Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought. The term may refer to attempts to merge and analogize several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, and thus assert an underlying unity allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring Information from a particular subject (the analogue or source to another particular subject (the target and The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos
Syncretism also occurs commonly in literature, music, the representational arts and other expressions of culture. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Representation describes the signs that stand in for and take the place of something else Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic (Compare the concept of eclecticism. Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single Paradigm or set of assumptions but instead draws upon multiple theories styles or ideas to ) Syncretism may occur in architecture as well. There also exist syncretic politics, although in political classification the term has a somewhat different meaning. Syncretic politics involves taking political positions that attempt to reconcile seemingly opposed ideological systems usually by combining some elements associated with the
The Oxford English Dictionary first attests the word syncretism in English in 1618. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English It derives from modern Latin syncretismus, drawing on Greek συνκρητισμός (synkretismos), meaning "Synchronization with Crete. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly "
The Greek word occurs in Plutarch's (1st century AD) essay on "Fraternal Love" in his Moralia (2. Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. 490b). He cites the example of the Cretans, who reconciled their differences and came together in alliance when faced with external dangers. Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the "And that is their so-called Syncretism. "
Erasmus probably coined the modern usage of the Latin word (in his Adagia ("Adages"), published in the winter of 1517–1518) to designate the coherence of dissenters in spite of their differences in theological opinions. Adagia ( adagium is the singular form and adagia is the plural is an annotated collection of Greek and Latin Adages compiled The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, “to disagree” labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion belief etc In a letter to Melanchthon of April 22, 1519, Erasmus specifically adduced the Cretans of Plutarch as an example of his adage "Concord is a mighty rampart". Philipp Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerd) ( February 16, 1497 &ndash April 19, 1560) was a German professor and theologian
Overt syncretism in folk belief may show cultural acceptance of an alien or previous tradition, but the "other" cult may survive or infiltrate without authorized syncresis nevertheless. For example, some Conversos developed a sort of cult for martyr-victims of the Spanish Inquisition, thus incorporating elements of Catholicism while resisting it. Conversos ( Spanish and Portuguese for "a convert" from Latin conversus, "converted turned around" and its feminine form This article discusses cult in the original and typically ancient sense of "religious practice" (cultus The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described
Some religious movements have embraced overt syncretism, such as the case of the adoption of Shintō elements into Buddhism. is the native religion of Japan and was once its State religion. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Others have strongly rejected it as devaluing precious and genuine distinctions; examples of this include post-Exile Judaism and Islam. The Babylonian captivity, Babylonian exile, is the name typically given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
Syncretism tends to facilitate coexistence and constructive interaction between different cultures (intercultural competence), a factor that has recommended it to rulers of multi-ethnic realms. Intercultural competence is the ability of successful Communication with people of other Cultures This ability can exist in someone at a young age or may be developed An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Conversely the rejection of syncretism, usually in the name of "piety" and "orthodoxy," may help to generate, bolster or authorize a sense of cultural unity in a well-defined minority or majority. In spiritual terminology piety is a Virtue. While different people may understand its meaning differently it is generally used to refer either to religious devotion The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the 'experience' of the absence of egoic identity boundaries and according to some traditions the perception of an absolute
Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions. This can occur for many reasons, and the latter scenario happens quite commonly in areas where multiple religious traditions exist in proximity and function actively in the culture, or when a culture is conquered, and the conquerors bring their religious beliefs with them, but do not succeed in entirely eradicating the old beliefs or, especially, practices.
Religions may have syncretic elements to their beliefs or history, but adherents of so-labeled systems often frown on applying the label, especially adherents who belong to "revealed" religious systems, such as the Abrahamic religions, or any system that exhibits an exclusivist approach. Exclusivism is the practice of being Exclusive; Mentality characterized by the Disregard for Opinions and Ideas other than one's own Such adherents sometimes see syncretism as a betrayal of their pure truth. By this reasoning, adding an incompatible belief corrupts the original religion, rendering it no longer true. Indeed, critics of a specific syncretistic trend may sometimes use the word "syncretism" as a disparaging epithet, as a charge implying that those who seek to incorporate a new view, belief, or practice into a religious system actually distort the original faith. Non-exclusivist systems of belief, on the other hand, may feel quite free to incorporate other traditions into their own.
In modern secular society, religious innovators sometimes create new religions syncretically as a mechanism to reduce inter-religious tension and enmity, often with the effect of offending the original religions in question. Secularization or secularisation generally refers to the process of transformation by which a Society migrates from close identification with religious institutions Such religions, however, do maintain some appeal to a less exclusivist audience. Discussions of some of these blended religions appear in the individual sections below.
In one paper, the authors believe that every religion, including Christiantity, is the historical result of syncretism. 
Syncretism functioned as an essential feature of Ancient Greek religion. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Overall, Hellenistic culture in the age that followed Alexander the Great itself showed syncretist features, essentially blending of Persian, Anatolian, Egyptian (and eventually Etruscan-Roman) elements within an Hellenic formula. The Hellenistic period of European history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon in 323 BC and the annexation Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. The Egyptian god Amun developed as the Hellenized Zeus Ammon after Alexander the Great went into the desert to seek out Amun's oracle at Siwa. Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity Amun, reconstructed Egyptian Yamānu (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' An oracle is a person or agency considered to be a source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion an Infallible authority usually spiritual in nature
Such identifications derive from interpretatio graeca, the Hellenic habit of identifying gods of disparate mythologies with their own. Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of Ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" When the proto-Greeks (peoples whose language would evolve into Greek proper) first arrived in the Aegean and on the mainland of modern-day Greece early in the 2nd millennium BCE, they found localized nymphs and divinities already connected with every important feature of the landscape: mountain, cave, grove and spring all had their own locally-venerated deity. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of mythological entities in human female form Divinity and divine (sometimes 'the Divinity' or 'the Divine' are broadly applied but loosely defined terms used variously within different faiths and belief systems — A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter See Grove for other meanings (disambiguation of the word 'grove' A spring is a point where Groundwater flows out of the ground and is thus where the Aquifer surface meets the ground surface Deism is the belief that a supreme God exists and created the physical universe and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason alone without dependence on revelation The countless epithets of the Olympian gods reflect their syncretic identification with these various figures. An epithet (from Greek ἐπίθετον - epitheton, neut of ἐπίθετος - epithetos, "attributed added" is a Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance One defines "Zeus Molossos" (worshipped only at Dodona) as "the god identical to Zeus as worshipped by the Molossians at Dodona". Dodona (from Doric Greek Δωδώνα Ionic Greek: Δωδώνη - Dodone) in Epirus in northwestern Greece, was a prehistoric The Molossians (Μολοσσοί English: Molossoi were an ancient Greek tribe that settled Epirus during Mycenaean times Much of the apparently arbitrary and trivial mythic fabling results from later mythographers' attempts to explain these obscure epithets. A fable is a succinct story in prose or verse that features Animals Plants inanimate objects, or forces of nature which are
Judaism fought lengthy battles against syncretist tendencies: note the case of the golden calf and the railing of prophets against temple prostitution, witchcraft and local fertility cults, as told in the Torah. The golden calf (עגל הזהב was an idol (a Cult image) made for the Israelites during Moses ' absence as he went up to Mount Sinai Religious prostitution, sacred prostitution or temple prostitution is the practice of having Sexual intercourse (with a person other than one's spouse Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers Fertility rites are religious Rituals that reenact either actually or symbolically sexual acts and/or reproductive processes term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to On the other hand, some scholars hold that Judaism refined its concept of monotheism and adopted features such as its eschatology, angelology and demonology through contacts with Zoroastrianism. For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition Demonology (from Greek grc δαίμων daimōn, "demon" and grc -λογία -logia) is the systematic study of Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings 
In spite of the Jewish halakhic prohibitions on polytheism, idolatry, and associated practices (avodah zarah), several combinations of Judaism with other religions have sprung up: Jewish Buddhism, Nazarenism, Judeo-Paganism, Messianic Judaism, Jewish Mormonism, Crypto-Judaism (in which Jews publicly profess another faith and privately celebrate Judaism), and others. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple Gods (usually assembled in a pantheon) together with associated Mythology and Rituals Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God. Avodah Zarah ( Hebrew: "foreign worship" meaning " Idolatry " is the name of a Tractate in the Talmud, located A Jewish Buddhist (also Jubu or Buju) is a person with a Jewish Ethnic or Religious background who practices forms of Buddhist Not to be confused with Nasoraeans The Nazarene sect ( Ναζωραίων from Hebrew נזרים) were an early Jewitchery (from the terms Jew and witch, "shaman"/"sage" in its pure meaning or Jewish Neopaganism is a religious movement that Messianic Judaism is a Christian movement that emphasizes the Jewish roots of the Christian religion Latter-day Saints believe themselves to be either direct descendants of the House of Israel, or adopted into it Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as "crypto-Jews" Until relatively recently, China had a Jewish community which had adopted some Confucian practices. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B
Several of the Jewish Messiah claimants (such as Jacob Frank) and the Sabbateans came to mix Cabalistic Judaism with Christianity and Islam. Messiah ( משיח; mashiah, moshiah, mashiach, or moshiach, ("anointed " is a term used in the Hebrew Bible Jacob Frank (יעקב פרנק Ya'akov Frank, Jakob Frank; 1726 - 1791 was an 18th century Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of Also not to be confused with Subbotniks or Sabbatarians. Note Most Sabbateans during and after Sabbatai Zevi were Jews Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism.
The Romans, identifying themselves as common heirs to a very similar civilization, identified Greek deities with similar figures in the Etruscan-Roman tradition, though without usually copying cult practices. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Roman mythology, or more appropriately Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its This article discusses cult in the original and typically ancient sense of "religious practice" (cultus (For details, see Similarities between Roman, Greek, and Etruscan mythologies. Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of Ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon ) Syncretic gods of the Hellenistic period found also wide favor in Rome: Serapis, Isis and Mithras, for example. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Serapis (Latin spelling or Sarapis in Greek was a syncretic Hellenistic - Egyptian god in Antiquity. Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs and is celebrated in their mythology as the ideal mother and wife patron of nature and magic friend of slaves sinners The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a Roman mystery religion which became popular among the military in the late Cybele as worshipped in Rome essentially represented a syncretic East Mediterranean goddess. Originally a Hittite and Phrygian Goddess, Cybele (Κυβέλη was a deification of the Earth Mother and was worshipped in A goddess is a Female Deity. Many Cultures have goddesses Often deities are part of a polytheistic system that includes several deities The Romans imported the Greek god Dionysus into Rome as Bacchus, and converted the Anatolian Sabazios into the Roman Sabazius. In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman Sabazios is the nomadic horseman and sky father god of the Phrygians and Thracians. Sabazios is the nomadic horseman and sky father god of the Phrygians and Thracians.
The degree of correspondence varied: Jupiter makes perhaps a better match for Zeus than the rural huntress Diana does for the feared Artemis. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder. Zeus (zjuːs in Greek: nominative: Zeús /zdeús/ genitive: Diós; Modern Greek /'zefs/ in Greek mythology In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, being associated with wild animals and woodland and also of the Moon. In Greek mythology, Artemis language|Greek] ( Nominative), ( Genitive))] was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister Ares does not quite match Mars. In Greek mythology, Ares ( Ancient Greek:, Μodern Greek Άρης) is the son of Zeus and Hera. Mars was the Roman Warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. The Romans physically imported the Anatolian goddess Cybele into Rome from her Anatolian cult-center Pessinos in the form of her original aniconic archaic stone idol; they identified her as Magna Mater and gave her a matronly, iconic image developed in Hellenistic Pergamum. Originally a Hittite and Phrygian Goddess, Cybele (Κυβέλη was a deification of the Earth Mother and was worshipped in thumb|Pessinus Area Sivrihisar Eskişehir Turkey Pessinus was the city in Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey on the upper course of the river Sakarya Idolatry is usually defined as Worship of any Cult image, Idea, or object, as opposed to the worship of a monotheistic God. Originally a Hittite and Phrygian Goddess, Cybele (Κυβέλη was a deification of the Earth Mother and was worshipped in
Likewise, when the Romans encountered Celts and Teutons, they mingled these peoples' Northern gods with their own, creating Apollo Sucellos (Apollo the Good Smiter) and Mars Thingsus (Mars of the war-assembly), among many others. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors In Gaulish religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was the God of Agriculture, Forests and alcoholic drinks of the Gauls also part In the Germania, the Roman historian Tacitus speaks of Teutonic worshippers of Hercules and Mercury; most modern scholars tentatively identify Hercules as Thor and Mercury as Odin. The Germania ( Latin title De Origine et situ Germanorum, English for the Origin and Situation of the Germans) written by Gaius Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or "Alipes" redirects here For the Centipede Genus, see Alipes (centipede. Thor ( Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded God of Thunder in Germanic paganism and its subset Norse paganism Odin (ˈoʊdɪn from Old Norse Óðinn) is considered the chief god in Norse paganism.
Nascent Christianity appears to have incorporated many Jewish and pagan cultural elements, through a process of "Christianization" or "baptizing" them to conform with Christian belief and principles, at least partially, whilst discarding theologically or morally incompatible elements. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation Sobornost (Russian definition Spiritual community of many jointly living people Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity Note for example the strong connection between the thought of St. Augustine and Neoplatonic thought; and St. Thomas Aquinas' many citations of "The Philosopher" (Aristotle). Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Most scholars agree with this syncretism in principle. Medieval scholasticism engaged in prolonged and bitter debate over the place of pre-Christian classicism within the official Church teachings. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Open Theists (a subset of Protestant Evangelicals) assert that Christianity by the 3rd and 4th centuries had incorporated Greek Philosophy into its understanding of God. Open theism is a theological movement that has developed within Evangelical and Post-evangelical Protestant Christianity as a response to certain Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry.
Syncretism did not play a role when Christianity split into eastern and western rites during the Great Schism. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the It became involved however with the rifts of the Protestant Reformation, with Desiderius Erasmus's readings of Plutarch. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time In 1615 David Pareus of Heidelberg urged Christians to a "pious syncretism" in opposing the Antichrist, but few 17th-century Protestants discussed the compromises that might affect a reconciliation with the Catholic Church: Johann Hülsemann, Johann Georg Dorsche and Abraham Calovius (1612-1685) opposed the Lutheran Georg Calisen "Calixtus" (1586-1656) of the University of Helmstedt for his "syncretism". Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. As of 2006 over 140000 people live within the city's area For other uses see Antichrist (disambiguation In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ means a person office As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Johann Hülsemann (1602-1661 was a German Lutheran Theologian. Abraham Calovius ( 16 April 1612 &ndash 25 February 1686) was a Lutheran theologian and was one of the champions of Lutheran Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Georgius Calixtus or Calisen ( December 14, 1586 &ndash March 19, 1656) was a German Lutheran Theologian The University of Helmstedt, official Latin name Academia Julia ("Julius University" was a University in Helmstedt, Brunswick-Lüneburg (See: Syncretistic Strife. )
The modern celebrations of Christmas (as celebrated in the northern European tradition, originating from pagan Yule holidays), Easter (as celebrated in the eastern European tradition, with the incorporation of spring fertility rites) and Halloween exemplify details of Christian/pagan syncretism. Yule is a winter festival historically celebrated primarily in northern Europe but now celebrated in many other countries in various forms Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Fertility rites are religious Rituals that reenact either actually or symbolically sexual acts and/or reproductive processes Halloween, or Hallowe’en, is a Holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. Earlier, the elevation of Christmas as an important holiday largely grew out of a need to replace the Saturnalia, a popular December festival of the Roman Empire. Saturnalia is the feast with which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn
Roman Catholicism in Central and South America has integrated a number of elements derived from indigenous and slave cultures in those areas (see the Caribbean and modern sections); while many African Initiated Churches demonstrate an integration of Christian and traditional African beliefs. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical African Initiated Church is a Christian denomination started in Africa by Africans and not by missionaries from another continent In Asia the revolutionary movements of Taiping (19th-century China) and God's Army (Karen in the 1990s) have blended Christianity and traditional beliefs. God's Army is an armed revolutionary group that opposes the military government of Burma and advocates a doctrine based on a mixture of Christianity and Animism The Karen ( self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (กะเหรี่ยง or Yang, are an ethnic group in Traditional Catholics nonetheless often argue against "cafeteria Catholicism", or the act of "picking and choosing" what one wants to believe or practice.
One can contrast Christian syncretism with contextualization or inculturation, the practice of making Christianity relevant to a culture. Contextualization is the process of assigning Meaning, either linguistic or as a means of interpreting the environment within which an expression Inculturation is a term used in Christianity, especially in the Roman Catholic Church, referring to the adaptation of the way Church teachings are presented to non-Christian
The phrase "Syncretistic Strife" may refer to the theological quarrel provoked by the efforts of Georg Calixt and his supporters to secure a basis on which the Lutherans could make overtures to the Roman Catholic and the Reformed Churches. Georgius Calixtus or Calisen ( December 14, 1586 &ndash March 19, 1656) was a German Lutheran Theologian Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically It lasted from 1640 to 1686. Calixt, a professor at Helmstedt, had through his travels in England, the Netherlands, Italy, and France, through his acquaintance with the different Churches and their representatives, and through his extensive study, developed a more friendly attitude towards the different religious bodies than the majority of his contemporary Lutheran theologians. The University of Helmstedt, official Latin name Academia Julia ("Julius University" was a University in Helmstedt, Brunswick-Lüneburg England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. While the latter firmly adhered to the "pure doctrine," Calixt tended not to regard doctrine as the one thing necessary for a Christian, while in doctrine itself he did not regard everything as equally certain and important. Consequently, he advocated unity between those who agreed on the fundamental minimum, with liberty as to all less fundamental points. In regard to Catholicism, he would have (as Melanchthon once would have) conceded to the pope a primacy human in origin, and he also admitted that one might call the Mass a sacrifice. Philipp Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerd) ( February 16, 1497 &ndash April 19, 1560) was a German professor and theologian History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church.
On the side of Calixt stood the theological faculties of Helmstedt, Rinteln, and Königsberg; opposed to him stood those of Leipzig, Jena, Strasburg, Giessen, Marburg, and Greifswald. The University of Helmstedt, official Latin name Academia Julia ("Julius University" was a University in Helmstedt, Brunswick-Lüneburg Rinteln is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the banks of the Weser river above the Porta Westfalica. The University of Königsberg (Albertus-Universität Königsberg was the University of Königsberg, East Prussia. The University of Leipzig (Universität Leipzig located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (FSU is located in Jena, Thuringia in Germany and was renamed for the German writer Friedrich Schiller The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, founded in 1631 was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions with a total The University of Gießen (German Universität Gießen) is officially called Justus Liebig-Universität Gießen after its most famous member The University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität Marburg 'Philip's University Marburg' was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philip I of Hesse (usually The University of Greifswald (full name Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald is located in Greifswald, Abraham Calov in especial opposed Calixt. Abraham Calovius ( 16 April 1612 &ndash 25 February 1686) was a Lutheran theologian and was one of the champions of Lutheran The Elector of Saxony, for political reasons, opposed the Reformed Church, because the other two secular electors (Palatine and Brandenburg) were "reformed," and were getting more and more the advantage of him. This article lists Dukes Electors and Kings ruling over territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918 The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically The Prince-Electors (or simply Electors) of the Holy Roman Empire ( German: Kurfürst ( pl The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically In 1649 he sent to the three dukes of Brunswick, who maintained Helmstedt as their common university, a communication in which he voiced all the objections of his Lutheran professors, and complained that Calixt wished to extract the elements of truth from all religions, fuse all into an entirely new religion, and so provoke a violent schism. In 1650 Calov became a professor at Wittenberg, and he signalized his entrance into office with a vehement attack on the Syncretists in Helmstedt. An outburst of polemical writings followed. In 1650 the dukes of Brunswick answered the Elector of Saxony that the discord should not be allowed to increase, and proposed a meeting of the political councillors. Saxony, however, did not favour this suggestion. An attempt to convene a meeting of theologians was not more successful. The theologians of Wittenberg and Leipzig now elaborated a new formula, condemning ninety-eight heresies of the Helmstedt theologians. This formula (consensus) was to be signed by everyone who wished to remain in the Lutheran Church. Outside Wittenberg and Leipzig, however, it was not accepted, and Calixt's death in 1656 ushered in five years of almost undisturbed peace.
The strife broke out afresh in Hesse-Cassel, where Landgrave William VI sought to effect a union between his Lutheran and Reformed subjects, or at least to lessen their mutual hatred. Landgrave ( Dutch landgraaf, German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae William VI Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel ( 23 May 1629 - 16 July 1663) known as William the Just was Landgrave of Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically In 1661 he had a colloquy held in Cassel between the Lutheran theologians of the University of Rinteln and the Reformed theologians of the University of Marburg. Rinteln is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the banks of the Weser river above the Porta Westfalica. The University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität Marburg 'Philip's University Marburg' was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philip I of Hesse (usually Enraged at this revival of the syncretism of Calixt, the Wittenberg theologians in vehement terms called on the Rinteln professors to make their submission, whereupon the latter answered with a detailed defence. Another long series of polemical treatises followed. In Brandenburg-Prussia the Great Elector (Frederick William I) forbade (1663) preachers to speak of the disputes between the Evangelical bodies. A long colloquy in Berlin (September 1662 to May 1663) led only to fresh discord. In 1664 the elector repeated his command that preachers of both parties should abstain from mutual abuse, and should attribute to the other party no doctrine which was not actually held by such party. Whoever refused to sign the form declaring his intention to observe this regulation, was deprived of his position (e. g. Paul Gerhardt, writer of religious songs). Paul Gerhardt ( March 12, 1607 – May 27, 1676) was a German Hymn writer This arrangement was later modified, in that the forms were withdrawn, and action took place only against those who disturbed the peace. The attempts of the Wittenberg theologians to declare Calixt and his school un-Lutheran and heretical were now met by Calixt's son, Friedrich Ulrich Calixt, The latter defended the theology of his father, but also tried to show that his doctrine did not so very much differ from that of his opponents. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Wittenberg found its new champion in Ægidius Strauch, who attacked Calixt with all the resources of learning, polemics, sophistry, wit, cynicism, and abuse. The Helmstedt side was defended by the celebrated scholar and statesman, Hermann Conring. Hermann Conring ( November 9, 1606 &ndash December 12, 1681) was a North German intellectual The Saxon princes now recognized the danger that the attempt to carry through the "Consensus" as a formula of belief might lead to a fresh schism in the Lutheran Church, and might thus render its position difficult in the face of the Catholics. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The proposals of Calov and his party to continue the refutation and to compel the Brunswick theologians to bind themselves under obligation to the old Lutheran confession therefore remained unimplemented. On the contrary, the Saxon theologians were forbidden to continue the strife in writing. Negotiations for peace then resulted, with Duke Ernst the Pious of Saxe-Gotha especially active towards this end, and the project of establishing a permanent college of theologians to decide theological disputes was entertained. Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Gotha and Altenburg, called "the Pious" (b Saxe-Gotha (Sachsen-Gotha was a historical state in today's Thuringia, Germany. However, the negotiations with the courts of Brunswick, Mecklenburg, Denmark, and Sweden remained as fruitless as those with the theological faculties, except that peace was maintained until 1675. Calov then renewed hostilities. Abraham Calovius ( 16 April 1612 &ndash 25 February 1686) was a Lutheran theologian and was one of the champions of Lutheran He now attacked not only Calixt, but also and particularly the moderate John Musæus of Jena. Calov succeeded in having the whole University of Jena (and after a long resistance Musæus himself) compelled to renounce syncretism. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (FSU is located in Jena, Thuringia in Germany and was renamed for the German writer Friedrich Schiller But this was his last victory. The elector renewed his prohibition against polemical writings. Calov seemed to give way, since in 1683 he asked whether, in the view of the danger which France then constituted for Germany, a Calixtinic Syncretism with "Papists" and the Reformed were still condemnable, and whether in deference to the Elector of Brandenburg and the dukes of Brunswick, the strife should not be buried by an amnesty, or whether, on the contrary, the war against syncretism should be continued. Papist is a term usually disparaging or an Anti-Catholic slur referring to a member of the Catholic Church. The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire He later returned to his attack on the syncretists, but died in 1686, and with his death the strife ended.
The Syncretist Strife had the result of lessening religious hatred and of promoting mutual forbearance. Catholicism thus benefited, as Protestants came to better understand and appreciate it. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. In Protestant theology it prepared the way for the sentimental theology of Pietism as the successor of fossilized orthodoxy. Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late 17th century to the mid-18th century and later Lutheran Orthodoxy was an era in the history of Lutheranism, which began in 1580 from the writing of the Book of Concord and ended at the Age of Enlightenment
This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia
Some scholars regard Islam as incorporating syncretically from other religions, particularly Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Muslims do not regard this as syncretism, as they see Islam as a completion of divine revelations from Jewish and Christian prophets. It is a fundamental tenet of Islamic faith to believe in the consistency of message in the revelations from one God through many messengers to their people (Quran 2:285) and claims to be the revitalization of the original pure teaching of Allah. Allah ( Arabic: الله, ʔalˤːɑːh) is the standard Arabic word for ' In traditional Islamic belief, the Bible and Torah, over time, however, these revelations eventually became corrupted because of the lack of written manuscripts, serial translations from one language to another, or simply forgotten.
The Druzes integrated elements of Ismaili Islam with Gnosticism and Platonism. The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Their practice of disguising themselves as followers of the dominant religion around them makes it difficult to distinguish belief from simulated belief.
The Bahá'ís follow Bahá'u'lláh, a prophet whom they consider a successor to Muhammad, Jesus, Moses, Buddha, Zoroaster and others. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت This acceptance of other religious founders has encouraged some to regard the Bahá'í religion as a syncretic faith. However, Bahá'ís and the Bahá'í writings explicitly reject this view. Bahá'ís consider Bahá'u'lláh's revelation an independent, though related, revelation from God. Its relationship to previous dispensations is seen as analogous to the relationship of Christianity to Judaism. Dispensationalism is a Christian theological view of history and Biblical interpretation that became popular during the 1800s and early 1900s and is They regard beliefs held in common as evidence of truth, progressively revealed by God throughout human history, and culminating in (at present) the Bahá'í revelation. Progressive revelation is a core teaching in the Bahá'í Faith that suggests that religious truth is revealed by God progressively and cyclically over time through a series Bahá'ís have their own sacred scripture, interpretations, laws and practices that, for Bahá'ís, supersede those of other faiths. 
The process of syncretism in the Caribbean region often forms a part of cultural creolization. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting (The technical term "Creole" may apply to anyone (regardless of race or ethnicity) born and raised in the region. For the languages see Creole language. For other meanings see Creole (disambiguation. ) The shared histories of the Caribbean islands include long periods of European Imperialism (mainly by Spain, France, and the United Kingdom) and the importation of African slaves (primarily from Central and Western Africa). Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services The influences of each of the above interacted in varying degrees on the islands, producing the fabric of society that exists today in the Caribbean.
The Rastafari movement, founded in Jamaica, syncretizes vigorously, mixing elements from the Bible, Marcus Garvey's Pan Africanism movement, and Caribbean culture. The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, Rastafarianism or simply Rasta) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic, New Testament Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr, National Hero of Jamaica (17 August 1887 10 June 1940 was a Publisher, Journalist, Entrepreneur, Black nationalist Pan-Africanism is a Sociopolitical World view, and Philosophy, as well as a movement which seeks to unify both Native Africans and those of
Another highly syncretic religion of the area, voodoo, combines elements of Western African, native Caribbean, and Christian (especially Roman Catholic) beliefs. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
See the modern section for other Caribbean syncretisms.
Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism in ancient India have made many adaptations over the millennia, assimilating elements of various diverse religious traditions. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India.
The Mughal emperor Akbar, who wanted to consolidate the diverse religious communities in his empire, propounded Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic religion intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire. Akbar redirects here For other uses see Akbar (disambiguation Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar ( Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar The Dīn-i Ilāhī (دین الهی "Divine Faith" was a syncretic religious doctrine propounded by the Mughal emperor Jalālu d-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar
Sikhism blends elements of Islam and Hinduism. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century
The Hindu teaching of Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar as embodied in the socio-spiritual organization Ananda Marga brings together the disparate branches of yoga for inner development, an ancient theory of social motivity and change, a theory of human and non-human welfare and intuitive insights into science with the aim to increase welfare on the planet. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (May 21 1921 &ndash October 21 1990 also known by his spiritual name Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, was an Indian philosopher author social Ananda Marga, officially known as Ananda Marga Pracharaka Samgha (AMPS meaning "the organization for the propagation of the path of bliss " is Social cycle theories are one of the earliest Social theories in Sociology. Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (May 21 1921 &ndash October 21 1990 also known by his spiritual name Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, was an Indian philosopher author social Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (May 21 1921 &ndash October 21 1990 also known by his spiritual name Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, was an Indian philosopher author social
Recently-developed religious systems that exhibit marked syncretism include the New World religions Candomblé, Vodou, and Santería, which analogize various Yorùbá and other African gods to the Roman Catholic saints. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Candomblé (pronounced /kɐ̃dõˈblɛ/is an African-originated or Afro-Brazilian religion practiced chiefly in Brazil. vodoo, vodun, or vodoun may refer to any of West African vodun, a west African religion Haitian vodou, mostly derived Santería, also known as La Regla de Lukumi (Lukumi's Rule and The Way of the Saints is an Afro-Cuban religious tradition derived from traditional beliefs The Yoruba religion is the religious beliefs and practices of the Yoruba people both in Africa (chiefly in Nigeria and Benin Republic) This is an incomplete list of Christian Saints in alphabetical order by Christian name but if necessary by surname the place or attribute part of name as well Some sects of Candomblé have incorporated also Native American gods, and Umbanda combined African deities with Kardecist spiritualism. Candomblé (pronounced /kɐ̃dõˈblɛ/is an African-originated or Afro-Brazilian religion practiced chiefly in Brazil. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Basic beliefs and practices The Umbanda creeds and practices are an eclectic mixture from three main sources from Catholicism Umbanda adopted the ideas of Spiritism is a Christian philosophical Doctrine, established in France in the mid-nineteenth century Spiritualism is a Religion founded in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772
Unitarian Universalism also provides an example of a modern syncretic religion; it traces its roots to Universalist and Unitarian Christian congregations while at the same time freely incorporating elements from other religious and non-religious traditions. Unitarian Universalism ( UUism) is a theologically liberal Religion characterized by its support for a "free and responsible search for truth Universalism can be classified as a Religion, Theology and Philosophy that generally holds all persons and creatures are related to God or the Divine and Unitarianism as a theology is the belief in the single personality of God in contrast to the doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Universal Sufism seeks the unity of all people and religions, as well as the ability to find beauty in all things. Universal Sufism is a spiritual and Universalist movement founded by Hazrat Inayat Khan in the early 20th century Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the 'experience' of the absence of egoic identity boundaries and according to some traditions the perception of an absolute A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** Universal Sufis strive to "realize and spread the knowledge of Unity, the religion of Love, and Wisdom, so that the biases and prejudices of faiths and beliefs may, of themselves, fall away, the human heart overflow with love, and all hatred caused by distinctions and differences be rooted out. "
In Vietnam, Caodaism blends elements of Buddhism, Catholicism and Kardecism. Cao Đài ( Vietnamese:) is a relatively new syncretist, Monotheistic Religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Japanese syncretists founded several new Japanese religions (such as Konkokyo and Seicho-No-Ie) from the latter half of the 19th century onwards. The primary religions in Japan are Buddhism and Shintō (神道 " the way of the gods " Konkokyo (金光教 also Konkō-kyō is a new religion of Japanese origin also regarded as a type of Sect Shinto. Seicho-No-Ie, sometimes rendered Seicho-No-Iye, (生長の家 Seichō no ie, (IPA no ie roughly translated into English means "The Home of Infinite Life"
The Nigerian religion Chrislam combines Christian and Islamic doctrines. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Chrislam, or the The Will of God Mission or Ifeoluwa Mission (Ifeoluwa is a Yoruba word meaning "God's Love" is a Nigerian syncretic
Thelema is a mixture of many different schools of belief and practice, including Hermeticism, Eastern Mysticism, Yoga, 19th century libertarian philosophies (e. Thelema is a philosophy of life based on the rule or law "Do what thou wilt Hermeticism is a set of philosophical and religious beliefs based primarily upon the writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, who is put forth as a Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Yoga ( Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yóga, joːgə refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the g. Nietzsche), occultism, and the Kaballah, as well as ancient Egyptian and Greek religion. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism. Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance
Examples of strongly syncretist Romantic and modern movements with some religious elements include mysticism, occultism, theosophy, modern astrology, Neopaganism, and the New Age movement. Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" This article is about the philosophy introduced by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature
In linguistic syncretism, one word-form serves two or more morphosyntactic functions. In Linguistics, syncretism is the identity of form of distinct morphological forms of a word Morphology is the field of Linguistics that studies the internal structure of words Some inflected words or word forms in some natural languages indicate (morphologically) a distinction in syntax, while some other words in the same language do not. In the Philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a Language that is spoken or written in phonemic-alphabetic or phonemically-related In Linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek grc συν- syn-, "together" and grc τάξις táxis, "arrangement" is the For example in Russian, some nouns have different word forms (inflections) in nominative and accusative (kniga and knigu respectively) while some other nouns (pismo, pismo) inflect without a distinction. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The nominative case is a Grammatical case for a Noun, which generally marks the subject of a Verb, as opposed to its object or other The accusative case ( abbreviated ACC) of a Noun is the Grammatical case used to mark the Direct object of a Transitive The former indicate a distinction in the Russian syntax while the latter hide that distinction.
The modern, rational non-pejorative connotations of syncretism date from Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie articles: Eclecticisme and Syncrétistes, Hénotiques, ou Conciliateurs. Moral syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory moral beliefs, often while melding the ethical practices and of various schools of Denis Diderot ( October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French Philosopher and writer Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences des arts et des métiers (Encyclopedia or a systematic dictionary of the sciences arts and crafts was a general Diderot portrayed syncretism as the concordance of eclectic sources.
Other forms of syncretism not directly related to religion appear in the modern world as well: thus one can sometimes speak of cultural and/or social syncretism. Japanese culture after World War II and the moderate tendencies within Neo-Tribalism may serve as examples. The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over millenia from the country's prehistoric Jomon culture to its contemporary hybrid culture which combines influences from Asia World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including This article concerns the social philosophy known as Neo-Tribalism and not the reemergence of ethnic identities that followed the end of the Cold War. The eclectic aspects of postmodernism represent an important contemporary example of cultural syncretism observable in much of the Western world. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The socio-spiritual movement Ananda Marga, which originated in India in 1955, stems from a syncretic approach to the different strands of yoga, as propounded by its founder P.R. Sarkar. Ananda Marga, officially known as Ananda Marga Pracharaka Samgha (AMPS meaning "the organization for the propagation of the path of bliss " is India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Yoga ( Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yóga, joːgə refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (May 21 1921 &ndash October 21 1990 also known by his spiritual name Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, was an Indian philosopher author social It has as its stated purpose "to help individuals achieve complete self-realization and to build a social structure in which the physical, mental and spiritual needs of all people can be fulfilled. As commonly used, individual refers to a Person or to any specific object in a collection Social structure is a term frequently used in Sociology and Social theory — yet rarely defined or clearly conceptualised (Abercrombie et al With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Spirituality, in a narrow sense concerns itself with matters of the Spirit, a concept closely tied to religious belief and Faith, a transcendent reality "