This article is about the composition. For the German poem, see Ode to Joy
. " To Joy " ( An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy) is an Ode written in
For the EU and Council of Europe adaptation, see European Anthem
Ludwig van Beethoven was almost completely deaf when he composed his ninth symphony.
The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral" is the last complete symphony composed by Ludwig van Beethoven. Opus, from the Latin word opus meaning "work" is usually used in the sense of "a Work of art " A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Completed in 1824, the choral Ninth Symphony is one of the best known works of the Western repertoire, considered both an icon and a forefather of Romantic music, and one of Beethoven's greatest masterpieces. A choral symphony is a large Musical composition, generally including an Orchestra, a Choir and soloists which adheres to some extent Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910
Symphony No. 9 incorporates part of An die Freude ("Ode to Joy"), an ode by Friedrich Schiller, with text sung by soloists and a chorus in the last movement. " To Joy " ( An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy) is an Ode written in Ode (from the Ancient Greek) is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller krɪstɔf friːtʁɪç fɔn ʃɪləʁ/ʃɪlɐ (10 November 1759 9 May 1805 was a German Poet, Philosopher In Music, a solo (from the Italian solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers It is the first example of a major composer using the human voice on the same level with instruments in a symphony, creating a work of a grand scope that set the tone for the Romantic symphonic form.
Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 plays a prominent cultural role in the world today. In particular, the music from the fourth movement (Ode to Joy) was rearranged by Herbert von Karajan into what is now known as the official anthem of the European Union. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert von Karajan ( April 5 The term anthem means either a specific form of Anglican church music (in Music theory and religious contexts or more generally a song (or composition of The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Further testament to its prominence is that an original manuscript of this work sold in 2003 for $3. 3 million USD at Sotheby's, London. Sotheby's ( is the world's second oldest Auction house in continuous operation (the oldest being Stockholms Auktionsverk founded in 1674 London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The head of Sotheby's manuscripts department, Dr. Stephen Roe stated, "it is one of the highest achievements of man, ranking alongside Shakespeare's Hamlet and King Lear. William Shakespeare ( baptised Hamlet is a Tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601 King Lear is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1603 and 1606 and is considered one of his greatest works "
Composition of the symphony
The Philharmonic Society of London (later the Royal Philharmonic Society) originally commissioned the symphony in 1817. The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society formed in 1813 Beethoven started work on his last symphony in 1818 and finished it early in 1824. This was roughly twelve years after his eighth symphony. However, he was interested in the Ode to Joy from a much earlier time, having set it to music as early as 1793; that setting is lost.
The theme for the scherzo can be traced back to a fugue written in 1815. The introduction for the vocal part of the symphony caused many difficulties for Beethoven. It was the first time he—or anyone—had used a vocal component in a symphony. Beethoven's friend, Anton Schindler, later said: "When he started working on the fourth movement the struggle began as never before. Anton Felix Schindler ( June 13 1795 &ndash January 16 1864) was an associate and early biographer of Ludwig van Beethoven. The aim was to find an appropriate way of introducing Schiller's ode. One day he [Beethoven] entered the room and shouted 'I got it, I just got it!' Then he showed me a sketchbook with the words 'let us sing the ode of the immortal Schiller'". However, that introduction did not make it into the work, and Beethoven spent a great deal of time rewriting the part until it had reached the form recognizable today.
Beethoven was eager to have his work played in Berlin as soon as possible after finishing it. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. He was thinking that musical taste in Vienna was dominated by Italian composers such as Rossini. When his friends and financiers heard this, they urged him to premiere the symphony in Vienna. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria.
The Ninth Symphony was premiered on May 7, 1824 in the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna, along with the overture Die Weihe des Hauses and the first three parts of the Missa Solemnis. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1824 ( MDCCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater was a prestigious Theater in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries The Missa solemnis in D Major Op 123 was composed by Ludwig van Beethoven from 1819-1823 This was the composer's first on-stage appearance in twelve years; the hall was packed. The soprano and alto parts were interpreted by two famous young singers: Henriette Sontag and Caroline Unger. Henriette Sontag ( 3 January 1806 - 17 June 1854) was a German operatic soprano of great international renown Caroline Unger ( October 28, 1803 - March 23, 1877) was an Austrian Contralto.
Although the performance was officially directed by Michael Umlauf, the theatre's Kapellmeister, Beethoven shared the stage with him. Kapellmeister (kəˈpɛlˌmaɪstər is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making However, two years earlier, Umlauf had watched as the composer's attempt to conduct a dress rehearsal of his opera Fidelio ended in disaster. Fidelio (Op 72 is an Opera in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven. So this time, he instructed the singers and musicians to ignore the totally deaf Beethoven. At the beginning of every part, Beethoven, who sat by the stage, gave the tempos. 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO He was turning the pages of his score and was beating time for an orchestra he could not hear. Sheet music is a hand-written or printed form of Musical notation; like its analogs -- books pamphlets etc An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well
There are a number of anecdotes about the premiere of the Ninth. Based on the testimony of the participants, there are suggestions that it was under-rehearsed (there were only two full rehearsals) and rather scrappy in execution. On the other hand, the premiere was a big success. In any case, Beethoven was not to blame, as violist Josef Bohm recalled, "Beethoven directed the piece himself; that is, he stood before the lectern and gesticulated furiously. At times he raised, at other times he shrunk to the ground, he moved as if he wanted to play all the instruments himself and sing for the whole chorus. All the musicians minded his rhythm alone while playing".
When the audience applauded - testimonies differ over whether at the end of the scherzo or the whole symphony - Beethoven was several measures off and still conducting. A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a piece of Music or a movement in a certain style that forms part of a larger piece such as a Symphony. Because of that, the contralto Caroline Unger walked over and turned Beethoven around to accept the audience's cheers and applause. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. According to one witness, "the public received the musical hero with the utmost respect and sympathy, listened to his wonderful, gigantic creations with the most absorbed attention and broke out in jubilant applause, often during sections, and repeatedly at the end of them. " The whole audience acclaimed him through standing ovations five times; there were handkerchiefs in the air, hats, raised hands, so that Beethoven, who could not hear the applause, could at least see the ovation gestures. A standing ovation is a form of Applause where members of a seated Audience stand up while applauding The theatre house had never seen such enthusiasm in applause.
At that time, it was customary that the Imperial couple be greeted with three ovations when they entered the hall. The fact that five ovations were received by a private person who was not even employed by the state, and moreover, was a musician (a class of people who had been perceived as lackeys at court), was in itself considered almost indecent. Police agents present at the concert had to break off this spontaneous explosion of ovations. Beethoven left the concert deeply moved.
The repeat performance on May 23 in the great hall of the Fort was, however, poorly attended. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne
The Breitkopf & Härtel edition dating from 1864 has been used widely by orchestras. Breitkopf & Härtel is the world's oldest music publishing house  In 1997 Bärenreiter published an edition by Jonathan Del Mar. Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951 is a Musicologist and conductor. Biography Born in London, he studied at Christ Church, Oxford According to Del Mar, this edition corrects nearly 3000 mistakes in the Breitkopf edition, some of which were remarkable.  Professor David Levy, however, criticized this edition in Beethoven Forum, saying that it could create "quite possibly false" traditions. David Benjamin Levy is a Musicologist. He is a professor with the Department of Music, in Wake Forest University.  Breitkopf also published a new edition by Peter Hauschild in 2005. 
While many of the modifications in the newer editions make minor alterations to dynamics and articulation, both editions make a major change to the orchestral lead-in to the final statement of the choral theme in the fourth movement (IV: m525-m542). The newer versions alter the articulation of the horn calls, creating syncopation that no longer relates to the previous motive. The new Breitkopf & Härtel and Bärenreiter make this alteration differently, but the result is a reading that is strikingly different than what was commonly accepted based on the 1864 Breitkopf edition. Breitkopf & Härtel is the world's oldest music publishing house While both Breitkopf & Härtel and Bärenreiter consider their editions the most accurate versions available--labeling them Urtext editions--their conclusions are not universally accepted. Breitkopf & Härtel is the world's oldest music publishing house In his monograph "Beethoven--the ninth symphony", Professor David Levy describes the rationale for these changes and the danger of calling the editions Urtext. David Benjamin Levy is a Musicologist. He is a professor with the Department of Music, in Wake Forest University.
A page from Beethoven's manuscript
The symphony is scored for piccolo (fourth movement only), 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in A, B flat and C, 2 bassoons, contrabassoon (fourth movement only), 2 horns (1 and 2) in D and B flat, 2 horns (3 and 4) in B flat (bass), B flat and E flat, 2 trumpets in D and B flat, 3 trombones (alto, tenor, and bass, second and fourth movements only), timpani, triangle (fourth movement only), cymbals (fourth movement only), bass drum (fourth movement only), and strings. The piccolo is a small Flute. Like the flute the piccolo is normally pitched in the key of C one octave above the concert flute (making it effectively a sopranino The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally The contrabassoon is a larger version of the Bassoon sounding an octave lower The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s Timpani (also known colloquially as kettledrums or kettle drums) are Musical instruments in the percussion family The triangle is an Idiophone type of Musical instrument in the percussion family Cymbals are a modern percussion instrument Cymbals consist of thin normally round plates of various Cymbal alloys; see Cymbal making for a discussion of their A bass drum is a large Drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs
The vocal parts consist of soprano solo, alto solo, tenor solo, baritone solo, and choir in four parts (soprano, alto, tenor [divided briefly into Tenor I and Tenor II] and bass). This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. Alto is a musical term derived from the Latin word altus, meaning "high" that has several possible interpretations The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers
Note: These are by far the largest forces needed for any Beethoven symphony; at the premiere, Beethoven augmented them further by assigning two players to each wind part.
The symphony is in four movements, marked as follows:
- Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso
- Scherzo: Molto vivace - Presto
- Adagio molto e cantabile - Andante Moderato - Tempo I - Andante Moderato - Adagio - Lo Stesso Tempo
- Recitative: (Presto – Allegro ma non troppo – Vivace – Adagio cantabile – Allegro assai – Presto: O Freunde) – Allegro assai: Freude, schöner Götterfunken – Alla marcia – Allegro assai vivace: Froh, wie seine Sonnen – Andante maestoso: Seid umschlungen, Millionen! – Adagio ma non troppo, ma divoto: Ihr, stürzt nieder – Allegro energico, sempre ben marcato: (Freude, schöner Götterfunken – Seid umschlungen, Millionen!) – Allegro ma non tanto: Freude, Tochter aus Elysium! – Prestissimo: Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
Beethoven changes the usual pattern of Classical symphonies in placing the scherzo movement before the slow movement (in symphonies, slow movements are usually placed before scherzos). Maestoso (maeˈstoso is an Italian musical term used as a directive to play a certain passage of music in a stately dignified and majestic fashion (march-like Vivace is Italian for "quick and lively" Vivace is used as an Italian musical term indicating a movement that is in a lively Mood Cantabile is a musical term meaning literally "singable" or "songlike" ( Italian) Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios Marcato is a Bowing technique for playing a stringed instrument such as Violin, Viola, Cello, and the Double bass. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a piece of Music or a movement in a certain style that forms part of a larger piece such as a Symphony. This was the first time that he did this in a symphony, although he had done so in some previous works (including the quartets Op. A string quartet is a Musical ensemble of four String instruments &mdash usually two Violins a Viola and Cello &mdash or a piece 18 nos. 4 and 5, the "Archduke" piano trio Op. A piano trio is a group of Piano and two other instruments usually a Violin and a Cello, or a piece of Music written for such a group 97, the "Hammerklavier" piano sonata Op. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No 29 in B flat major, opus 106, known as the Große Sonate für das Hammerklavier, or more simply as the 106). Haydn, too, had used this arrangement in a number of works.
The first movement is in sonata form, and the mood is often stormy. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. The opening theme is played pianissimo over string tremolandos. This first subject later returns fortissimo at the outset of the recapitulation section, in D major, rather than the opening's D minor. The coda employs the chromatic fourth interval. A chromatic fourth is a Melody or melodic fragment spanning a Perfect fourth with all or almost all Chromatic intervals filled in
This is the first appearance of a quartet of horns in a Beethoven symphony.
The second movement, a scherzo, is also in D minor, with the opening theme bearing a passing resemblance to the opening theme of the first movement, a pattern also found in the Hammerklavier piano sonata, written a few years earlier. A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a piece of Music or a movement in a certain style that forms part of a larger piece such as a Symphony. Ludwig van Beethoven 's Piano Sonata No 29 in B flat major, opus 106, known as the Große Sonate für das Hammerklavier, or more simply as the It uses propulsive rhythms and a timpani solo. Timpani (also known colloquially as kettledrums or kettle drums) are Musical instruments in the percussion family At times during the piece Beethoven directs that the beat should be one downbeat every three bars, perhaps because of the very fast pace of the majority of the movement which is written in triple time, with the direction ritmo di tre battute ("rhythm of three bars"), and one beat every four bars with the direction ritmo di quattro battute ("rhythm of four bars").
The contrasting trio section is in D major and in duple (cut) time. The trio is the first time the trombones play in the work. The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s
The lyrical slow movement, in B flat major, is in a loose variation form, with each pair of variations progressively elaborating the rhythm and melody. Variation form Variation form include Ground bass, Passacaglia, Chaconne, and theme and variations The first variation, like the theme, is in 4/4 time, the second in 12/8. The variations are separated by passages in 3/4, the first in D major, the second in G major. The final variation is twice interrupted by episodes in which loud fanfares for the full orchestra are answered by double-stopped octaves played by the first violins alone. A virtuosic horn solo is assigned to the fourth player. Trombones are tacet for the movement. The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s Tacet is Latin for "it is silent" It is a musical term to indicate that an instrument does not play for a long period of time typically an entire movement
|Full fourth movement, orchestra and solists|
|Ode to Joy|
|Electric keyboard version. |
The famous choral finale is Beethoven's musical representation of Universal Brotherhood and has been characterized by Charles Rosen as a symphony within a symphony. Charles Rosen (born May 5 1927 is an American Pianist and music theorist. It contains four movements played without interruption.  This "inner symphony" follows the same overall pattern as the Ninth Symphony as a whole. The scheme is as follows:
- First "movement": theme and variations with slow introduction. Main theme which first appears in the cellos and basses is later "recapitulated" with voices.
- Second "movement": 6/8 scherzo in military style (begins at "Alla marcia," words "Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen"), in the "Turkish style. "Turkish music", in the sense described here is not really Music of Turkey, but rather a musical style that was occasionally used by the European composers of the " Concludes with 6/8 variation of the main theme with chorus.
- Third "movement": slow meditation with a new theme on the text "Seid umschlungen, Millionen!" (begins at "Andante maestoso")
- Fourth "movement": fugato finale on the themes of the first and third "movements" (begins at "Allegro energico")
The movement has a thematic unity, in which every part may be shown to be based on either the main theme, the "Seid umschlungen" theme, or some combination of the two. This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores In Music, a fugue (ˈfjuːg is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO
The first "movement within a movement" itself is organized into sections:
- An introduction, which starts with a stormy Presto passage. 2266-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl or TEMPO is the Chemical compound with the formula (CH23(CMe22NO It then briefly quotes all three of the previous movements in order, each dismissed by the cellos and basses which then play in an instrumental foreshadowing of the vocal recitative. Recitative /rɛsɪtə'tiv/ (also known by its Italian name "recitativo" (/retʃita'tivo/ is a style of delivery (much used in Operas Oratorios At the introduction of the main theme, the cellos and basses take it up and play it through.
- The main theme forms the basis of a series of variations for orchestra alone. Variation form Variation form include Ground bass, Passacaglia, Chaconne, and theme and variations
- The introduction is then repeated from the Presto passage, this time with the bass soloist singing the recitatives previously suggested by cellos and basses.
- The main theme again undergoes variations, this time for vocal soloists and chorus.
Text of fourth movement
Words written by Beethoven (not Schiller) are shown in italics. " To Joy " ( An die Freude in German, in English often familiarly called the Ode to Joy) is an Ode written in
- German original
- O Freunde, nicht diese Töne!
- Sondern laßt uns angenehmere
- anstimmen und freudenvollere.
- Freude! Freude!
- Freude, schöner Götterfunken
- Tochter aus Elysium,
- Wir betreten feuertrunken,
- Himmlische, dein Heiligthum!
- Deine Zauber binden wieder
- Was die Mode streng getheilt;
- Alle Menschen werden Brüder,
- Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.
- Wem der große Wurf gelungen,
- Eines Freundes Freund zu sein;
- Wer ein holdes Weib errungen,
- Mische seinen Jubel ein!
- Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele
- Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund!
- Und wer's nie gekonnt, der stehle
- Weinend sich aus diesem Bund!
- Freude trinken alle Wesen
- An den Brüsten der Natur;
- Alle Guten, alle Bösen
- Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.
- Küße gab sie uns und Reben,
- Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod;
- Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,
- Und der Cherub steht vor Gott.
- Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen
- Durch des Himmels prächt'gen Plan,
- Laufet, Brüder, eure Bahn,
- Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.
- Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
- Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
- Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt
- Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen.
- Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen?
- Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt?
- Such' ihn über'm Sternenzelt!
- Über Sternen muß er wohnen.
- Finale repeats the words:
- Seid umschlungen, Millionen!
- Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
- Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt
- Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen.
- Seid umschlungen,
- Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!
- Freude, schöner Götterfunken
- Tochter aus Elysium,
- Freude, schöner Götterfunken
- English translation
- Oh friends, not these tones!
- Rather let us sing more
- pleasant and more joyful ones.
- Joy! Joy!
- Joy, beautiful spark of gods,
- Daughter of Elysium!
- We enter, drunk with fire ,
- Heavenly one, your shrine. In Greek mythology, Elysium ( Greek:) was a section of the Underworld (the spelling Elysium is a Latinization of the
- Your magics again bind
- What custom has strictly parted.
- All people become brothers,
- where your gentle wing alights.
- Whoever succeeds in the great attempt
- To be a friend of a friend,
- Whoever has won a lovely woman,
- Let him add his jubilation!
- Yes, whoever calls even one soul
- His own on the earth's globe!
- And who never has, let him steal,
- Weeping, away from this group.
- All creatures drink joy
- At the breasts of nature;
- All the good, all the evil
- Follow her roses' trail.
- Kisses gave she us, and wine,
- A friend, proven unto death;
- Pleasure was to the worm granted,
- And the cherub stands before God.
- Glad, as his suns fly
- Through the Heavens' glorious plan,
- Run, brothers, your race,
- Joyful, as a hero to victory.
- Be embraced, you millions!
- This kiss for the whole world!
- Brothers, beyond the star-canopy
- Must a loving Father dwell.
- Do you bow down, you millions?
- Do you sense the Creator, world?
- Seek Him beyond the star-canopy!
- Beyond the stars must He dwell.
- Finale repeats the words:
- Be embraced, you millions!
- This kiss for the whole world!
- Brothers, beyond the star-canopy
- Must a loving Father dwell.
- Be embraced,
- This kiss for the whole world!
- Joy, beautiful spark of the gods,
- Daughter of Elysium,
- Joy, beautiful spark of the gods
Influence of the Symphony
The Ninth Symphony struck the changing and newly Romantic world of Western music with force. Partially due to the scope, ambition, and import of this work, Beethoven is considered the forefather of Romantic music. His Symphony No. 9 was to prove extremely influential on the Western tradition, not just in specific compositional form (and length), but in much more general ways, for its forging of new ground beyond the Classical symphonic mould of purely "absolute music". Absolute music (sometimes abstract music) is a term used to describe musicthat is not explicitly "about" anything non-representational ornon-objective It is an early icon and declaration of the Romantic idealistic tradition of Bildung. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency
Many later composers of the Romantic period and beyond were influenced specifically by Beethoven's final symphony:
An important theme in the finale of Johannes Brahms' Symphony No. 1 in C minor is related to the "Ode to Joy" theme from the last movement of Beethoven's Ninth symphony. Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer The Symphony No 1 in C minor Op 68 is a Symphony written by Johannes Brahms. When this was pointed out to Brahms, he is reputed to have retorted "Any ass can see that!", which suggests the imitation was intentional. The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate. Brahms's first symphony was sometimes jokingly referred to as "Beethoven's Tenth". 
Anton Bruckner used the chromatic fourth in his third symphony in much the same way that Beethoven used it in the first movement's coda. Anton Bruckner (4 September 1824 &ndash 11 October 1896 was an Austrian composer known primarily for his symphonies, masses, and Motets In Music, chromaticism is a Compositional technique interspersing the primary Diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the Chromatic Anton Bruckner 's Symphony No 3 in D minor (WAB 103 was dedicated to Richard Wagner and is sometimes known as his "Wagner Symphony"
In the opening notes of the third movement of his Symphony No. 9 (The "New World"), Antonín Dvořák pays homage to the scherzo of this symphony with his falling fourths and timpani strokes. "New World Symphony" redirects here for the Miami -based orchestra see New World Symphony Orchestra. Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( (often pronounced in English as; DVOR-zhahk; September 8 1841 – May 1 1904 was a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a piece of Music or a movement in a certain style that forms part of a larger piece such as a Symphony. 
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony may also have influenced the development of the compact disc. A Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an Optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio Philips, the company that had started the work on the new audio format, originally planned for a CD to have a diameter of 11. Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV ( Royal Philips Electronics Inc. 5 cm, while Sony planned a 10 cm diameter needed for one hour of music. is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest Media conglomerates with However, according to a Philips website, Norio Ohga insisted in 1979 that the CD be able to contain a complete performance of the Ninth Symphony:
|“||The longest known performance lasted 74 minutes. is a Japanese electronics businessman who originally trained as an opera singer This was a mono recording made during the Bayreuther Festspiele in 1951 and conducted by Wilhelm Furtwängler. The Bayreuth Festival is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of Operas by the 19th century German composer WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a This therefore became the playing time of a CD. A diameter of 12 centimeters was required for this playing time. ||”|
However, Kees Immink, Philips' chief engineer, who developed the CD, denies this, claiming that the increase was motivated by technical considerations, and that even after the increase in size, the Furtwängler recording was not able to fit onto the earliest CDs. Kornelis Antonie (Kees Schouhamer Immink (born 18 December, 1946 in Rotterdam) is a Dutch scientist inventor and entrepreneur who pioneered 
The Curse of the Ninth
Using modern numbering, several composers beside Beethoven have completed no more than nine symphonies. This has led certain subsequent composers, particularly Gustav Mahler, to be superstitious about composing their own ninth or tenth symphonies, or to try to avoid writing them at all. This phenomenon has become known as the Curse of the Ninth. The curse of the ninth is the superstition that any composer of symphonies, from Beethoven onwards will die soon after writing their own Ninth Symphony
Lasting more than an hour, the Ninth was an exceptionally long symphony for its time. Like much of Beethoven's later music, his Ninth Symphony is demanding for all the performers, including the choir and soloists.
As with all of his symphonies, Beethoven has provided his own metronome markings for the Ninth Symphony, and as with all of his metronome markings, there is controversy among conductors regarding the degree to which they should be followed. A metronome is any device that produces a regulated aural visual or tactile pulse to establish a steady Tempo in the performance of music A metronome is any device that produces a regulated aural visual or tactile pulse to establish a steady Tempo in the performance of music Historically, conductors have tended to take a slower tempo than Beethoven marked for the slow movement, and a faster tempo for the military march section of the finale. Conductors in the historically informed performance movement, notably Roger Norrington, have used Beethoven's suggested tempos, to mixed reviews. Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington, CBE (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor.
Ritard/a tempo at the end of the first movement
Many conductors move the "a tempo" in m. 511 of the first movement to measure m. 513 to coincide with the "Funeral March".
Re-orchestrations and alterations
A number of conductors have made alterations in the instrumentation of the symphony.
Gustav Mahler revised the orchestration of the Ninth to make it sound like what he believed Beethoven would have wanted if given a modern orchestra. For example, since the modern orchestra has larger string sections than in Beethoven's time, Mahler doubled various wind and brass parts to preserve the balance between strings on the one hand and winds and brass on the other.
Horn and trumpet alterations
Beethoven's writing for horns and trumpets throughout the symphony (mostly the 2nd horn and 2nd trumpet) is often altered by performers to avoid large leaps (those of a 12th or more).
Flute and first violin alterations
In the first movement, at times the first violins and flute have ascending 7th leaps within mostly descending melodic phrases. Many conductors alter the register of these passages to create a single descending scale (examples: m143 in the flute, m501 in the first violins).
2nd bassoon doubling basses in the finale
Beethoven's indication that the 2nd bassoon should double the basses in measures 115-164 of the finale was not included in the Breitkopf parts, though it was included in the score.
Ninth symphony since the 19th century
- The Ode to Joy was selected as main motif for the Autrian The European Anthem commemorative coin minted in May 11, 2005. Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone. Euro gold and silver commemorative coins are special Euro coins minted and issued by member states of the Eurozone. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The reverse shows the old Theater am Kärntnertor. Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater was a prestigious Theater in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries It was in this theatre that the "Ode to Joy" was first publicly performed. A portrait of Beethoven, together with the opening notes of the previously mentioned symphony, is also included in the coin.
- The Ode to Joy was adopted as Europe's anthem by the Council of Europe in 1972, with an official arrangement for orchestra written by Herbert von Karajan. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert von Karajan ( April 5  In 1985, the European Union chose Beethoven's music as the EU anthem , without German lyrics, because of the many different languages used within the European Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
- At most Olympic Games during the second half of the 20th century, the fourth movement was performed as part of ceremonial processions, and as the national anthem of the United Team of East and West Germany, at the 1956, 1960 and 1964 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an International Multi-sport event held in Rome, Italy The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan It was also used as the anthem for the Unified Team of the former USSR during the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games were a Winter Multi-sport event which was staged in 1992 Albertville ( Arpitan: Arbèrtvile) is a commune in the Savoie department in the Alps in southeastern France The 1992 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Barcelona, Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia
- In 1989, the ninth symphony was performed in Berlin to celebrate the dismantling of the Berlin Wall, conducted by Leonard Bernstein. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes Performed as an "Ode to Freedom", every occurrence of the word "joy" in Schiller's poem was changed to "freedom".
- The symphony seems to have taken particularly deep root in Japan, where it is widely performed during December as part of the annual celebration of the new year. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. 
- Wendy Carlos recorded an electronic version in 1971 for the film A Clockwork Orange; in that film, both the second and fourth movements of the 9th are heard. Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14 1939 is an American Composer and electronic Musician. A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony The film's main character, Alex DeLarge, is a big fan of Beethoven, and often listens to the symphony.
- Ode to Joy also turns up at several points during the second Beatles film Help. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960
- A Song Of Joy (Himno A La Alegria), a pop adaptation of the last movement of the 9th Symphony recorded in Spanish, Italian and English by Spanish-born singer Miguel Rios was released in 1970, selling three million copies worldwide and reaching #14 on the Billboard Top 100. Miguel Ríos (born 7 June 1944, Granada, Spain) is a Spanish Singer, Composer, Actor and one of the See Billboard (Turkish magazine Billboard is a weekly American Magazine devoted to the Music industry 
- The Ode to Joy was adopted as the national anthem of Rhodesia in 1974 as Rise O Voices of Rhodesia. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence For other uses of the name see Rhodesia (disambiguation Rise O Voices of Rhodesia was adopted as the National anthem of Rhodesia
- In 1988, the movie Die Hard made prominent use of the famous Ode to Joy melody. Die Hard is an Academy Award nominated 1988 American Action film. 
- At the last night of The Proms in September 2001, just days after the 9/11 attacks, the ninth symphony was part of a hastily revised programme, to replace the traditional light-hearted programme of the second half. commonly referred to as NGE, Eva, or Evangelion, is a commercially and critically successful influential and controversial Japanese Anime that The Proms, more formally known as The BBC Proms, or The Henry Wood Promenade Concerts presented by the BBC, is an eight-week summer season of daily Orchestral It was performed by the BBC Symphony Orchestra and conducted by Leonard Slatkin. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Leonard Edward Slatkin (born September 1 1944 is an American
- The six-note introduction to the second movement had been featured on NBC News programs as early as the Huntley-Brinkley Report of the 1950s. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's The Huntley-Brinkley Report (sometimes known as the Texaco Huntley-Brinkley Report for one of its early sponsors was the NBC The Huntley-Brinkley Report also featured a longer section of the movement during the end credits. It still survives on NBC's cable network, MSNBC, most prominently, in remixed form, on Countdown with Keith Olbermann. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's MSNBC is a 24-hour cable television news channel based in the United States and available in Canada. Countdown with Keith Olbermann is an hour-long weeknight
- The six-note introduction to the second movement had been also featured on a Milwaukee, Wisconsin Radio station (96. 5 KLH) to the opening of the news.
- FM stations which broadcast classical music do not play the 9th as frequently as the other Beethoven symphonies. For example, KVOD, the PBS FM station from Denver broadcast the 9th only 3 times in 2006, whereas the other 8 symphonies had the following number of broadcasts in 2006: 1(29), 2(29), 3(21), 4(23), 5(30), 6(30), 7(28) and 8(31). 
- The opening also appears in the film "Equilibrium". This film is set in a world where all art and emotion has been destroyed by society. The rebellious government agent/hero, who enforces these laws, soon stumbles upon a vinyl recording of the Ninth and bursts into tears after listening it having never heard music before.
- The hymn, "Joyful, Joyful We Adore Thee", with words written in 1907 by Henry Van Dyke, is sung to the "Ode to Joy" tune and is included in many hymnals. Henry van Dyke (1852 – 1933 was an American author educator and clergyman
- Felix Weingartner conducting the Vienna Philharmonic in 1935. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Paul Felix von Weingartner, Edler von Münzberg The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: die Wiener Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra in Austria, regularly considered one of the finest in the
- Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Berlin Philharmonic in March 1942. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany.
- Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Berlin Philharmonic on April 19th, 1942, on the eve of Hitler's 53rd birthday. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a The Berlin Philharmonic (in German: Die Berliner Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra based in Berlin, Germany. (semi-private recording)
- Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra in 1951. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a The Bayreuth Festival is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of Operas by the 19th century German composer This concert reopened the Bayreuth Festival after the Allies temporarily suspended it following the Second World War.
- Arturo Toscanini conducting the NBC Symphony Orchestra in 1952. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Arturo Toscanini (ɑrˈturɔ ˌtɔskɑˈnini (March 25 1867 &ndash January Robert Shaw, Toscanini's regular assistant, was chorusmaster. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Robert Shaw ( April 30, 1916 – January 25
- Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra in Lucerne in 1954. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25 1886 &ndash November 30 1954 was a The Philharmonia is an Orchestra based in London. Since 1995 it has been based in the Royal Festival Hall. Lucerne ( Italian Lucerna) is a city in Switzerland. It is the capital of the Canton of Lucerne
- Otto Klemperer conducting the Philharmonia Orchestra in November 1957. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Otto Klemperer (born Breslau, May 14, 1885 The Philharmonia is an Orchestra based in London. Since 1995 it has been based in the Royal Festival Hall. Released by BBC Testament.
- Ferenc Fricsay conducting the Berlin Philharmonic in 1958, the first stereo recording of the 9th. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Ferenc Fricsay ( 9 August 1914 &ndash 20 February
- Herbert von Karajan conducting the Berlin Philmarmonic in 1962, 1977 and 1983, as part of complete Beethoven symphony cycles. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Herbert von Karajan ( April 5
- George Szell conducting the Cleveland Orchestra. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> George Szell (ˈsɛl ( June 7, 1897 &ndash July The Cleveland Orchestra, located in Cleveland, Ohio is one of the major symphony Orchestras in the United States. Recorded in 1961 and released on CD in 1991 by Sony.
- Eugene Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra with the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Eugene Ormandy ( November 18, 1899 &ndash March The Philadelphia Orchestra is an Orchestra based in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, in the United States. The Mormon Tabernacle Choir is a 360 member all-volunteer Choir. Recorded in 1967 and released on CD in 1990 by Sony.
- Rafael Kubelík conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Rafael Jeroným Kubelík ( June 29 1914 &ndash The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra ( Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks) is the internationally renowned Orchestra of the Bayerischer Rundfunk Recorded in 1975 and released on CD by Deutsche Grammophon
- Karl Böhm conducting the Vienna Philharmonic in 1981 with Jessye Norman and Plácido Domingo among the soloists. Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical Record label. The company has long been known for its high standards of audio fidelity. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Karl August Leopold Böhm ( August 28, 1894 &ndash The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: die Wiener Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra in Austria, regularly considered one of the finest in the Jessye Norman (born September 15, 1945) is a four time Grammy award winning African American opera singer WikipediaWikiProject Opera#Infoboxes --> José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941) better At 79 minutes, this is among the longest ninths recorded.
- Robert Shaw conducting the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and chorus. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Robert Shaw ( April 30, 1916 – January 25 The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra ( ASO) is an American Orchestra based in Atlanta, Georgia, USA Recorded in 1985.
- Günter Wand conducting the North German Radio Symphony Orchestra. Günter Wand ( January 7, 1912 in Elberfeld, Germany – February 14, 2002 in Ulmiz near Bern, Switzerland The North German Radio Symphony Orchestra (NDR Symphony Orchestra German Sinfonieorchester des Norddeutschen Rundfunks) is the most prestigious orchestra in the city of Recorded in 1986 and released in 2001 by RCA Red Seal.
- Leonard Bernstein conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: die Wiener Philharmoniker) is an Orchestra in Austria, regularly considered one of the finest in the Recorded in 1979 and released in 1980 by Deutsche Grammophon as part of his Vienna Philharmonic cycle of Beethoven symphonies. Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical Record label. The company has long been known for its high standards of audio fidelity. Bernstein also conducted a version of the 9th, with "Freiheit" ("Freedom") replacing "Freude" ("Joy"), to celebrate the fall of the Berlin Wall during Christmas 1989. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including This concert was performed by an orchestra and chorus made up of many nationalities: from Germany, the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, the Chorus of the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra, and members of the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden; from the Soviet Union, members of the Orchestra of the Kirov Theatre, from the United Kingdom, members of the London Symphony Orchestra; from the USA, members of the New York Philharmonic, and from France, members of the Orchestre de Paris. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra ( Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks) is the internationally renowned Orchestra of the Bayerischer Rundfunk The Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra ( Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin) is an orchestra in Berlin, Germany and was founded in 1923 as a Radio orchestra The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden ( Saxon State Orchestra Dresden) is an Orchestra based in Dresden, Germany founded in 1548 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Mariinsky Theatre ( Мариинский театр, also spelled Maryinsky Theatre is a historic theatre of Opera and Ballet in The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The London Symphony Orchestra ( LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active Symphony Orchestra in the United States, organized during 1842 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Orchestre de Paris is a French Orchestra founded in 1967 based in Paris, whose current music director is Christoph Eschenbach. Soloists were June Anderson, soprano, Sarah Walker, mezzo-soprano, Klaus König, tenor, and Jan-Hendrik Rootering, bass. June Anderson (born December 30, 1952) is a Grammy -award winning American Coloratura Soprano. Sarah Walker CBE (born 11 March 1943 in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire) is a British Mezzo-soprano. Jan-Hendrik Rootering (born March 18, 1950 in Wedingfeld near Flensburg) is a German -born Bass-baritone, son of the Dutch 
- Roger Norrington conducting the London Classical Players. Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington, CBE (born March 16, 1934) is a British conductor. Recorded with period instruments. Released in 1987 by EMI Records (rereleased in 1997 under the Virgin Classics label).
- Sir Charles Mackerras recorded the Ninth as the first symphony in his EMI cycle of the Beethoven symphonies with the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra and the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Choir in 1991. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Sir Alan Charles Maclaurin Mackerras AC CH The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in The Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra based in Liverpool, England, is one of the world's oldest established Orchestras It is owned and administered His soloists included Bryn Terfel, Della Jones, Joan Rodgers and Peter Bronder. Bryn Terfel Jones CBE (brɨn ˈtɛrvɛl born November 9, 1965) is a Welsh Bass-baritone opera and concert singer Della Jones ( April 13, 1946) is a Welsh Mezzo-soprano, particularly well-known for her interpretations of works by Händel, Mozart This version was among the first to incorporate many of Jonathan Del Mar's corrections. Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951 is a Musicologist and conductor. Biography Born in London, he studied at Christ Church, Oxford Mackerras later re-recorded the Ninth for his second recorded cycle of Beethoven symphonies for Hyperion Records, live at the 2006 Edinburgh Festival, this time with the Philharmonia Orchestra. Hyperion Records is an independent British classical Record label, named after Hyperion, one of the Titans of Greek mythology Edinburgh Festival is a collective term for several simultaneous arts and cultural Festivals which take place during August each year in Edinburgh, The Philharmonia is an Orchestra based in London. Since 1995 it has been based in the Royal Festival Hall.
- Benjamin Zander made a 1992 recording of the Ninth with the Boston Philharmonic Orchestra and noted soprano Dominique Labelle (who first performed the work with the late Robert Shaw), following Beethoven's own metronome markings. Benjamin Zander (born March 9, 1939, Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, England) is an English-American conductor.
- Sir John Eliot Gardiner recorded his period-instrument version of the Ninth Symphony, conducting his Monteverdi Choir and Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique in 1992. Sir John Eliot Gardiner CBE FKC (born April 20, 1943, Fontmell Magna, Dorset The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works The Monteverdi Choir was founded in 1964 by Sir John Eliot Gardiner for a performance of the Monteverdi Vespers (1610 in King's College The Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, founded in 1990 by John Eliot Gardiner, performs Classical and Romantic music using the principles It was first released by Deutsche Grammophon in 1994 on their early music Archiv Produktion label as part of his complete cycle of the Beethoven symphonies. Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical Record label. The company has long been known for its high standards of audio fidelity. His soloists included Luba Orgonasova, Anne Sofie von Otter, Anthony Rolfe Johnson and Gilles Cachemaille. Luba Orgonasova (born January 22, 1961) is a Slovak operatic Soprano, particularly associated with Mozart roles Anne Sofie von Otter (born 9 May 1955) is a Swedish mezzo-soprano Anthony Rolfe Johnson (born November 5 1940) is an English Tenor singer.
- David Zinman's 1997 recording with the Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra was a modern instrument recording that used the Baerenreiter edition edited by Jonathan Del Mar. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> David Zinman (b Tonhalle Orchester Zürich is a Symphony orchestra founded in 1868 in Zürich Switzerland, where it established its residence in the Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951 is a Musicologist and conductor. Biography Born in London, he studied at Christ Church, Oxford
- Philippe Herreweghe recorded the Ninth with his period-instrument Orchestre des Champs-Elysèes and his Collegium Vocale chorus for Harmonia Mundi in 1999. Philippe Knight Herreweghe (Born May 2 1947 in Ghent) is a Belgian conductor. The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works "Harmonia Mundi" is also the title of a track on Mike Oldfield 's Music of the Spheres album
- Philadelphia Orchestra and The Westminster Choir with Riccardo Muti in 1988 with Cheryl Studer (soprano), Delores Ziegler (mezzo-soprano), Peter Seiffert, James Morris (bass)
- Sir Simon Rattle conducting the Wiener Philharmoniker. The Philadelphia Orchestra is an Orchestra based in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, in the United States. Westminster Choir College is a residential College of music located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Riccardo Muti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (b Cheryl Studer (born October 24, 1955) is a Grammy Award winning American Dramatic soprano who has sung at many of the world's major James Morris may refer to James Morris III (1752&ndash1820 Revolutionary War officer coeducation pioneer namesake of Morris Connecticut WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE, FRSA, (born January Recorded in 2002 as part of the complete Beethoven symphony cycle on EMI Classics.
- Bernard Haitink conducting the London Symphony Orchestra. Bernard Johan Herman Haitink CH KBE (born March 4, 1929) is a Dutch conductor and Violinist Early The London Symphony Orchestra ( LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. Recorded in April 2006 as part of the complete Beethoven symphony cycle on LSO Live. These recordings are noted for the orchestra's flawless performances. Bernard Haitink's Beethoven Symphony cycle has been nominated for Best Classical Album at the 2007 Grammy Awards.
- Osmo Vanska conducting the Minnesota Orchestra as part of an ongoing Beethoven symphonies complete set. Osmo Vänskä (born 28 February 1953 Sääminki, Finland) is a Finnish orchestra conductor. The Minnesota Orchestra is an American Orchestra based in Minneapolis Minnesota.
- ^ Del Mar, Jonathan (July-December 1999). Jonathan Del Mar (born 1951 is a Musicologist and conductor. Biography Born in London, he studied at Christ Church, Oxford Jonathan Del Mar, New Urtext Edition: Beethoven Symphonies 1-9. British Academy Review. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St
- ^ Ludwig van Beethoven The Nine Symphonies The New Bärenreiter Urtext Edition. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St
- ^ Zander, Benjamin. Benjamin Zander (born March 9, 1939, Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, England) is an English-American conductor. Beethoven 9 The fundamental reappraisal of a classic. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St
- ^ Concerning the Review of the Urtext Edition of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St
- ^ Beethoven The Nine Symphonies.
- ^ Rosen, Charles. "The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven". page 440. New York: Norton, 1997.
- ^ Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op. 68. The Kennedy Center, 2006
- ^ Steinberg, Michael. "The Symphony: a listeners guide". page 153. Oxford University Press, 1995.
- ^ Optical Recording: Beethoven's Ninth Symphony of greater importance than technology, Philips
- ^ Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (2007). "Shannon, Beethoven, and the Compact Disc" (html). IEEE Information Theory Newsletter: 42-46.
- ^ The European Anthem. Europa.
- ^ Lockwood, Lewis. "Beethoven: The Music and the Life". page 412. New York: Norton, 2003.
- ^ Naxos (2006). Naxos Records is a Record label for classical music Compact discs and DVDs Founded in 1987 by Klaus Heymann, a Ode To Freedom - Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 (NTSC). Naxos. com Classical Music Catalogue. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" This is the publisher's catalogue entry for a DVD of Bernstein's Christmas 1989 "Ode to Freedom" concert.
- Richard Taruskin, "Resisting the Ninth", in his Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance (Oxford University Press, 1995). Richard Taruskin is an American musicologist music historian and critic who has written about the theory of performance Russian music fifteenth-century music twentieth-century music
- David Benjamin Levy, "Beethoven: the Ninth Symphony," revised edition (Yale University Press, 2003). David Benjamin Levy is a Musicologist. He is a professor with the Department of Music, in Wake Forest University.
- Esteban Buch, Beethoven's Ninth: A Political History Translated by Richard Miller, ISBN 0-226-07824-8 (University Of Chicago Press) 
Scores, Manuscripts & Text
- Schott Musik International 31st and last publisher of Beethoven & copyright holder 
- 9th symphony (PDF) was available at the International Music Score Library Project. Anthony Burgess (February 25 1917 — November 22 1993 was an English Novelist, Critic, Composer, Librettist, Poet The Vancouver Symphony Orchestra (VSO is a Canadian Orchestra performing in Vancouver, British Columbia. Bramwell Tovey (born 11 July 1953) is an English -born conductor and Composer. The International Music Score Library Project ( IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of Public domain music scores, based on the
- Original manuscript (site in German)
- The William and Gayle Cook Music Library at the Indiana University School of Music's has posted a score for the symphony.
- Text/libretto, with translation, in English and German
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