New South Wales
The Sydney Opera House and Sydney CBD on Port Jackson
|Population:||4,284,379  (1st)|
|• Density:||2058/km² (5330. The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney New South Wales, Australia The Sydney Central business district (CBD and also referred to as the City) is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the capital of New Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology This list of Australian cities by population briefly explains the three different population figures given for Australian cities and provides rankings for each Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 2/sq mi) (2006)|
|Established:||26 January 1788|
|Area:||12144. Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 6 km² (4689. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 1 sq mi)|
• Summer (DST)
|State District:||various (49)|
|Federal Division:||various (22)|
Sydney (pronounced /ˈsɪdniː/) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. This list of Australian cities by population briefly explains the three different population figures given for Australian cities and provides rankings for each For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central 28 million (2006 estimate).  It is the state capital of New South Wales, and the site of the first British colony in Australia, established in 1788 at Sydney Cove by Arthur Phillip, leader of the First Fleet from Britain. There are eight capital cities in Australia, all of which function at a sub-national level The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Port Jackson (commonly but incorrectly called Sydney Harbour) on the coast of the state of New South Admiral Arthur Phillip RN (11 October 1738 &ndash 31 August 1814 was a British naval Admiraland colonial administrator The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 Ships which sailed from Great Britain on 13 May 1787 to establish the first European colony in New South Wales. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands  A resident of the city is referred to as a Sydneysider.
Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast. The city is built around Port Jackson, which includes Sydney Harbour, leading to the city's nickname, "the Harbour City". Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia It is noted for the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge, and its beaches. The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney New South Wales, Australia } The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a Steel arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail vehicular and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business The metropolitan area is surrounded by national parks, and contains many bays, rivers and inlets. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central It is listed as a beta world city by the Loughborough University group's 1999 inventory. Loughborough University is a Campus university located in the Market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands  The city has hosted international sporting, political and cultural events, including the 1938 British Empire Games, 2000 Summer Olympics and the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire Games, the Commonwealth Games being the modern-day equivalent "I am proud and happy to proclaim that you have presented to the world the best Olympic Games ever The 2003 Rugby World Cup was the fifth Rugby union world cup and was won by England. In September 2007, the city hosted the leaders of the 21 APEC economies for APEC Australia 2007, and in July 2008 will host World Youth Day 2008. NOTE TO EDITORS This article uses the day-month-year format for dates (per Australian usage The main airport serving Sydney is Sydney Airport. Sydney Airport (also known as Kingsford Smith International Airport), is located in the Sydney suburb of Mascot.
Sydney is one of the most multicultural cities in the world which reflects its role as a major destination for immigrants to Australia. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Immigration to Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 50000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of  According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Sydney is Australia’s most expensive city, and the 21st most expensive in the world. 
Radiocarbon dating has provided evidence that the Sydney region has been populated by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years. The History of Sydney stretches back to prehistoric timesThe area surrounding Port Jackson ( Sydney Harbour) was home to many Aboriginal tribes Hyde Park is a large park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands.  At the time of the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788, 4000 - 8000 Aboriginal people lived in the region. The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 Ships which sailed from Great Britain on 13 May 1787 to establish the first European colony in New South Wales. The British called them "Eora", because being asked where they came from, these people would answer: “Eora”, meaning in their language: ‘here’, or ‘from this place’. The traditional owners of the inner Sydney City region of Australia are the Cadigal people one of the peoples who belong to the Eora language group There were three language groups in the Sydney region; these were further refined into dialects spoken by smaller clans. The principal languages were Darug (the Cadigal, original inhabitants of the City of Sydney, spoke a coastal dialect of Darug), Dharawal and Guringai. The Sydney Language, also referred to as Dharug or Iyora, is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language that was spoken The Cadigal, also spelled as Gadigal, are a group of Aboriginal Australians who originally inhabited the area that they called 'Cadi' part of which later became Tharawal (many other spellings Thaua, Dhawa Thauaira Thawa is an Australian Aboriginal language. Each clan had a territory; the location of that territory determined the resources available. Although urbanization has destroyed most evidence of these settlements (such as shell middens), Sydney and its environs are well known for numerous rock drawings and carvings because of the nature of the rock, Hawkesbury sandstone. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing A midden, also known as a kitchen midden, or a shell heap, is a dump for domestic waste. Hawkesbury Sandstone is a type of Sandstone prevalent in the Sydney region of New South Wales, Australia.  European interest in colonising Australia arose with the landing of British sea captain Lieutenant James Cook in Botany Bay in 1770. Captain James Cook FRS RN ( – 14 February 1779) was an English Explorer, Navigator and Botany Bay is a bay in Sydney, New South Wales, a few kilometres south of the Sydney central business district. Under instruction from the British government, a convict settlement was founded by Arthur Phillip, who arrived at Botany Bay with a fleet of 11 ships on January 20, 1788. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A penal colony is a Settlement used to detain Prisoners and generally use them for Penal labour in an economically underdeveloped part of the state's Admiral Arthur Phillip RN (11 October 1738 &ndash 31 August 1814 was a British naval Admiraland colonial administrator This site was soon found to be unsuitable for habitation, owing to poor soil and a lack of reliable fresh water. Phillip founded the colony at Sydney Cove on Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Port Jackson (commonly but incorrectly called Sydney Harbour) on the coast of the state of New South Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1788 ( MDCCLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap He named it after the British Home Secretary, Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney, in recognition of Sydney's role in issuing the charter authorising Phillip to establish a colony. The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office Thomas Townshend 1st Viscount Sydney ( 24 February 1732 - 30 June 1800) was a British politician who held several important Cabinet posts in In April 1789 a disease, thought to be smallpox, decimated the indigenous population of Sydney; a conservative estimate says that 500 to 1000 Aboriginal people died in the area between Broken and Botany Bays. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Broken Bay is a large inlet of the Pacific Ocean located about 50 km north of Sydney on the coast of New South Wales, Australia. There was violent resistance to British settlement, notably by the warrior Pemulwuy in the area around Botany Bay, and conflicts were common in the area surrounding the Hawkesbury River. Pemulwuy was born in 1750 and was an Indigenous Australian man who was born in the area of Botany Bay in New South Wales. The Hawkesbury River is one of the major rivers of the coastal region of New South Wales, Australia. By 1820 there were only a few hundred Aborigines and Governor Macquarie had begun initiatives to 'civilize, Christianize and educate' the Aborigines by removing them from their clans. Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB (31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824 Scottish Gaelic spelling Lachlan MacGuaire) British military officer 
Macquarie's tenure as Governor of New South Wales was a period when Sydney was improved from its basic beginnings. The Domain is a large open space in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Garden Palace was a large purpose-built exhibition building constructed to house the Sydney International Exhibition (1879. The Governor of New South Wales is the representative in the Australian state of New South Wales of Australia's monarch, Elizabeth II, Roads, bridges, wharves and public buildings were constructed by British and Irish convicts, and by 1822 the town had banks, markets, well-established thoroughfares and an organised constabulary. During the late 18th and 19th centuries large numbers of Convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government The 1830s and 1840s were periods of urban development, including the development of the first suburbs, as the town grew rapidly when ships began arriving from Britain and Ireland with immigrants looking to start a new life in a new country. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term On 20 July 1842 the municipal council of Sydney was incorporated and the town was declared the first city in Australia, with Charles H. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Chambers the first mayor.  The first of several gold rushes started in 1851, and the port of Sydney has since seen many waves of people arriving from around the world. The Australian gold rushes started in 1851 when prospector Edward Hammond Hargraves claimed the discovery of payable Gold near Bathurst, New South Rapid suburban development began in the last quarter of the 19th century with the advent of steam powered tramways and railways. With industrialisation Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well in excess of one million. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The Great Depression hit Sydney badly. One of the highlights of the Depression era, however, was the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932. } The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a Steel arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail vehicular and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business 
A rivalry has traditionally existed between Sydney and Melbourne since the gold rushes of the 1850s grew the capital of Victoria into Australia's largest and richest city. Australian regional rivalries refers to the rivalries between Australian cities or regions, the most prominent of them being between Melbourne and Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3  Sydney overtook Melbourne in population in the early years of the 20th century, and has remained the largest city in Australia since this time. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 During the 1970s and 1980s Sydney's CBD with the Reserve Bank and Australian Stock Exchange clearly surpassed Melbourne as the nation's financial capital. The Sydney Central business district (CBD and also referred to as the City) is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the capital of New The Reserve Bank of Australia came into being on 14 January 1960 to operate as Australia 's Central bank and banknote issuing authority The Australian Securities Exchange ( ASX) is the primary Stock exchange in Australia.  Throughout the 20th century, especially in the decades immediately following World War II, Sydney continued to expand as large numbers of European and later Asian immigrants populated the metropolitan area. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The culture brought about by immigrants was a major factor in the city's diverse and highly cosmopolitan atmosphere.
Sydney is in a coastal basin bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Royal National Park to the south. } The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a Steel arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail vehicular and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The Blue Mountains is a mountainous region in New South Wales, Australia, which borders Sydney 's metropolitan area beginning approximately 50 kilometres The Hawkesbury River is one of the major rivers of the coastal region of New South Wales, Australia. The Royal National Park is a National park in New South Wales, Australia, 29 km south of Sydney. Sydney lies on a submergent coastline, where the ocean level has risen to flood deep river valleys (ria) carved in the hawkesbury sandstone. Submergent coastline s are stretches along the coast that have been inundated by the sea due to a relative rise in sea levels An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. A ria is a Landform, often referred to as a drowned river valley. One of these drowned valleys, Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is the largest natural harbour in the world. Port Jackson, containing Sydney Harbour, is the natural harbour of Sydney Australia  There are more than 70 harbour and ocean beaches, including the famous Bondi Beach, in the urban area. Bondi Beach (pronounced "BOND-eye" or /'bɒndaɪ/ is a popular Beach and the name of the surrounding Suburb in Sydney, Australia Sydney's urban area covers 1,687 km² (651 sq mi) as at 2001. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile.  The Sydney Statistical Division, used for census data, is the unofficial metropolitan area and covers 12,145 km² (4,689 sq mi).  This area includes the Central Coast and Blue Mountains as well as broad swathes of national park and other unurbanised land. The Central Coast is an urban region in the Australian state of New South Wales, located on the coast north of Sydney and south of Lake Macquarie The Blue Mountains is a mountainous region in New South Wales, Australia, which borders Sydney 's metropolitan area beginning approximately 50 kilometres
Geographically, Sydney sprawls over two major regions: the Cumberland Plain, a relatively flat region lying to the south and west of the harbour, and the Hornsby Plateau, a sandstone plateau lying mainly to the north of the harbour, dissected by steep valleys. The Cumberland Plain is a region in the Sydney Basin of New South Wales, Australia. The oldest parts of the city are located in the flat areas south of the harbour; the North Shore was slower to develop because of its hilly topography, and was mostly a quiet backwater until the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened in 1932, linking it to the rest of the city. The North Shore is an informal term used to describe a primarily residential area of northern metropolitan Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia } The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a Steel arch bridge across Sydney Harbour that carries rail vehicular and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business
Sydney has a temperate climate with warm summers and mild winters, with rainfall spread throughout the year.  The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs. The warmest month is January, with an average air temperature range at Observatory Hill of 18. The Sydney Observatory is located on a hill now known as 'Observatory Hill' in an area in the centre of Sydney now known as The Rocks. 6-25. 8 °C (65. 5-78. 4 °F) and an average of 14. 6 days a year over 30 °C (86. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 0 °F). Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The maximum recorded temperature was 45. 3 °C (113. 5 °F) on 14 January 1939 at the end of a 4 day nationwide heat wave. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessively hot Weather, which may be accompanied by high Humidity.  The winter is mildly cool, with temperatures rarely dropping below 5 °C (41 °F) in coastal areas. The coldest month is July, with an average range of 8-16. 2 °C (46. 4-61. 2 °F). The lowest recorded minimum was 2. 1 °C (35. 8 °F). Rainfall is fairly evenly divided between summer and winter, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year, when easterly winds dominate. The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is 1,217 mm (48 in), falling on an average 138 days a year. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches.  Snowfall last occurred in the Sydney City area in the 1830s. 
|Climate chart for Sydney|
|temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm|
Although the city does not suffer from cyclones or significant earthquakes, the El Niño Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding El Niño-Southern Oscillation ( ENSO; commonly referred to as simply El Niño) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, notably in 1994 and 2001-02 — these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The Black Christmas Bushfires were bushfires that burnt for almost three weeks from 25 December 2001 across New South Wales, Australia The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. One such storm was the 1999 hailstorm, which severely damaged Sydney's eastern and city suburbs. The 1999 Sydney hailstorm was the costliest Natural disaster in Australian Insurance history causing extensive damage along the east coast of New The storm produced massive hailstones of at least 9 cm (3. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth 5 in) in diameter and resulting in insurance losses of around AUD $1. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas 7 billion in less than five hours.  The city is also prone to flash flooding from enormous amounts of rain caused by East Coast Lows (a low pressure depression which deepens off the state usually in winter and early spring which can bring significant damage by heavy rain, cyclonic winds and huge swells). A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic lowlying areas - washes rivers and streams The most notable event was the great Sydney flood which occurred on 6 August 1986 and dumped a record 327. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) 6 mm (12. 9 in) on the city in 24 hours. This caused major traffic chaos and damage in many parts of the metropolitan area. 
The Bureau of Meteorology has reported that 2002 through 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859. The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas 2004 had an average daily maximum temperature of 23. 39 °C, 2005 - 23. 35 °C, 2002 - 22. 91 °C and 2003 - 22. 65 °C. The average daily maximum between 1859 and 2004 was 21. 6 °C (70. 9 °F). For the first nine months of 2006 the mean temperature was 18. 41 °C (65. 1 °F); the warmest year previously was 2004 with 18. 51 °C (65. 32 °F). Since November 2003, there have been only two months in which the average daily maximum was below average: March 2005 (about 1 °C below average) and June 2006 (0. 7 °C below average).
However, the summer of 2007-08 proved to be one of the coolest on record. The Bureau of Meteorology reported that it was the coolest summer in 11 years, the wettest summer in six years, and one of only three summers in recorded history to lack a maximum temperature above 31 °C (88 °F). 
|Mean daily maximum temperature (°C)||25. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 8||25. 7||24. 7||22. 4||19. 3||16. 9||16. 2||17. 7||19. 9||22. 0||23. 6||25. 1||21. 6|
|Mean daily minimum temperature (°C)||18. 6||18. 7||17. 5||14. 7||11. 5||9. 2||8. 0||8. 9||11. 0||13. 5||15. 5||17. 5||13. 7|
|Mean total rainfall (mm)||103. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to 3||117. 4||131. 2||127. 2||123. 3||128. 1||98. 1||81. 5||68. 7||76. 9||83. 1||78. 1||1217. 0|
|Mean number of rain days||12. 1||12. 3||13. 3||12. 0||12. 0||11. 4||10. 3||9. 9||10. 3||11. 5||11. 4||11. 5||138. 0|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Sydney's central business district (CBD) extends southwards for about 3 kilometres (1. The Buildings and architecture of Sydney are not characterised by any one architectural style having accumulated The heritage homes of the city of Sydney, New South Wales, have developed over its two hundred-year history The Sydney Central business district (CBD and also referred to as the City) is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the capital of New 25 mi) from Sydney Cove, the point of the first European settlement in the area at the southern end of the bridge known as "The Rocks". A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Port Jackson (commonly but incorrectly called Sydney Harbour) on the coast of the state of New South The Rocks is an inner-city Suburb, Tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings including historic sandstone buildings such as the Sydney Town Hall and Queen Victoria Building are interspersed by several parks such as Wynyard and Hyde Park. A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper The Sydney Town Hall is a landmark Sandstone building located in the heart of Sydney. The Queen Victoria Building, or QVB, is a Victorian building in the Sydney central business district, in Australia. Wynyard Park is a small park in the of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Hyde Park is a large park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Sydney CBD is bounded on the east side by a chain of parkland that extends from Hyde Park through the Domain and Royal Botanic Gardens to Farm Cove on the harbour. Hyde Park is a large park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Domain is a large open space in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Australia are the largest of three major botanical gardens open to the public in Sydney along with the Mount Annan Botanic Garden Farm Cove is a tidal inlet and shallow bay in Sydney Harbour, separated from Sydney Cove by Bennelong Point (site of the Sydney Opera House) The west side is bounded by Darling Harbour, a popular tourist and nightlife precinct while Central station marks the southern end of the CBD. Darling Harbour, a locality of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia is a large recreational pedestrian precinct Central Railway Station (also known as Sydney Terminal) is the largest Railway station in Sydney. George Street serves as the Sydney CBD's main north-south thoroughfare. George Street is Sydney 's most famous city street There are more high rise buildings and more ASX 100 companies located here then anywhere else in the country and is well
As the site of earliest European settlement in Australia, the CBD contains many other historic buildings such as the Sydney Mint, one of Australia's oldest buildings, Fort Denison, a penal site which was built in the colonial days on a small island situated on the harbour, as well as heritage listed buildings in The Rocks. The Sydney Mint in Sydney, Australia, is the oldest public building in Australia Fort Denison is a former penal site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north of the Royal Botanical Gardens in Sydney Harbour, New South Wales The Rocks is an inner-city Suburb, Tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The area also boasts well known modern architectural sites such as the Sydney Opera House and Martin Place. The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney New South Wales, Australia Martin Place is a pedestrian mall in the Central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia which is one of the most iconic
Although the CBD dominated the city's business and cultural life in the early days, other business/cultural districts have developed in a radial pattern since World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including As a result, the proportion of white-collar jobs located in the CBD declined from more than 60 per cent at the end of World War II to less than 30 per cent in 2004. Together with the commercial district of North Sydney, joined to the CBD by the Harbour Bridge, the most significant outer business districts are Parramatta in the central-west, Penrith in the west, Bondi Junction in the east, Liverpool in the southwest, Chatswood to the north, and Hurstville to the south. Parramatta (ˈpærɑːmætɑː is a suburb in the west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Penrith is a Suburb in western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Bondi Junction is an eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Liverpool is a Suburb in south-western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Chatswood is a Suburb on the North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Hurstville is a Suburb in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
The extensive area covered by urban Sydney is formally divided into more than 300 suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as 38 local government areas. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. There is no city-wide government, but the Government of New South Wales and its agencies have extensive responsibilities in providing metropolitan services. The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then  The City of Sydney itself covers a fairly small area comprising the central business district and its neighbouring inner-city suburbs. South Sydney redirects here This article is about the local government area The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis In addition, regional descriptions are used informally to conveniently describe larger sections of the urban area. These include Eastern Suburbs, Hills District, Inner West, Canterbury-Bankstown, Lower North Shore, Northern Beaches, Northern Suburbs, North Shore, St George, Southern Sydney, South-eastern Sydney, South-western Sydney, Sutherland Shire and Western Sydney. The Eastern Suburbs is a general term used to describe the metropolitan area directly to the east and south-east of the Sydney central business district in Sydney, Hills District is a general but unofficial term for the north-western suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Inner West is a general term which is used to describe the metropolitan area directly to the west of the Sydney central business district in Sydney, New South Canterbury-Bankstown is a general term used to describe the area located around the Bankstown railway line. The Lower North Shore is an informal term for the lower northern suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia which are located on the The Northern Beaches is a informal term used to describe the northern coastal suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, located near The Northern Suburbs is a general term used to describe the metropolitan area on the northern bank of the Parramatta River in Sydney, New South Wales, The North Shore is an informal term used to describe a primarily residential area of northern metropolitan Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia St George Area (also known as St George District or St George Region) is an unofficial name applied to a group of southern suburbs in Sydney Southern Sydney is a general term which is used to describe the southern metropolitan area of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. South-Eastern Sydney is a general term which is used to describe the metropolitan area directly to the south and east of the Sydney central business district in Sydney South-western Sydney is a general term which is used to describe the metropolitan area in south-west Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Sutherland Shire, is a Local Government Area in the Southern Sydney region of Sydney, Australia. Greater Western Sydney, Western Sydney and the Western Suburbs are general terms which are used to describe the western region of the metropolitan area of Sydney However, many suburbs are not conveniently covered by any of these categories. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California.
Sydney is a modern, prosperous city with the highest median household income of any major city in Australia (US$42,559 PPP). The economy of Sydney is notable for its importance in the areas of trading, Finance and distribution in Australia. The Sydney Central business district (CBD and also referred to as the City) is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the capital of New Highlights Most people (90% live in a state where the median household income is US$38000 Highlights Most people (90% live in a state where the median household income is US$38000
The largest economic sectors in Sydney, measured by numbers of people employed, include property and business services, retail, manufacturing, and health and community services.  Since the 1980s, jobs have moved from manufacturing to the services and information sectors. Sydney provides approximately 25 percent of the country's total GDP. 
Sydney is the largest corporate and financial centre in Australia and is also an important financial centre in the Asia Pacific. Asia-Pacific or APAC is the area generally regarded as encompassing Littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the  The Australian Securities Exchange and the Reserve Bank of Australia are located in Sydney, as are the headquarters of 90 banks and more than half of Australia's top companies, and the regional headquarters for around 500 multinational corporations. The Australian Securities Exchange ( ASX) is the primary Stock exchange in Australia. The Reserve Bank of Australia came into being on 14 January 1960 to operate as Australia 's Central bank and banknote issuing authority Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers  Of the ten largest corporations in Australia (based on revenue), four have headquarters in Sydney (Caltex Australia, the Commonwealth Bank, Westpac, and Woolworths). Caltex is a Petroleum brand name of Chevron Corporation used in more than 60 countries in the Asia-Pacific region the Middle East, and southern The Commonwealth Bank of Australia ( is the largest bank in Australia. This article is about the bank For the defunct airline see Western Pacific Airlines. Woolworths Limited is a major Australian company with extensive retail interest throughout Australia and New Zealand. Fox Studios Australia has large movie studios in the city. Fox Studios Australia is a major Movie studio located in Sydney, Australia, occupying the site of the former Sydney Showground at Moore A movie studio (aka film studio) is in the established sense of the term a company that distributes films.
The Sydney Futures Exchange (SFE) is one of the Asia Pacific's largest financial futures and options exchanges, with 64. Asia-Pacific or APAC is the area generally regarded as encompassing Littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the 3 million contracts traded during 2005. In global terms it is the 12th largest futures market in the world and the 19th largest including options. A futures exchange is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized Futures contracts; that is a contract to buy specific quantities of a Commodity 
Tourism plays an important role in Sydney's economy, with 7. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel 8 million domestic visitors and 2. 5 million international visitors in 2004. 
Sydney's retail environment is flourishing, with many shopping centres and retail outlets throughout the city. Premier locations in the central city include the Queen Victoria Building on George Street, the pedestrian mall on Pitt Street and the quieter, northern end of Castlereagh St. The Queen Victoria Building, or QVB, is a Victorian building in the Sydney central business district, in Australia. Along the latter are most of the international luxury boutiques in Sydney such as Jimmy Choo, Versace, Gucci and Chanel. Dato' Jimmy Choo OBE, born Jimmy Choo Yeang Keat (周仰杰 iuis a London -based luxury fashion designer best known for his hand-made women's Gianni Versace SpA (ˈdʒɑnːi verˈsatʃe usually referred to as Versace, is an Italian clothier founded by Gianni Versace in 1978 The House of Gucci, better known simply as Gucci, is an Italian iconic fashion and Leather goods label Chanel SA ʃəˈnɛɫ) is a Parisian fashion house created by Coco Chanel. Oxford Street in Paddington and Crown Street, Woollahra are home to boutiques selling more niche products while the main streets of Newtown and Enmore cater more towards students and alternative lifestyles. Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in Sydney, Australia running from Whitlam Square on the south-east Paddington is an inner-city eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Woollahra is a Suburb in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Newtown is a Suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Enmore is a Suburb in the inner-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Many of the large regional centres around the metropolitan area also contain large shopping complexes, such as Parramatta in Western Sydney, Bondi Junction in the Eastern Suburbs and Chatswood on the North Shore, most of which are Westfield brand shopping centres. Parramatta (ˈpærɑːmætɑː is a suburb in the west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Bondi Junction is an eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Chatswood is a Suburb on the North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Westfield Group is an Australian company and the largest retail property group in the world by equity market capitalisation and the ninth largest entity listed on the
As of 2004, the unemployment rate in Sydney was 4. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. 9 percent.  According to The Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide cost of living survey, Sydney is the sixteenth most expensive city in the world, while a UBS survey ranks Sydney as 18th in the world in terms of net earnings. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London Cost of living is the Cost of maintaining a certain Standard of living. 
As of 20 September 2007, Sydney has the highest median house price of any Australian capital city at $559 000. ' Real estate pricing deals with the valuation (finance and there are three main methods appraisals with comparable properties capitalization rate comparisons with similar The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas  Sydney also has the highest median rent prices of any Australian city at $450 a week. A report published by the OECD in November 2005, shows that Australia has the Western World's highest housing prices when measured against rental yields. 
|Significant overseas born populations|
|Country of Birth||Population (2006)|
At the time of the 2006 census, there were 4,119,190 residents present in the Sydney Statistical Division. Sydney is Australia's most populous city and is also the most populous city in Oceania. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Mainland China, Continental China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term synonymous with the area that is under the jurisdiction New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Australian census is administered by the Australian Bureau of Statistics every five years  Of those 3,641,422 lived in Sydney's urban area.  Inner Sydney was the most densely populated place in Australia with 4,023 persons per square kilometre.  The statistical division is larger in area than the urban area, as it allows for predicted growth. A resident of Sydney is commonly referred to as a Sydneysider. 
In the 2006 census, the most common self-described ancestries identified for Sydney residents were Australian, English, Irish, Scottish and Chinese. Cabramatta is a Suburb in south-western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong The Census also recorded that one per cent of Sydney's population identified as being of indigenous origin and 39. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. 4 per cent were born overseas. The three major sources of immigrants are the United Kingdom, China and New Zealand. Immigration to Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 50000 years ago when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island  Significant numbers of immigrants also came from Vietnam, Lebanon, Italy, India and the Philippines. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Most Sydneysiders are native speakers of English; many have a second language, the most common being Arabic (predominately Lebanese), Chinese languages (mostly Mandarin or Cantonese), and Italian. Australian English ( AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Lebanese or Lebanese Arabic is the colloquial form of Arabic spoken in Lebanon. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy.  Sydney has the seventh largest percentage of a foreign born population in the world, ahead of cities such as the highly multicultural London and Paris. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city 
The median age of a Sydney resident is 34, with 12 per cent of the population over 65 years.  15. 2 per cent of Sydney residents have educational attainment equal to at least a bachelor's degree, which is lower than the national average of 19 per cent. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and
According to the 2006 census, 64 per cent of the Sydney residents are identified as Christians, 3. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth 7 per cent as Buddhists, 3. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices 9 per cent as Muslims, 1. Islam is the fourth largest religious grouping in Australia after Christianity, ' No Religion ' and Buddhism. 7 per cent as Hindus, 0. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical 9 per cent as Jews and 14. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 1 per cent as having no religion. 
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics:
Sydney hosts many different festivals and some of Australia's largest social and cultural events. The culture of Sydney Australia is diverse and multicultural Many of the individual cultures that make up the Sydney mosaic are centred on the ethnic linguistic These include the Sydney Festival, Australia's largest arts festival which is a celebration involving both indoor and free outdoor performances throughout January; the Biennale of Sydney, established in 1973; the Big Day Out, a travelling rock music festival which originated in Sydney; the Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras along Oxford Street; the Sydney Film Festival and many other smaller film festivals such as the short film Tropfest and Flickerfest. Sydney Festival is Australia 's largest and most attended annual cultural event running every January since it was first held in 1976 The Big Day Out ( BDO) is an annual Music festival that tours Australia and New Zealand which originated in Sydney in 1992 Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African The Sydney Gay & Lesbian Mardi Gras is an annual Gay pride parade and festival for the LGBT community in Sydney, Australia, and is the largest Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in Sydney, Australia running from Whitlam Square on the south-east The Sydney Film Festival is a non-competitive Film festival that began in 1954. The Tropfest Short film festival is held in Sydney, Australia each year Australia's premier prize for portraiture, the Archibald Prize is organised by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. The Archibald Prize is regarded as the most important Portraiture prize and is the most prominent of all arts prizes in Australia. The Sydney Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park, the final of Australian Idol takes place on the steps of the Opera House, and Australian Fashion Week takes place in April/May. The Sydney Royal Easter Show, also known as the Royal Easter Show or simply The Show, is an annual show held in Sydney, Australia over two weeks Rules Auditions Auditions are held in major cities around Australia to find each season's contestants An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes Australian Fashion Week is a twice yearly Fashion industry event showcasing the latest seasonal collections from Australian and Asia Pacific Designers Also, Sydney's New Years Eve and Australia Day celebrations are the largest in Australia. New Year's Eve is on December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year and the day before New Year's Day.
Sydney has a wide variety of cultural institutions. The Waifs are a Folk rock band from Western Australia. The original members of The Waifs are Josh Cunningham (guitar vocals and sisters Vikki Cockatoo Island is the largest island in Sydney Harbour in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Cockatoo Island Festival was a music festival held on Cockatoo Island in Sydney Harbour, once over Easter of 2005 organised by Mixed Industry and The Sydney Sydney's iconic Opera House has five theatres capable of hosting a range of performance styles; it is the home of Opera Australia—the third busiest opera company in the world, and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney New South Wales, Australia Opera Australia which is based in Sydney, is Australia 's major Opera company The Sydney Symphony is a Symphony orchestra based in Sydney, Australia.  Other venues include the Sydney Town Hall, City Recital Hall, the State Theatre and the Wharf Theatre. The Sydney Town Hall is a landmark Sandstone building located in the heart of Sydney. City Recital Hall, or City Recital Hall Angel Place in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is a purpose-built Concert venue with the capacity The State Theatre in Sydney, New South Wales is a theatre by architect Henry Eli White. 1831 The first jetty in the area of Pier 4/5 (Sydney Theatre Company’s Wharf was constructed and called ‘Pitman’s Wharf’
The Sydney Dance Company under the leadership of Graeme Murphy during the late 20th century has also gained acclaim. The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney New South Wales, Australia The Sydney Dance Company is one of Australia 's most successful and well-known contemporary dance companies. Graeme Murphy (born 2 November 1950 is regarded as one of Australia 's best dance Choreographers Together with his wife the fellow dancer Janet Vernon, The Sydney Theatre Company has a regular roster of local plays, such as noted playwright David Williamson, classics and international playwrights. The Sydney Theatre Company ( STC) is one of Australia 's most well-known and notable theatre companies operating from The Wharf Theatre near A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. David Keith Williamson AO (born 19 February 1942 is one of Australia's most well-known playwrights
In 2007, New Theatre (Newtown) celebrates 75 years of continuous production in Sydney. The giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African Even-toed ungulate Mammal, the tallest of all land-living Animal Species Taronga Zoo is the city Zoo of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The New Theatre is an independent theatre company in the inner western Sydney suburb of Newtown, Australia. Other important theatre companies in Sydney include Company B and Griffin Theatre Company. Company B is an Australian theatre company based at the Belvoir St Theatre in Sydney, Australia. Griffin Theatre Company is an Australian theatre specialising in new writing. From the 1940s through to the 1970s the Sydney Push, a group of authors and political activists whose members included Germaine Greer, influenced the city's cultural life. The Sydney Push was a predominantly left-wing intellectual Sub-culture in Sydney from the late 1940s to the early '70s. Germaine Greer (born 29 January 1939 is an Australian born Writer, Academic, Journalist and Scholar of early modern English literature
The National Institute of Dramatic Art, based in Kensington, boasts internationally famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann and Cate Blanchett. Luna Park Sydney (originally Luna Park Milsons Point is a historical amusement park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The National Institute of Dramatic Art ( NIDA) is an Australian national training institute for students of Theatre, Film, and Television Kensington is a Suburb in south-eastern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson, AO (born January 3 1956 Judy Davis (born 23 April 1955 is an Academy Award -nominated Screen Actors Guild Award, three-time Emmy Award, two-time BAFTA Award Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann on 17 September 1962 is an Oscar and Golden Globe -nominated Australian Film director, Screenwriter Catherine Élise "Cate" Blanchett (born 14 May 1969 is an Academy Award -winning Australian Actress and Stage director. Sydney's role in the film industry has increased since the opening of Fox Studios Australia in 1998. Fox Studios Australia is a major Movie studio located in Sydney, Australia, occupying the site of the former Sydney Showground at Moore Prominent films which have been filmed in the city include Moulin Rouge!, Mission Impossible II, Star Wars episodes II and III, Superman Returns, Dark City, Dil Chahta Hai, Happy Feet and The Matrix. This article is about the 2001 Motion picture. For other uses see Moulin Rouge (disambiguation Moulin Rouge! is a 2001 Musical film Mission Impossible II, or MI-2 as it is also known is a 2000 film directed by John Woo and starring Tom Cruise, Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded Star Wars Episode II Attack of the Clones is a 2002 Film directed by George Lucas and written by Lucas and Jonathan Hales Star Wars Episode III Revenge of the Sith is a 2005 Space opera Film written and directed by George Lucas. Superman Returns is a 2006 Academy Award -nominated Superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Dark City is a 1998 science fiction Film noir written by Alex Proyas, Lem Dobbs and David S Dil Chahta Hai ( Hindī: दिल चाहता है Urdū: دل چاہتا ہے English: The Heart Desires, but billed as Do Happy Feet is an Australian -produced 2006 computer-animated Comedy-drama musical Film, directed and co-written The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction - martial arts - Action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and Films using Sydney as a setting include Finding Nemo, Strictly Ballroom, Mission Impossible II, Muriel's Wedding, and Dirty Deeds. Finding Nemo is a 2003 computer-animated American Family film. Strictly Ballroom is the name of a 1986 play and its 1992 Film adaptation Mission Impossible II, or MI-2 as it is also known is a 2000 film directed by John Woo and starring Tom Cruise, Muriel's Wedding is a 1994 Australian Dramedy Film written and directed by P Dirty Deeds is a 2002 film shot in Australia. It was directed by noted fringe director David Caesar and stars Bryan Brown, Toni Collette As of 2006, over 229 films have been set in, or featured Sydney. 
Sydney's most popular nightspots include Kings Cross, Oxford Street, Darling Harbour, Circular Quay and The Rocks which all contain various bars, nightclubs and restaurants. Kings Cross is an inner-city locality of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in Sydney, Australia running from Whitlam Square on the south-east Darling Harbour, a locality of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia is a large recreational pedestrian precinct Sydneyferries4JPG|right|thumb| Ferries moored at Circular Quay]]Circular Quay1 The Rocks is an inner-city Suburb, Tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Star City Casino, is Sydney's only casino and is situated around Darling Harbour. For the UK casino see Star City Birmingham. Star City Hotel and Casino (formerly Sydney Harbour Casino)is the second largest Casino in Australia There are also many traditional pubs, cafes and restaurants in inner city areas such as Newtown, Balmain and Leichhardt. Newtown is a Suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Balmain is a Suburb in the inner-west of Sydney, in This article is for the suburb of Leichhardt For the local government area, see the Municipality of Leichhardt. Sydney's main live music hubs include areas such as Newtown and Annandale. Newtown is a Suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Annandale is a Suburb of Inner West Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It once had a thriving live music scene in the 1970s and 1980s, nurturing acts such as AC/DC, Midnight Oil and INXS. AC/DC are an Australian Hard rock band formed in Sydney, Australia in 1973 by brothers Angus and Malcolm Young. Midnight Oil was an Australian rock band from Sydney, Australia INXS (pronounced "in excess" are an Australian rock and New Wave group Other popular nightspots tend to be spread throughout the city in areas such as Bondi, Manly and Parramatta. Bondi is an eastern Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Manly is a Suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Parramatta (ˈpærɑːmætɑː is a suburb in the west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Sydney has several popular museums. Sydney received 78 million domestic visitors and 25 million international visitors in 2004 Sydney has an array of notable attractions located in the Sydney CBD, and surrounding areas Sydney is home a large amount of cultural institutions museums and historic sites some of which are known worldwide Markets in Sydney offer an extensive range of produce new and second-hand merchandise The biggest are the Australian Museum (natural history and anthropology), the Powerhouse Museum (science, technology and design), the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Museum of Contemporary Art and the Australian National Maritime Museum. The Australian Museum is the oldest Museum in Australia, with an international reputation in the fields of Natural history and Anthropology. The Powerhouse Museum is the major branch of the Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences in Sydney, the other being the historic Sydney Observatory. The Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW located in The Domain in Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, is the most important The Museum of Contemporary Art (abbreviated MCA) in Sydney, Australia is an Australian museum solely dedicated to exhibiting interpreting and The Australian National Maritime Museum, a Maritime museum operated as a statutory authority of the Australian Government, is located at Darling Harbour
Sport in Sydney is an important part of the culture. Sport is an important part of the culture of the Australian state of New South Wales. The area is well endowed with open spaces and access to waterways, and has many natural areas even within the city centre. Sydney is well endowed with open spaces and has many natural areas and open spaces even within the city centre Within the Sydney central business district are the Chinese Garden of Friendship, Hyde Park, The Domain and the Royal Botanical Gardens. The Sydney Central business district (CBD and also referred to as the City) is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the capital of New The Chinese Garden of Friendship (谊园 is a Chinese garden in Darling Harbour and close to Chinatown in Sydney, Australia. Hyde Park is a large park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Domain is a large open space in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Australia are the largest of three major botanical gardens open to the public in Sydney along with the Mount Annan Botanic Garden The metropolitan area contains several national parks, including the Royal National Park, the second oldest national park in the world and several parks in Sydney's far west which are part of the World Heritage listed Greater Blue Mountains Area. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution The Royal National Park is a National park in New South Wales, Australia, 29 km south of Sydney. The Greater Blue Mountains Area is a World Heritage Site in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. 
One of the most popular sports in Sydney is Rugby League. History See also History of rugby league The grass roots of rugby league can be traced to early football history, through the playing of ball games The sport was brought from England to Sydney before expanding to the rest of Australia. The city is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League domestic competition. These are Canterbury Bulldogs, Cronulla Sharks, Manly Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters and Wests Tigers. The Bulldogs Rugby League Football Club (formerly Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs and "The Berries") are an Australian professional Rugby league The Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks are an Australian professional Rugby league team based in Cronulla New South Wales in the Sutherland Shire, south of Sydney The Manly - Warringah Sea Eagles are an Australian professional Rugby league club based on the Northern Beaches of Sydney The Penrith Panthers is an Australian professional Rugby league football team The Parramatta Eels are an Australian professional Rugby league football club based in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta. The South Sydney Rabbitohs, also known as Souths, The Bunnies, SSFC or The Rabbits, are an Australian professional Rugby league The St George Illawarra Dragons are an Australian professional Rugby league football team The Sydney Roosters is a professional Rugby league club based in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, Australia. The Wests Tigers are a professional Rugby league football club in the National Rugby League (NRL the premier Rugby league competition in Australasia Despite the final of the 2008 Rugby League World Cup being held in Brisbane, Sydney will host eight World Cup games including one of the Semi-Finals. Teams See also 2008 Rugby League World Cup squads Format Draw The draw after being confirmed by the RLIF on April
Sydney is home to the Australian Football League's Sydney Swans and the A-League's Sydney FC. Royal Randwick Racecourse is a Racecourse for Horseracing in the Eastern Suburbs in Sydney, New South Wales. The Australian Football League (AFL is both the professional Australian national competition in the Sport of Australian Rules Football and its highest The Sydney Swans is an Australian Football League (AFL club based in Sydney, New South Wales. The A-League is the premier Australasian domestic Association football competition Sydney FC, founded in 2004, is an Australian Association football (soccer club based in Sydney and competes in Australia's premier competition The city is represented by two teams in the National Basketball League, netball's Sydney Swifts and is the base for New South Wales teams in the Super 14 (NSW Waratahs) and Pura Cup (Blues) competitions. The National Basketball League is Australia 's top-level professional Basketball competition The Sydney Swifts were an Australian Netball team playing in the national Commonwealth Bank Trophy. The Super 14 is the largest Rugby union football club championship in the Southern hemisphere, consisting of four state teams from Australia (Queensland/Reds The New South Wales Waratahs (referred to as HSBC Waratahs for sponsorship reasons the Waratahs or simply the ' Tahs) are an Australian The New South Wales Blues (referred to as the Speed Blitz Blues for sponsorship purposes are an Australian first class cricket team based in Large sporting events, such as the NRL Grand Final, are regularly held at the ANZ Stadium, the main stadium for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Stadium Australia, presently known as ANZ Stadium, is a multi-purpose Stadium located in the Sydney Olympic Park precinct of Homebush, Sydney "I am proud and happy to proclaim that you have presented to the world the best Olympic Games ever Other events in Sydney include the start of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race and the City to Surf foot race. For the current edition of the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race see 2007 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race. City to Surf (or City2Surf) is a popular Road running event held annually in both Sydney and Perth, Australia in which participants
Sydney has two main daily newspapers. Media in Sydney is internationally influential with most Australian media companies and all major television networks headquarterd in Sydney A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The Sydney Morning Herald is a broadsheet, and is Sydney's newspaper of record with extensive coverage of domestic and international news, culture and business. The Sydney Morning Herald ( SMH) is a daily Broadsheet Newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia Broadsheet is the largest of the various Newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically 22 inches or more It is also the oldest extant newspaper in Australia, having been published regularly since 1831. The Herald's competitor, The Daily Telegraph, is a News Corporation-owned tabloid. The Daily Telegraph is a Tabloid Newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, by Nationwide News, part of News News Corporation (often abbreviated to News Corp) (,,) is one of the world's largest media conglomerate companies by Market capitalisation A tabloid is a Newspaper industry term which refers to a smaller newspaper format per spread to a weekly or semi-weekly alternative newspaper that focuses on local-interest Both papers have tabloid counterparts published on Sunday, The Sun-Herald and the Sunday Telegraph, respectively.
The three commercial television networks (Seven, Nine and Ten), as well as the government national broadcast services (ABC and SBS) each have a presence in Sydney. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic The Seven Network is an Australian television network, owned by the Seven Media Group. The Nine Network, or Channel Nine, is an Australian television network based in Willoughby, a suburb on the North Shore of Sydney Network Ten, or Channel Ten, is one of Australia 's three major commercial television networks. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly abbreviated to the 'ABC' is Australia's national public broadcaster. The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS is one of two government-funded Australian Public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Historically, the networks have been based in the northern suburbs, but the last decade has seen several move to the inner city. Nine has kept its headquarters north of the harbour, in Willoughby. Willoughby is a Suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Ten has its studios in a redeveloped section of the inner-city suburb of Pyrmont, and Seven also has headquarters in Pyrmont, production studios at Epping as well as a purpose-built news studio in Martin Place in the CBD. Pyrmont is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Epping is a Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Martin Place is a pedestrian mall in the Central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia which is one of the most iconic The ABC has a large headquarters and production facility in the inner-city suburb of Ultimo and SBS has its studios at Artarmon. Ultimo is an inner-city Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Artarmon is a Suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Foxtel and Optus both supply pay-TV over their cable services to most parts of the urban area. Foxtel is an Australian Pay television company formed through a joint venture between Telstra, News Corporation and Consolidated Media Optus Television is the Cable television division of Australian Telecommunications company Optus. The five free-to-air networks have provided digital television transmissions in Sydney since January 2000. Digital television (DTV is the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by discrete ( digital) signals in contrast to the analog signals used by Additional services recently introduced include the ABC's second channel ABC2 (Channel 22), SBS's world news service SBS2 (Channel 33), an on-air program guide (Channel 4), a news, sport, and weather items channel (Channel 41), ChannelNSW: Government and Public Information (Channel 45), Australian Christian Channel (Channel 46), MacquarieBank TV (Channel 47), SportsTAB (Channel 48), Expo Home Shopping (Channel 49), and Federal parliamentary broadcasts (Channel 401 to 408)
Many AM and FM government, commercial and community radio services broadcast in the Sydney area. Amplitude modulation ( AM) is a technique used in electronic communication most commonly for transmitting information via a Radio Carrier wave Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. The local ABC radio station is 702 ABC Sydney (formerly 2BL). ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned Radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2BL (identified on air and in print as 702 ABC Sydney since 2000 is an ABC radio station in The talkback radio genre is dominated by the perennial rivals 2GB and 2UE. Talk radio is a Radio format containing discussion about topical issues 2GB is a commercial Radio station in Sydney, Australia broadcasting on 873 KHz, AM. 2UE is a commercial radio station in Sydney, Australia owned by Fairfax Media. Popular music stations include Triple M, 2Day FM and Nova 96.9, which generally targets people under 40. Music radio is a radio format in which Music is the main broadcast content Triple M is a network of radio stations owned by the Austereo Radio Network. Not to be mixed up with Today FM in Ireland 2Day FM (call sign 2DAY) is a commercial FM radio station broadcasting in Sydney Nova 969 (call sign 2SYD) is a commercial radio station operating in Sydney, Australia, owned by the DMG Radio Network. In the older end of the music radio market, Vega and MIX 106.5 target the 25 to 54 age group, while WS-FM targets the 40 to 54 age group with their Classic Hits format mostly focusing on the 70's & 80's. Vega FM is a name for two Australian commercial radio stations operated by DMG Radio Australia, one in Sydney, the other Melbourne. For the American radio stations that carry this branding see KEZR, WMVX or WWMX. "Classic Hits" redirects here For 24/7 music formats known as "Classic Hits" see Classic Hits (ABC radio network or Classic Hits Triple J (national), 2SER and FBi Radio provide a more independent, local and alternative sound. Triple J is a nationally-networked government-funded Australian radio station (a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation) mainly aimed 2SER is a Community radio station in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, broadcasting on the frequency 107 FBi (call sign 2FBI) is an independent not-for-profit Community radio station in Sydney, Australia. There are also a number of community stations broadcasting to a particular language group or local area.
Certain areas in Sydney are also being used for tests of digital radio broadcasting, which the government plans to roll out in the future to replace the existing analogue AM and FM networks in much the same way as they are doing with analogue and digital television at present.
Apart from the limited role of the Cumberland County Council from 1945–1964, there has never been an overall governing body for the Sydney metropolitan area; instead, the metropolitan area is divided into local government areas (LGAs). The Sydney Town Hall is a landmark Sandstone building located in the heart of Sydney. Cumberland County is a County in the State of New South Wales, Australia. Local Government Area (abbreviated LGA) is a term used in Australia (and especially by the Australian Bureau of Statistics) to refer to areas controlled These areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales State Government, such as planning and garbage collection. The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then
The City of Sydney includes the central business area and some adjoining inner suburbs, and has in recent years been expanded through amalgamation with adjoining local government areas, such as South Sydney. South Sydney redirects here This article is about the local government area It is led by the elected Lord Mayor of Sydney and a council. This is a list of the Mayors and Lord Mayors of the City of Sydney, a Local Government Area of New South Wales, Australia The Lord Mayor, however, is sometimes treated as a representative of the whole city, for example during the Olympics.
Most citywide government activities are controlled by the state government. These include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, and planning of major infrastructure projects. Because a large proportion of New South Wales' population lives in Sydney, state governments have traditionally been reluctant to allow the development of citywide governmental bodies, which would tend to rival the state government. For this reason, Sydney has always been a focus for the politics of both State and Federal Parliaments. This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions For example, the boundaries of the City of Sydney LGA have been significantly altered by state governments on at least four occasions since 1945, with expected advantageous effect to the governing party in the New South Wales Parliament at the time. 
The 38 LGAs commonly described as making up Sydney are:
Different organisations have varying definitions of which councils make up Sydney. The Municipality of Ashfield is a Local Government Area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Auburn Council is a Local Government Area in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, about 15 kilometres west of the Sydney central business The City of Bankstown is a city and Local Government Area in the Canterbury-Bankstown region of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Baulkham Hills Shire is a local government area in the north western region of Sydney, Australia. For the state electoral district see Electoral district of Blacktown. The City of Botany Bay is a Local Government Area in south eastern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Municipality of Burwood is a Local Government Area in the inner-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. See also the London Borough of Camden Camden Council is a Local Government Area in New South Wales, Australia The City of Campbelltown is a Local Government Area in south-western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, located about 55 km The City of Canada Bay is a Local Government Area of New South Wales, Australia and located in the metropolitan area of Sydney. The City of Canterbury, previously the Municipality of Canterbury, is a Local Government Area in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia The City of Fairfield is a Local Government Area in the south-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Holroyd is a Local Government Area and suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, located in the Western Sydney region Hornsby Shire is a vast Local Government Area in the Northern region of Sydney, Australia. The Municipality of Hunter's Hill is the smallest Local Government Area in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The City of Hurstville is a Local Government Area in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Municipality of Kogarah is a Local Government Area in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Ku-ring-gai Council is a Local Government Area in the North Shore region of Sydney. The Municipality of Lane Cove is a Local Government Area located about 10km north-west of the Central business district of Sydney, Australia, The Municipality of Leichhardt is a Local Government Area in the inner-west of Sydney, in state of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Liverpool is a Local Government Area to the southwest of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Manly Council is a Local Government Area on the Northern Beaches of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Marrickville is a Local Government Area (LGA in the Inner West region of Sydney, Australia. The Municipality of Mosman is a Local Government Area on the Lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia North Sydney Council is a Local Government Area on the North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Parramatta is a Local Government Area in western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Penrith is a Local Government Area in western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Pittwater Council is a Local Government Area on the Northern Beaches of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Randwick is a Local Government Area in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Rockdale is a Local Government Area in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The City of Ryde is a Local Government Area in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, on the Lower North Shore and Greater Western Strathfield Municipal Council is a Local Government Area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Sutherland Shire, is a Local Government Area in the Southern Sydney region of Sydney, Australia. South Sydney redirects here This article is about the local government area Warringah is a local council area in the Northern Beaches region of Sydney, Australia. Waverley Municipal Council ( WaMC; also just Waverley Council) is a Local Government Area in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the The City of Willoughby is a Local Government Area on the North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The Municipality of Woollahra is a Local Government Area in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia The Local Government Association of New South Wales considers all LGAs lying entirely in Cumberland County as part of its 'Metro' group, which excludes Camden (classed in its 'Country' group). Cumberland County is a County in the State of New South Wales, Australia.  The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines a Sydney Statistical Division (the population figures of which are used in this article) that includes all of the above councils as well as Wollondilly, the Blue Mountains, Hawkesbury, Gosford and Wyong. The Australian Bureau of Statistics ( ABS) is Australia 's national statistical agency. 
Sydney is home to some of Australia's most prominent universities, and is the site of Australia's first university, the University of Sydney, established in 1850. The University of Sydney (informally Sydney Uni or USyd) is the oldest university in Australia Sydney is home to some of Australia's most prestigious uinversities technical institutions and schools The University of Sydney (informally Sydney Uni or USyd) is the oldest university in Australia  There are five other public universities operating primarily in Sydney: the University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, the University of Technology, Sydney, the University of Western Sydney, and the Australian Catholic University (two out of six campuses). A public university is a University that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government as opposed to private universities. The University of New South Wales, also known as UNSW or colloquially as New South, is a University situated in Kensington, a suburb in Macquarie University is an Australian public University located in Sydney. The University of Technology Sydney ( UTS) is a University in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The University of Western Sydney, also known as UWS, is a University in New South Wales, Australia. Australian Catholic University, or ACU National, is Australia's only public Catholic university Other universities which operate secondary campuses in Sydney include the University of Notre Dame Australia and the University of Wollongong. The University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA is a private Roman Catholic University established in 1990 in the Western Australian port The University of Wollongong (UOW is a public university with approximately 22000 students located in the coastal city of Wollongong, which is 80 kilometres south of
There are four multi-campus government-funded Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in Sydney, which provide vocational training at a tertiary level: the Sydney Institute of Technology, Northern Sydney Institute of TAFE, Western Sydney Institute of TAFE and South Western Sydney Institute of TAFE. Technical and Further Education or TAFE (pronounced) institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational tertiary education courses in Australia Vocational education or Vocational Education and Training (VET also called Career and Technical Education (CTE prepares learners for jobs that are based Sydney Institute (formerly The Sydney Institute of Technology is the institute of TAFE NSW colleges serving the inner Sydney area TAFE NSW–Northern Sydney Institute (NSI is one of Australia ’s largest vocational and training institutions recognised by individuals business and communities alike TAFE NSW - Western Sydney Institute is a large complex decentralised educational institute and is one of the largest Institutes of TAFE NSW. South Western Sydney Institute (SWSI is a TAFE NSW Institute in Sydney, New South Wales.
Sydney has public, denominational and independent schools. State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately Parochial school is one term used (particularly in the United States) to describe a school that engages in Religious education in addition to conventional Education For the film of this title see Private School (film. Private schools, or Independent schools are Schools not administered Public schools, including pre-schools, primary and secondary schools, and special schools are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education and Training. The New South Wales Department of Education and Training (DET is a department of the Government of New South Wales with responsibility for Primary schools Secondary There are four state-administered education areas in Sydney, that together co-ordinate 919 schools. This is a complete list of school education areas in New South Wales as of December 2006 Of the 30 selective high schools in the state, 25 are in Sydney. Selective schools in New South Wales, Australia are most commonly government High schools operated by the New South Wales Department of 
The Government of New South Wales operates the public hospitals in the Sydney metropolitan region. Sydneyferries4JPG|right|thumb| Ferries moored at Circular Quay]]Circular Quay1 The M5 South Western Motorway (also known as the M5 South West Motorway, M5 Motorway or simply M5) is a Motorway in south-western Sydney Liverpool Street is an important east-west thoroughfare of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for Management of these hospitals and other specialist health facilities is coordinated by 4 Area Health Services: Sydney South West (SSWAHS), Sydney West (SWAHS), Northern Sydney and Central Coast (NSCCAHS) and the South Eastern Sydney and Illawarra (SESIAHS) Area Health Services. There are also a number of private hospitals in the city, many of which are aligned with religious organisations.
Most Sydney residents travel by car through the system of roads, and motorways. Sydney and its surrounding regions is served by an extensive network of public transport services Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation The most important trunk routes in the urban area form the nine Metroad systems, which includes the 110 km (68 mi) Sydney Orbital Network. A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major Road &mdashusually connecting two or more cities, Ports Airports Metroads are the primary Road routes serving the Sydney and Brisbane metropolitan areas in Australia. The Sydney Orbital Network is a 110 kilometre Motorway standard ring-road or orbital around the city of Sydney, the capital of New South Wales Sydney is also served by extensive train, taxi, bus and ferry networks.
Sydney trains are run by CityRail, a corporation of the New South Wales State Government. Sydney, the largest city in Australia, has an extensive network of passenger and freight railways For the Beijing subway line known as the CityRail Line see Line 13 Beijing Subway CityRail is an operating division of RailCorp The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution which dates from 1856 although it has been amended many times since then Trains run as suburban commuter rail services in the outer suburbs, then converge in an underground city loop service in the central business district. Various terms are used for Passenger rail lines and equipment In the years following the 2000 Olympics, CityRail's performance declined significantly.  In 2005, CityRail introduced a revised timetable and employed more drivers.  A large infrastructure project, the Clearways project, is scheduled to be completed by 2010. The CityRail Clearways Project is a $18 billion dollar program of Public works on Sydney 's CityRail suburban railway network to "untangle" the  In 2007 a report found Cityrail performed poorly compared to many metro services from other world cities.  Sydney has one privately operated light rail line, the Metro Light Rail, running from Central Station to Lilyfield along a former goods train line. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. The Metro Light Rail (formerly the Sydney Light Rail) is the only currently operating Light rail network in the Australian city of Sydney Central Railway Station (also known as Sydney Terminal) is the largest Railway station in Sydney. Lilyfield is a small Suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. There is also a small monorail which runs in a loop around the main shopping district and Darling Harbour. The Metro Monorail (formerly Sydney Monorail, and originally TNT Harbourlink) is a single-loop Von Roll MkIII Monorail in the city Darling Harbour, a locality of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia is a large recreational pedestrian precinct Sydney was once served by an extensive tram network, which was progressively closed in the 1950s and 1960s. This is a historical article about the now closed tramways of Sydney Most parts of the metropolitan area are served by buses, many of which follow the pre-1961 tram routes. In the city and inner suburbs the state-owned Sydney Buses has a monopoly. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. Public ownership (also called government ownership, state ownership or state property) refers to Government Ownership of any The State Transit Authority of New South Wales (STA is an agency of the Government of New South Wales based in Sydney, Australia operating bus and In the outer suburbs, service is contracted to many private bus companies. Construction of a network of rapid bus transitways in areas not previously well served by public transport began in 1999, and the first of these, the Liverpool-Parramatta Rapid Bus Transitway opened in February 2003. Bus rapid transit ( BRT) is a broad term given to a variety of transportation systems that through improvements to infrastructure vehicles and scheduling attempt to use The Liverpool-Parramatta T-way is a Bus rapid transit line in the western suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Sydney Ferries, another State government-owned organisation, runs numerous commuter and tourist ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River. Sydney Ferries is a state owned corporation of the New South Wales Government providing commuter Ferry services on Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta The Parramatta River is a waterway in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Sydney Airport, located in the suburb of Mascot, is Sydney's main airport, and is one of the oldest continually operated airports in the world . Sydney Airport (also known as Kingsford Smith International Airport), is located in the Sydney suburb of Mascot. Mascot is a Suburb in south-eastern Sydney, in An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land The smaller Bankstown Airport mainly serves private and general aviation. Bankstown Airport is a General aviation Airport and business park located in the City of Bankstown, 22 km from the Central business district General aviation (abbr GA) is one of two categories of Civil aviation. There are light aviation airfields at Hoxton Park and Camden. Hoxton Park is a Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Camden is a historic town in New South Wales, Australia. Camden is RAAF Base Richmond lies to the north-west of the city. RAAF Base Richmond is one of Australia 's oldest surviving Air force bases The question of whether Sydney needs a second airport has raised much controversy. A 2003 study found that Kingsford Smith can manage as Sydney's sole international airport for 20 years with a significant increase in airport traffic predicted. An international airport is an Airport typically equipped with Customs and Immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other  The resulting expansion of the airport would have a substantial impact on the community, including additional aircraft noise affecting residents. Aircraft noise is defined as Sound produced by any aircraft or its components during various phases of a flight on the ground while parked such as auxiliary power Land has been acquired at Badgerys Creek for a second airport, the site acting as a focal point of political argument. Badgerys Creek is a Suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. 
Water storage and supply for Sydney is managed by the Sydney Catchment Authority, which is an agency of the NSW Government that sells bulk water to Sydney Water and other agencies. The Sydney Catchment Authority (SCA is an agency of the Government of New South Wales that manages Sydney's drinking water catchments and supplies bulk water to Sydney Sydney Water is a New South Wales government owned corporation that provides Drinking water, Wastewater and some Stormwater services to Water in the Sydney catchment is chiefly stored in dams in the Upper Nepean Scheme, the Blue Mountains, Woronora Dam, Warragamba Dam and the Shoalhaven Scheme. The Upper Nepean Scheme is a series of dams in the catchments of the Cataract, Cordeaux, Avon and Nepean rivers of New South Wales The Blue Mountains Dams are a series of 6 dams in the Blue Mountains which supply water to the Blue Mountains and Sydney, Australia. Woronora Dam collects water from the catchment of the Woronora River, which drains into the dam and then to Georges River. Warragamba Dam is Sydney 's primary water source. It is approximately 65 km to the west of Sydney on the Warragamba River The Shoalhaven Scheme is a dual-purpose water supply and hydro-electric power generation scheme in New South Wales.  Historically low water levels in the catchment have led to water use restrictions and the NSW government is investigating alternative water supply options, including grey water recycling and the construction of a seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant at Kurnell. Water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages resulting from drought. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users Greywater, also known as sullage, is non-industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as dish washing Reverse osmosis (RO is a separation process that uses pressure to force a Solution through a membrane that retains the Solute on one side and allows the  Sydney Water also collects the wastewater and sewage produced by the city.
Three companies supply natural gas and electricity to Sydney: Energy Australia, AGL and Integral Energy. EnergyAustralia is a large Australian Electricity supplier and retailer AGL Energy ( is the largest Australian gas and electricity retailer with over six million customers Integral energy is the amount of energy required to remove water from an initial Water content \theta_i to water content of \theta_f (where \theta_i Numerous telecommunications companies operate in Sydney providing terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services.