comprise the so-called "Cradle of Civilization". The cradle of civilization is any of the possible locations for the emergence of Civilization.
Major cities include the capital Damascus in the southwest, Aleppo in the north, and Homs. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. For military actions near the city see Battle of Homs. Homs ( حمص,, anciently called Emesa (ἡ Ἔμεσα or "La Chamelle" Most of the other important cities are located along the coast line (see List of cities in Syria). Syria has fourteen Governorates or muhafazat (singular Muhafazah)
The climate in Syria is dry and hot, and winters are mild. Because of the country's elevation, snowfall does occasionally occur during winter. Petroleum in commercial quantities was first discovered in the northeast in 1956. The most important oil fields are those of Suwaydiyah, Qaratshui, Rumayian, and Tayyem, near Dayr az–Zawr. The fields are a natural extension of the Iraqi fields of Mosul and Kirkuk. Petroleum became Syria's leading natural resource and chief export after 1974. Natural gas was discovered at the field of Jbessa in 1940.
Most people live in the Euphrates River valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert. Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people closely related to their immediate neighbours like the Lebanese and (to a lesser extent Jordanians The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת Overall population density in Syria is about 258 per square mile (99/km²). Education is free and compulsory from ages 6 to 11. Schooling consists of 6 years of primary education followed by a 3-year general or vocational training period and a 3-year academic or vocational program. Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. A vocation is an occupation for which a person is suited trained or qualified The second 3-year period of academic training is required for university admission. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Total enrollment at post-secondary schools is over 150,000. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is 86% for males and 73. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, 6% for females.
Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people, closely related to their immediate neighbours, like the Palestinians, Lebanese and Jordanians. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern  While modern-day Syrians are commonly described as Arabs by virtue of their modern-day language and bonds to Arab culture and history — they are in fact largely a blend of the various Christian Aramaic speaking groups indigenous to the region who were Arabized when Muslim Arabs from South Arabia arrived and settled following the Arab expansion. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Aramaic is a Semitic language with Arabization ( Arabic: تعريب) describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The initial Arab Muslim conquests (632–732 (فتح Fatah, literally opening, also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab
Syrians have also migrated heavily to the Americas, most notably to Brazil and Argentina. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. 
Syria's population is approximately 90% Muslim and 10% Christian, though due to the high stream of refugees from Iraq the percentage of Christians has risen to slightly less than 12% (Muslim refugees are numerous as well). A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Among Muslims, 74% are from the Sunni; branch, and are ethnic Arabs, Turks, Kurds, while the rest are divided among other Muslim sects, mainly Alawis (accounting for 10% of the total population) and Druze (6%). Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see Alawi (sheikhdom The Alawites The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon There is also a small number of non-Druze Isma'ili and Twelver Shi'a, whose numbers have increased dramatically due to the influx of Iraqi refugees, and are now 10% of the population. For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون See also Shi'a Islam Twelver Shi'ism ( ar اثنا عشرية Ithnāˤashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shi'a branch of Islam For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race
Christians, a sizable number of which are also found among Syrian Palestinians, are divided into several groups. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox ("Greek Orthodox"; Arabic: الروم الارثوذكس, ar-Rūmu 'l-Urṯūḏuks) make up 50–55% of the Christian population; the Catholics (Melkite, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Maronite, Chaldean and Latin) make up 18%; the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Nestorian Assyrians and several smaller Christian denominations account for the remainder. The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox Patriarchate Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Meaning of church name Melkite comes from the Syriac word malko for "imperial" which was originally a Pejorative term for Middle-Eastern (Refer to List of Armenian Catholic Patriarchs of Cilicia) The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church Sui juris within The Syriac Catholic Church, or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac The Chaldean Catholic Church or the Chaldean Church of Babylon (الكنيسة الكلدانية) is an Eastern particular church of the The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church. The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite although it originated in Edessa. A lot of christian monasteries also exist. Catholic Catholic St Thomas Roman Monastery (Deir Mar Touma) Saidnaya. Many Christian Syrians belong to a high socio-economic class. .
Syria also has a tiny population of Jews, confined mainly to Damascus, a remnant of a formerly 40,000 strong community. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ After the 1947 UN Partition plan, pogroms against the Jews erupted in Damascus and Aleppo, and Jewish property was confiscated or burned. The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 was a plan approved by the General Assembly on November 29 When the State of Israel was established in 1948, many Syrian Jews sought refuge there. Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups those who inhabited Syria from early times and the Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from Of the remaining 5,000 Jews, 4,000 left in the 1990s, in the wake of an agreement with the United States. As of 2007, the Jewish community has dwindled to less than 70 Jews, most of them elderly. 
Arabic is the official and most widely spoken language. Kurdish is widely spoken in the Kurdish regions of Syria. The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. Many educated Syrians also speak English and French. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Armenian and Turkmen are spoken among the Armenian and Turkmen minorities. The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Turkmen ( Latin script: türkmen Cyrillic: түркмен ISO 639 -1 tk ISO 639-2 tuk is the name of the national language of Turkmenistan The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large This article is about the Turkmen people of Turkmenistan. For the distinct group of Turk peoples of Iraq see Iraqi Turkmen. Aramaic, the lingua franca of the region before the advent of Islam and Arabic, is spoken among certain ethnic groups: as Syriac, it is used as the liturgical language of various Syriac denominations; modern Aramaic (particularly, Turoyo language and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) is spoken in Al-Jazira region. Aramaic is a Semitic language with A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language See Syriac (disambiguation for other uses Syriac (syr ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ leššānā Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. For other uses see the disambiguation Jazira. Al-Jazira ( Arabic, الجزيرة is the traditional Arabic name for the modern-day regions of northwestern Most remarkably, Western Neo-Aramaic is still spoken in the village of Ma`loula, and two neighbouring villages, 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Damascus. Western Neo-Aramaic is a Modern Aramaic language. Today it is spoken in three villages in the Anti-Lebanon mountains of western Syria. Ma'loula ( معلولا, Ma‘lūlā, from the Aramaic word ܡܥܠܐ, ma‘lā, meaning 'entrance' is a Aramean-Syriac Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria.
The educational system in Syria was based on the old French system. Despite being a low-income country with a growing population Syria has a good basic education system Education is free in all public schools and obligatory up to the 9th grade. Schools are divided into three levels:
Final exams of the 9th grade are carried out nationally at the same time. The result of these exams determines if the student goes to the "general" secondary schools or the technical secondary schools. Technical secondary schools include industrial and agricultural schools for male students, crafts school for female students, and commercial and computer science schools for both.
At the beginning of the 11th grade, those who go to "general" secondary school have to choose to continue their study in either the "literary branch" or the "scientific branch".
The final exams of the 12th grade (the baccalaureate) are also carried out nationally and at the same time. The result of these exams determines which university, college and specialization the student goes to. To do that the student has to apply through a complicated system called Mufadalah.
Colleges charge modest fees ($10–20 a year) if the student achieves the sufficient marks in his Baccalaureate exams. If not, the student may opt to pay higher fees ($1500–3000) to enroll. There are some private schools and colleges but their fees are much higher.
Most universities in Syria follow the French model of the high education, the university stages and the academic degrees are:
Since 1967, all schools, colleges, and universities have been under close government supervision by the Baath Party. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus 
Syria is a middle-income, developing country with an economy based on agriculture, oil, industry, and tourism. Syria is a middle-income developing country with a diversified economy based on Agriculture, Industry, and Energy. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties However, Syria's economy faces serious problems and challenges and impediments to growth, including: a large and poorly performing public sector; declining rates of oil production; widening non-oil deficit; wide scale corruption; weak financial and capital markets; and high rates of unemployment tied to a high population growth rate. 
As a result of an inefficient and corrupt centrally planned economy, Syria has low rates of investment, and low levels of industrial and agricultural productivity. Its GDP growth rate was approximately 2. 9% in 2005, according to IMF statistics. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The two main pillars of the Syrian economy have been agriculture and oil. Agriculture, for instance, accounts for 25% of GDP and employs 42% of the total labor force. The government hopes to attract new investment in the tourism, natural gas, and service sectors to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on oil and agriculture. The government has begun to institute economic reforms aimed at liberalizing most markets, but reform thus far has been slow and ad hoc. For ideological reasons, privatization of government enterprises is explicitly rejected. Therefore major sectors of the economy including refining, ports operation, air transportation, power generation, and water distribution, remain firmly controlled by the government. 
Syria has produced heavy-grade oil from fields located in the northeast since the late 1960s. In the early 1980s, light-grade, low-sulphur oil was discovered near Dayr al-Zur in eastern Syria. Syria's rate of oil production has been decreasing steadily, from a peak close to 600,000 barrels per day (95,000 m³/d) (bpd) in 1995 down to approximately 425,000 bbl/d (67,600 m³/d) in 2005. Experts generally agree that Syria will become a net importer of petroleum not later than 2012. Syria exported roughly 200,000 bbl/d (32,000 m³/d) in 2005, and oil still accounts for a majority of the country's export income. Syria also produces 22 million cubic meters of gas per day, with estimated reserves around 8. 5 trillion cubic feet (240 km³). While the government has begun to work with international energy companies in the hopes of eventually becoming a gas exporter, all gas currently produced is consumed domestically. 
Some basic commodities, such as diesel, continue to be heavily subsidized, and social services are provided for nominal charges. The subsidies are becoming harder to sustain as the gap between consumption and production continues to increase. Syria has a population of approximately 19 million people, and Syrian Government figures place the population growth rate at 2. 45%, with 75% of the population under the age of 35 and more than 40% under the age of 15. Approximately 200,000 people enter the labor market every year. According to Syrian Government statistics, the unemployment rate is 7. 5%, however, more accurate independent sources place it closer to 20%. Government and public sector employees constitute over one quarter of the total labor force and are paid very low salaries and wages. Government officials acknowledge that the economy is not growing at a pace sufficient to create enough new jobs annually to match population growth. The UNDP announced in 2005 that 30% of the Syrian population lives in poverty and 11. 4% live below the subsistence level. 
Given the policies adopted from the 1960s through the late 1980s, which included nationalization of companies and private assets, Syria failed to join an increasingly interconnected global economy. Syria withdrew from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1951 because of Israel's accession. The 'General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade' (typically abbreviated 'GATT' was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO It is not a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), although it submitted a request to begin the accession process in 2001. Syria is developing regional free trade agreements. As of January 1, 2005, the Greater Arab Free Trade Agreement (GAFTA) came into effect and customs duties were eliminated between Syria and all other members of GAFTA. In addition, Syria has signed a free trade agreement with Turkey, which came into force in January 2007, and initialed an Association Agreement with the European Union, which has yet to be signed. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Although Syria claims a recent boom in non-oil exports, its trade numbers are notoriously inaccurate and out-of-date. Syria's main exports include crude oil, refined products, raw cotton, clothing, fruits, and grains. The bulk of Syrian imports are raw materials essential for industry, vehicles, agricultural equipment, and heavy machinery. Earnings from oil exports as well as remittances from Syrian workers are the government's most important sources of foreign exchange. 
There is a deep rooted disagreement between Turkey and Syria over the Iskandaroun (Hatay) Province. Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast with Syria to the south and east Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
At present Syrians hold the view that this land was illegally ceded in the late 1930s to Turkey by France - the mandatory occupying power of Syria (between 1920 and 1946). Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Turks remember Syria as a former Ottoman Turkish vilayet with embitterment. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A wilāyah (ولاية or vilâyet (in Persian and Ottoman Turkish) is an administrative division usually Contemporary Syria and Syrians still consider this land as integral Syrian territory. Syrians call this land Liwaaa aliskenderuna rather than the Turkish name of Hatay.
The Golan Heights are located in the southwestern part of the Syrian Arab Republic. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous The region is 1,850 square kilometres (714 sq mi), and includes mountains reaching an altitude of 2,880 metres (9,449 ft) above sea level. The heights dominate the plains below. The Jordan River, Lake Tiberias and the Hula Valley border the region on the west. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Tiberias ( British English: /taɪˈbɪəriæs -əs/ American English: /taɪˈbɪriəs/ טְבֶרְיָה Tverya; طبرية Ṭabariyyah To the east is the Raqqad Valley and the south is Yarmok River and valley. The northern boundary of the region is the mountain Jabal al-Sheikh (Mount Hermon), one of the highest in the Southwest Asia. Mount Hermon ( הר חרמון Har Hermon, جبل الشيخجبل حرمون Jabal el-Shaiykh, Jabal Haramon Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. It is a rich agricultural area, traditionally farmed by an Arab society encompassing 108 private farms and 163 villages and towns. An agreement to establish a demilitarized zone between Israel and Syria was signed on July 20, 1949, but border clashes continued. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Syria used the Golan Heights to launch attacks on Israeli farmers and fishing boats, prompting retaliatory attacks by Israel. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous  Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria in the 1967 Six Day War. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Between 80,000 and 109,000 of the inhabitants - most of the population with the exception of Druze and Circassians - fled during the war. The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people In 1973, Syria tried to regain control of the Golan Heights in a surprise attack on Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish year. Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּפּוּר ˈjɔm kiˈpur also known in English as the Day of Atonement, is the most solemn and important of the Jewish holidays Its Despite initial Syrian advances and heavy Israeli losses, the Golan Heights remained in Israeli hands after a successful Israeli counter attack. Syria and Israel signed an armistice agreement in 1974, and a United Nations observer force was stationed there. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Israel unilaterally annexed the Golan Heights in 1981, although the Syrian government continues to demand the return of this territory, possibly in the context of a peace treaty. 
After the Six-Day War, a population of 20,000 Syrians remained in the Golan Heights, most of them Druze. Since 2005, Israel has allowed Druze apple farmers in the Golan to sell their produce to Syria. In 2006, the export total reached 8,000 tons of apples.  Syrian residents of the Golan are also permitted to study at universities in Syria, where they are entitled to free tuition, books and lodging. 
The scribes of the city of Ugarit created a cuneiform alphabet in the fourteenth century BCE. Ugarit ( Ugaritic: ʼugrt; Hebrew:; Arabic:) (modern Ras Shamra رأس شمرة ("top/head/cape of the wild Fennel The alphabet was written in the familiar order we use today.
Archaeologists have discovered extensive writings and evidence of a culture rivaling those of Mesopotamia and Egypt in and around the ancient city of Ebla. Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Ebla ( Arabic: عبيل، إيبلا modern Tell Mardikh, Syria) was an ancient city about 55 km southwest of Aleppo. Later Syrian scholars and artists contributed to Hellenistic and Roman thought and culture. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Cicero was a pupil of Antiochus of Ascalon at Athens; and the writings of Posidonius of Apamea influenced Livy and Plutarch. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Antiochus is the name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid Empire: Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Antiochus Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's Posidonius ( Greek: Ποσειδώνιος / Poseidonios "of Apameia " (ὁ Απαμεύς or "of Rhodes " (ὁ Ρόδιος (ca Titus Livius (traditionally 59 BC &ndash AD 17 known as Livy in English, was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c
Philip Hitti claimed, "the scholars consider Syria as the teacher for the human characteristics," and Andrea Parrout writes, "each civilized person in the world should admit that he has two home countries: the one he was born in, and Syria. Philip Khuri Hitti (1886 - 1978 born in Shimlan, Ottoman Syria (now Lebanon) was a scholar of Islam and introduced the field of Arab culture "
Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history. Importance is placed on family, religion, education and self discipline and respect. The Syrian's taste for the traditional arts is expressed in dances such as the al-Samah, the Dabkes in all their variations and the sword dance. Marriage ceremonies and the birth of children are occasions for the lively demonstration of folk customs.
Traditional Houses of the Old Cities in Damascus, Aleppo and the other Syrian cities are preserved and traditionally the living quarters are arranged around one or more courtyards, typically with a fountain in the middle supplied by spring water, and decorated with citrus trees, grape vines, and flowers.
Outside of larger city areas such as Damascus, Aleppo or Homs, residential areas are often clustered in smaller villages. The buildings themselves are often quite old (perhaps a few hundred years old), passed down to family members over several generations. Residential construction of rough concrete and blockwork is usually unpainted, and the palette of a Syrian village is therefore simple tones of greys and browns.
Syrians have contributed to Arabic literature and music and have a proud tradition of oral and written poetry. Arabic literature ( Arabic: الأدب العربي Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced both Prose and Poetry, by speakers Syrian writers, many of whom immigrated to Egypt, played a crucial role in the nahda or Arab literary and cultural revival of the nineteenth century. Several Arab political parties and movements have been named "al-Nahda" For the Tunisian political party see Renaissance Party; for the Prominent contemporary Syrian writers include, among others, Adonis, Muhammad Maghout, Haidar Haidar, Ghada al-Samman, Nizar Qabbani and Zakariyya Tamer. Ali Ahmad Said Asbar ( Arabic: علي أحمد سعيد إسبر; transliterated: alî ahmadi s-sacîdi l-'asbar or Ali Ahmad Sa'id Haidar Haidar (حيدر حيدر is a Syrian writer and Novelist. Ghada Nizar Tawfiq Qabbani ( نزار توفيق قباني,) ( 21 March 1923 &ndash 30 April 1998) was a Syrian diplomat Zakaria Tamer ( زكريا تامر) also transliterated Zakariya Tamir (strict transliteration) (born January 2, 1931 in
There was a private sector presence in the Syrian cinema industry until the end of the 1970s, but private investment has since preferred the more lucrative television serial business. Syrian soap operas, in a variety of styles (all melodramatic, however), have considerable market penetration throughout the eastern Arab world.
Although declining, Syria's world-famous handicraft industry still employs thousands.
Syrian food mostly consists of Southern Mediterranean, Greek, and Southwest Asian dishes. Some Syrian dishes also evolved from Turkish and French cooking. Dishes like shish kebab, stuffed zucchini, yabra' (stuffed grape leaves, the word yapra' derıves from the Turkish word 'yaprak' meaning leaf), shawarma, and falafel are very popular in Syria as the food there is diverse in taste and type. Kebab (also transliterated as kabab, kabob, kibob, kebhav, kephav) refers to a variety of meat dishes in Middle Eastern Dolma ( Greek:ντολμάς is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes in the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and surrounding regions including Turkey Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Shawarma (شاورما or שווארמה also spelled Chawarma, Schawarma, Shwarma, Shuarma, Shawerma, Shoarma, Falafel (فلافل; פלאפל also known in Egypt and Sudan as ta'meya Arabic طعمية is a fried ball or patty made from Spiced Fava Restaurants are usually open (food is served outdoors).
|International Flower Fair||Damascus||May|
|Syrian Song Festival||Aleppo||July|
|Vine Festival||As Suwayda||September|
|Damascus International Fair||Damascus||September|
|Festival of Love and Peace||Lattakia||2 - 12 August|
|Film and Theatre Festival||Damascus||November|
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