Symphony No. 35 in D major, K. 385 was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1782 and is also called the Haffner Symphony. Also see D minor, or D-flat major. D major (or the key of D) is a Major scale based on D This is a complete list of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, listed chronologically. It was commissioned by the Haffners, a prominent Salzburg family, for the occasion of Sigmund Haffner's ennoblement. is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. The Haffner Symphony should not be confused with the Haffner Serenade, another piece Mozart wrote on commission from the same family. Serenade for orchestra in D major, K 250 popularly known as the Haffner Serenade, is a Serenade by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart named for the Haffner The Haffner Serenade, K. 250, is in eight movements and was composed six years earlier in 1776. ().
The Haffner Symphony did not start its life as a symphony, but rather as a serenade to be used as background music for the ennoblement of Sigmund Haffner. The Mozarts knew the Haffners through Sigmund Haffner’s father, also Sigmund Haffner, who had been mayor of Salzburg and who had helped them out on their early tours of Europe. The elder Haffner died in 1772, but the families remained in contact. In 1776, the younger Haffner commissioned a serenade for the wedding of Marie Elizabeth Haffner to Franz Xavier Spath. This work became the famous Haffner Serenade which was so successful that, when the younger Sigmund Haffner was to be ennobled, it was only natural that Mozart was called upon to write the music for the occasion. Serenade for orchestra in D major, K 250 popularly known as the Haffner Serenade, is a Serenade by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart named for the Haffner The request to write music actually came via Mozart’s father on 20 July, 1782 when Mozart had no spare time. Mozart was “up to his eyeballs with work” (Steinberg 1995, p. 386). Not only was he teaching, but he also had to rearrange the score in his opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail before July 28. Die Entführung aus dem Serail ( K 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is an Opera Singspiel In addition to these demands, his proposed marriage to Constanze Weber was threatened by a number of complications, including moving to a house on the Hohe Brücke in Vienna (Boerner 1997; Boynick 1996). Constanze Mozart (born Constanze Weber) ( 5 January 1762 in Zell im Wiesental, Germany &ndash 6 March 1842 Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Nevertheless, Mozart worked on the music, and sent it through section by section to his father. What Mozart wrote at this time was a new serenade - a completely different work from the serenade presented four years earlier - with an introductory march and two minuets. According to historical evidence, it is quite possible that Mozart did not actually meet his father’s deadline to have the music completed by Sigmund Haffner’s ennoblement. As shall be seen in the following discussion, Mozart later reworked this music into what we now know as the Haffner Symphony.
At the end of December 1782, Mozart decided to present music from the new Haffner serenade at a concert. After asking his father to send the score of the serenade back again, Mozart was amazed at its quality, given the fact that it was composed in so short a time (Boerner 1997; Landon 1996). He set to work to make a number of alterations to the score in order to convert the new Haffner serenade into the Haffner symphony. These alterations included dropping the introductory march (K. 385a) and one of the minuets. In addition, the repeat signs were removed from the end of the first movement’s exposition. Mozart also gave the Haffner Symphony a fuller sound by adding two flutes and two clarinets to the woodwind section of the first and last movements. These added woodwind parts are not new melodic material, but simply a doubling of octaves with the woodwinds (Wilson 1969; J. A. W. 1972).
The Haffner Symphony, as we know it today, received its first performance on March 23, 1783 at the Vienna Burgtheater (Steinberg 1995, Sadie 1985). At the concert, Mozart opened matters with the first three movements of this symphony, an aria from Idomeneo (described in his letter to his father of March 29 that year as his Munich opera), a piano concerto, a scena (a genre related to the concert aria), the concertante movements of one of his recent serenades, his piano concerto K. 175 (with a new finale)— and another scena (from an opera he'd composed for Milan); at this point he improvised a fugue "because the Emperor was present" and then two sets of variations (K. Idomeneo re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante ( Italian: Idomeneo King of Crete or Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo The Piano Concerto No 5 in D Major, K 175 was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1773 when he was 17 398 on an aria by Paisiello and K. 455 on an aria by Gluck). After this, Madame (Aloysia) Lange sang his new rondo (K. 416?) and then to finish the concert, the last movement of the Haffner Symphony. (Landon 1996; Ledbetter 1997; Boynick 1996).
The performance of the Haffner Symphony at this concert, nonetheless, proved very successful. Cuyler (1995) classifies the Haffner, the Linz (No. The Symphony No 36 in C major KV 425 (known as the Linz Symphony) was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart during a stopover in the Austrian 36) and the Prague (No. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed his Symphony No 38 in D major (the " Prague " K. 38) symphonies, as “three symphonies that transcend all his former symphonic works. "
The Manuscript of this Symphony currently resides in the archives at the Juilliard School.
The symphony is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, and strings. The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally Timpani (also known colloquially as kettledrums or kettle drums) are Musical instruments in the percussion family The string section is the largest body of the standard Orchestra and consists of bowed String instruments of the Violin family. 
Mozart’s choice of key for the Haffner Symphony is an aspect that catches one’s attention. According to Cuyler (1995, p. 37), “the key of D major, which was so felicitous for the winds, served Mozart more often than any other key, even C, for his symphonies,” including the Paris (No. The Symphony Number 31 in D major, better known as the Paris Symphony, is one of the more famous symphonies by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. 31) and Prague (No. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed his Symphony No 38 in D major (the " Prague " K. 38) symphonies. The key is also indicative of the work's serenade origins as all of Mozart's orchestral serenades are scored in D major. Hence, it is not surprising that the Haffner Symphony was written in the key of D major (Rushton 2007).
The symphony is in four movements:
When communicating with his father Leopold, Mozart stated that this movement was to be played with fire (Zaslaw 1989). The movement is in sonata form with a short development section. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. The exposition commences with no introduction with all instruments in unison, this opening motive is quite powerful - the result of cleverly using sharp dotted rhythms to arrest the listener’s attention (Downs 1992). The second subject is similar in melodic material and rhythm to the first subject, recalling the monothematic sonata movement of Haydn (e. g. Symphony No. 104). The Symphony No 104 in D major (Hoboken 1/104 is Joseph Haydn 's final symphony
Interestingly, Mozart places no repeat signs at the end of the exposition. This goes against the standard sonata form convention of the day, but is something that he also does in the three big symphonies which precede the Haffner (No's. 31, 33 and 34). The Symphony Number 31 in D major, better known as the Paris Symphony, is one of the more famous symphonies by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The Symphony No 33 in B flat major, K. 319 was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and dated on 9 July 1779. Symphony No 34 in C Major, K. 338 was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 1780, probably finishing it around August (Steinberg 1995).
The development begins with an A unison as a transition from A major to D minor (bars 95-104. After three beats silence, Mozart shifts from the dominant of D minor to an F# chord, and then begins a series of rapid chord changes, namely - F#7 (bar 106), B (bar 109), b (bar 110), C#7 (bar 110). Finally, using C#7 as the dominant for f# minor, Mozart briefly delves in this key (bars 111-120) before using a string of consecutive dominant 7ths (bars 120-129) to work back to the dominant 7th of D major in preparation for the recapitulation. The recapitulation is similar to the exposition with the exception of expected differences in the transition passage. This movement closes with a short four-bar coda. Coda ( Italian for "tail" from the Latin cauda, see below is a term used in Music in a number of different senses primarily to designate
The G major second movement provides a welcome relief with its slow, graceful melodies announced by the woodwind section. G major (or the key of G) is a Major scale based on G with the pitches G, A, B, C, D, E, and The movement is in an abridged sonata form. Instead of a development, a brief chorale-like passage is presented by the woodwinds. A chorale was originally a Hymn of the Lutheran church sung by the entire congregation The rhythmic structures of the first subject theme and the second subject theme provide a subtle, but excellent contrast to each other. Whilst both themes are quite similar in character, the first subject theme has a slow-moving accompaniment based upon sixteenth notes, whereas the second subject theme has a busier accompaniment of thirty-second notes. The brief, chorale-like passage which replaces the development is clearly punctuated by the use of syncopated accompaniment by the violins and violas. This movement has been summarized by some as being delicate and elaborate, but definitely relaxing (Steinberg 1995; Ledbetter 1997).
The D major minuet provides a bright change of atmosphere from the previous slow, serious “Andante” movement. Also see D minor, or D-flat major. D major (or the key of D) is a Major scale based on D One may notice when listening to this movement the constant tug between two main chords - the tonic and dominant keys. Only three times do we see chords other than the tonic or dominant.
Also notable is that the dynamics for the whole “Menuetto” is marked forte. However, in both instances where chord IV and vi appear, Mozart marked these sections piano. These changes produce a pleasant contrast, both melodically and dynamic-wise.
Leading straight on from the “Menuetto”, the “Trio” provides a compliment to the character of this “Menuetto”. As indicated by Mozart in the score, the “Trio” immediately follows the “Menuetto” without a moment of silence. Stepping up into the key of A major, it becomes soon apparent that the “Trio” is also in Ternary form, like the “Menuetto”. One may note the fact that no sections of the “Trio” are marked as forte. All is marked as piano, with the exception of bars 33 - 36, and 43 - 44, where Mozart has indicated a small crescendo. Perhaps to supplement the fact of any clear contrast in dynamics, Mozart has freely used sforzandos throughout the “Trio”. The same type of suspense and resolution is present in the "Trio" as that found in the "Menuetto". In fact, Mozart takes a step further in the "Trio" by adding a pedal note on the dominant. This dominant pedal then subtly slips back into the tonic by means of a chromatic B sharp. When comparing the character of the “Menuetto” with that of the “Trio”, a number of individual “personalities” are apparent. The "Menuetto" is brighter and lighter; whereas the "Trio" creates a more flowing effect. Also notable is that Mozart used chromaticism freely in the "Trio", but limited its use within the "Menuetto".
The last movement, labelled "Presto", maintains just as much fire as the first movement. According to Steinberg (1995), and Ledbetter (1997), this "Presto" movement not only bears a similar atmosphere to the Overture to Le Nozze di Figaro, but also provides a reminiscence of Osmin's comic aria "O wie will ich triumphieren" from Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail. Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans The Marriage of Figaro or the Day of Madness) K Die Entführung aus dem Serail ( K 384; The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is an Opera Singspiel Interestingly, this opera was first performed just two weeks before the composition of this finale. Hence, it may explain why there exist such similarities. When providing his father, Leopold, with performance instructions for the “Presto”, his advice was that this movement should be played "as fast as possible” (Zaslaw 1989, p. 378). Although the "Presto" begins at a quiet, brisk pace, the listener is immediately arrested by three beats of silence, followed by the full orchestra performing at a clear forte level in bar 9. Such musical surprises appear throughout this movement. Like the first movement, this movement is in the key of D major, and the form of the "Presto" movement is clearly in sonata form. Permeated with silences, rapid dynamic shifts, and a bright grace-note passage near the closing of the movement, one may expect the unexpected. With its brilliance, fire, and grandeur, it is quite apparent why Mozart chose this movement as the final movement for the Haffner Symphony.
The Haffner Symphony usually runs somewhere around 20 minutes in length. A recording by George Szell with the Cleveland Orchestra (Sony SBK 46333) runs 19:11; one by Iona Brown with the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields (Haenssler CD 94. WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> George Szell (ˈsɛl ( June 7, 1897 &ndash July The Cleveland Orchestra, located in Cleveland, Ohio is one of the major symphony Orchestras in the United States. Iona Brown OBE (born Elizabeth Iona Brown 7 January 1941 - 5 June 2004) was a British Violinist and conductor The Academy of St Martin in the Fields is an English chamber Orchestra. 003) is 21:09; and one by Sir Neville Marriner also with the same ensemble (Philips 420 486-2) runs 21:34. Sir Neville Marriner (born April 15, 1924) is an English conductor and Violinist.