Kingdom of Sweden
|Motto: (Royal) "För Sverige - I tiden" 1|
"For Sweden – With the Times"
|Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria2|
Thou ancient, thou free
Royal anthem: Kungssången
The Song of the King
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Swedish (de facto)5|
|Demonym||Swedish or Swedes|
|Government||Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy|
|-||King||Carl XVI Gustaf|
|-||Prime Minister||Fredrik Reinfeldt|
|EU accession||1 January 1995|
|-||Total||449,964 km² (55th)|
173,732 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||8. List of flags of Sweden The Flag of Sweden (Sveriges flagga is blue with a yellow Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag The greater national coat of arms ( stora riksvapnet) and the lesser national coat of arms ( lilla riksvapnet) are the official coats of arms A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The Royal mottos or Valspråk of the Swedish monarchs has been a tradition since first used by Gustav I of Sweden, in the early 16th century A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Du gamla Du fria ("Thou ancient Thou free" is the De facto National anthem of Sweden. A royal anthem is a patriotic song much like a National anthem but specifically praising or praying for a Monarch or royal dynasty Kungssången ("The king's song" is the Swedish Royal anthem. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The demographics of Sweden have changed significantly as a result of immigration since World War II ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The monarch is the Head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. Sweden being a Constitutional monarchy with a Representative democracy based on a The Prime Minister (statsminister literally "Minister of the State" is the Head of government in Sweden. John Fredrik Reinfeldt ( pronounced) (born 4 August 1965 in Österhaninge) is the current Prime Minister of Sweden and leader of the liberal The Speaker of the Parliament of Sweden (Riksdag is the speaker (talman of the national parliament in Sweden. Per Erik Gunnar Westerberg (born 2 August, 1951) is a Swedish Moderate Party politician and as of 2006 the current Speaker of the Riksdag The consolidation of Sweden was a long process during which the loosely organized social system consolidated under the power of the king The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 7|
|-||2008 census||9,196,227 ( Source: www. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology scb. se)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$333. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 1 billion (33th)|
|-||Per capita||$36,900 (25th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$384 billion (20th)|
|-||Per capita||$47,069 (8th)|
|Gini (2005)||23 (low)|
|HDI (2004)||▲ 0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 956 (high) (6th)|
|Currency||Swedish krona (|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|1||För Sverige - I tiden has been adopted by Carl XVI Gustaf as his personal motto. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
|2||Du gamla, Du fria has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention. Du gamla Du fria ("Thou ancient Thou free" is the De facto National anthem of Sweden.|
|3||The Swedish language is the de facto national language. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the Five other languages are officially recognized as minority languages.|
|4||Population in the country, counties and municipalities on 31/12/2007 and Population Change in 2007. Statistiska centralbyrån. Retrieved on 2008-02-19. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum|
|5||The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The .nu domain is another commonly used TLD ("nu" means "now" in Swedish).|
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: [ˈko:. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the nɵ. ŋa. ˌri:. kət ˈsvær:. jə]), is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, The Scandinavian Peninsula is a geographic region in northern Europe, consisting principally of the Mainland territories of Norway and Sweden Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland Sweden has land borders with Norway and Finland, and is connected to Denmark by the Oresund Bridge. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Oresund Bridge ( Danish Øresundsbroen, Swedish Öresundsbron, joint hybrid name Øresundsbron) is a combined two-track rail It has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1995. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Its capital city is Stockholm. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the
At 449. 964 km² (173. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 732 sq mi), Sweden is the third largest country by area in Western Europe and fourth in all of Europe. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' With a total population slighly over 9 million, Sweden has a low population density of 20 people per km² (52 per sq. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume mi). About 84% of the population live in urban areas.  The inhabitants of Sweden enjoy a high standard of living, and the country is generally perceived as modern and liberal, with an organisational and corporate culture that is non-hierarchical and collectivist compared to its Anglo-Saxon counterparts. The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of Collectivism is a term used to describe any moral political or social outlook that stresses human Interdependence and the importance of a Collective, rather than The word Anglosphere describes a concept of a group of Anglophone ( English -speaking nations which share historical political and cultural characteristics rooted  Nature conservation, environmental protection and energy efficiency are generally prioritized in policy making and embraced by the general public in Sweden. Conservation can be confused with Conversation and vice versa Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. 
Sweden has long been a major exporter of iron, copper and timber. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or Improved transportation and communication has allowed for the large scale utilization of remote natural assets, most notably timber and iron ore. Transportation in Sweden. Railways Rail transport are operated by SJ, Green Cargo, Tågkompaniet and a number of Communications in Sweden Telecommunications Sweden liberalized its telecommunication industry starting in 1980s and being formally liberalized in 1993 Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted In the 1890s, universal schooling and industrialization enabled the country to develop a successful manufacturing industry and by the twentieth century, Sweden emerged as a welfare state, consistently achieving high positions among the top-ranking countries in the UN Human Development Index (HDI). is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP Sweden has a rich supply of water power, but lacks significant oil and coal deposits.
Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397, and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September In the 17th century the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire. Sweden was between 1611 and 1718 one of the Great powers of Europe Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. The eastern half of Sweden constituted by the eastern half of Norrland and Österland was lost to Russia in 1809. Geography Norrland comprises the historical provinces ( landskap) Gästrikland, Medelpad, Ångermanland, Hälsingland, Jämtland Österland or Österlanden was formerly a term used for the southern part of Finland. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Sweden by military means forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden, a union which lasted until 1905. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Union between Sweden and Norway (Unionen mellan Sverige och Norge Unionen mellom Norge og Sverige or the Swedish-Norwegian Kingdom was the union of the kingdoms of Since 1814, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties 
The modern name Sweden is derived through "back-formation" from Old English Sweoðeod, which meant "people of the Swedes" (Old Norse Svíþjóð, Latin Suetidi). This word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones). The Swedish name Sverige literally means "Realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. The Swedes (svear Old Norse: svíar; Old English: Sweonas; Suiones Suehans or Sueones) were an ancient North Geats, Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting Götaland Götaland ( Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gotland, Gautland, Geatland is one of three lands of Sweden
The etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but suggestively deriving from Proto-Germanic *Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English
Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød warm period c. Modern Sweden emerged out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic 12000-4000 BC The Pleistocene glaciations scoured the landscape clean and covered much of it in deep quaternary sediments The Allerød period is a part of a temperature oscillation toward the end of the last Glaciation, during which temperatures in the northern Atlantic region rose from 12,000 BCE with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province. Bromme culture is a late Upper Paleolithic culture dated to the Allerød Oscillation, ca 9700 BC - 9000 BC ( uncalibrated) a warmer This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology.
Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnel-beaker Culture in c. Old Europepng|350px|right|thumb|Ca 3500 BC map of Europe showing an approximation of the Funnelbeaker culture in green and a number of important contemporary cultures see Vinca, 4,000 BCE. Sweden's southern third was part of the stock-keeping and agricultural Nordic Bronze Age Culture's area, most of it being peripheral to the culture's Danish centre. The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian The period began in c. 1700 with the start of bronze imports from Europe. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Copper mining was never tried locally during this period, and Scandinavia has no tin deposits, so all metal had to be imported though it was largely cast into local designs on arrival.
The Nordic Bronze Age was entirely pre-urban, with people living in hamlets and on farmsteads with single-story wooden long-houses.
In the absence of any Roman occupation, Sweden's Iron Age is reckoned up to the introduction of stone architecture and monastic orders about 1100 CE. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Much of the period is proto-historical, that is, there are written sources but most hold a very low source-critical quality. Protohistory refers to a period between Prehistory and History, during which a Culture or Civilization has not yet developed Writing The scraps of written matter are either much later than the period in question, written in areas far away, or local and coeval but extremely brief.
The climate took a turn for the worse, forcing farmers to keep cattle indoors over the winters, leading to an annual build-up of manure that could now for the first time be used systematically for soil improvement.
A Roman attempt to move the Imperial border forward from the Rhine to the Elbe was aborted in AD 9 when Germans under Roman-trained leadership defeated the legions of Varus by ambush in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the year 9 A About this time, a major shift in the material culture of Scandinavia occurred, reflecting increased contact with the Romans.
Starting in the 2nd century CE, much of southern Sweden's agricultural land was parcelled up with low stone walls. They divided the land into permanent infields and meadows for winter fodder on one side of the wall, and wooded outland where the cattle was grazed on the other side. This principle of landscape organisation survived into the 19th century. The Roman Period also saw the first large-scale expansion of agricultural settlement up the Baltic coast of the country's northern two thirds.
Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in 98 CE. The Germania ( Latin title De Origine et situ Germanorum, English for the Origin and Situation of the Germans) written by Gaius Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. Whether any of the brief information he reports about this distant barbaric area was well-founded is uncertain, but he does mention tribal names that correspond to the Swedes (Suiones) and the Sami (Fenni) of later centuries. The Swedes (svear Old Norse: svíar; Old English: Sweonas; Suiones Suehans or Sueones) were an ancient North The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway Fenni were a people living in Fennoscandia in the 1st century mentioned by Cornelius Tacitus in Germania in 97 A As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was invented among the south Scandinavian elite in the 2nd century, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts, mainly of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages. Proto-Norse (also Proto-Scandinavian, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic, Old Scandinavian and Proto-North Germanic The North Germanic languages or Scandinavian languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages
The Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly between the eighth and eleventh centuries CE. The Swedish pre-history ended around 800 CE when the Viking Age began The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish history lasted between 1523&ndash1611 Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south. Geats, Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting Götaland  While Vikings from what is today Norway, Denmark and the west coast and south of Sweden travelled south and west, Swedish vikings and Gutar travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Russia, the Mediterranean and further as far as Baghdad. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. In Swedish they are also called Gutar an ethnonym identical to Goths ( Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Their routes passed the rivers of Russia down south to Constantinople (Byzantine Empire) (present-day Istanbul, Turkey) on which they did numerous raids. The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» Put iz varyag v greki) was a Trade route, which connected Scandinavia Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war, and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, these were called the varangian guard. Various people have been known by the name Theophilus or Theophilos, which means "Friend of God" in Greek and is thus similar to the Latin word Amadeus The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian The Swedish vikings are believed to have taken great part in the creation of Russia. The adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. A runestone is typically a raised stone with a runic inscription but the term can also be applied to inscriptions on boulders and on bedrock See also Varangian Runestones The Greece Runestones comprise around 30 Runestones containing information related to voyages made by Scandinavians to "Greece" Varangian routespng|thumb|right|250px|A map of the main routes through Garðaríki There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commorated on stones such as the England Runestones. Main article Viking Runestones. The England Runestones is a group of c The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea. Ingvar the Far-Travelled ( Old Norse: Yngvarr víðförli) was the leader of an unsuccessful Viking attack against Persia, in 1036 – Old Norse sources such as Sagas and Runestones Særkland or Serkland was the name of the Abbasid Caliphate and probably The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones, none of which mentions any survivor. See also Varangian Runestones The Ingvar Runestones (Ingvarstenarna is the name of c
It is not known when and how the kingdom of Sweden was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled Svealand (Sweden) and Götaland (Gothia) as one with Erik the Victorious. This is a list of Swedish Monarchs, that is the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union Svealand ( or (rarely or historically Sweden Proper is the historical core region of Sweden. Götaland ( Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gotland, Gautland, Geatland is one of three lands of Sweden Eric the Victorious ( VI) Old Norse: Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, Modern Swedish Erik Segersäll, (945?- c 995 was the first Swedish king Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that. It is not known how long they existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the sixth century CE. Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between Swedish-Geatish wars refer to semi- Legendary 6th century battles between Swedes and Geats that are described in the Anglo-Saxon The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centers. Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. Ystad is a city with a population of 17286 (2005 in the traditional province of Scania in Scania ( in Swedish and Danish) is a geographical region on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a traditional province ( is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the largest Island in the Baltic Sea. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 CE.  In Paviken, an important center of trade in the Baltic region during the ninth and tenth century, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined. 
St. Ansgar introduced Christianity around 829, but the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the twelfth century and onward. Saint Ansgar, Anskar or Oscar, ( September 8 ? 801 &ndash February 3, 865) was an Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world During the 11th century, Christianity became the most prevalent religion, and from the year 1050 Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between 1100 and 1400 was characterized by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms, including struggles for territory and comparative power. Swedish kings also began to expand the Swedish-controlled territory in Finland, creating conflicts with the Rus. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Rus’ (Русь rusʲ Русичи Русы are an ancient people whose name survives in the cognates Russians, Rusyns, and Ruthenians 
In the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death (the Plague). The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia During this period the Swedish cities also began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic League, active especially at Visby. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade Visby is the only city on the Swedish Island of Gotland; it is arguably the best-preserved Medieval city in Scandinavia In 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus Eriksson and in 1397 Queen Margaret I of Denmark effected the personal union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark through the Kalmar Union. Magnus Eriksson or Magnus VII of Norway and Magnus IV of Sweden was king of Sweden (spring 1316 &ndash December 1, 1374) Norway, and Margaret Valdemarsdatter (Margrete Valdemarsdotter ( 1353 - October 28 1412) was Queen of Denmark and of Norway and Regent of The Kalmar Union ( Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Kalmarunionen) is a historiographical term meaning a series of Personal However, Margaret’s successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility. Real power was held for long periods by regents (notably those of the Sture family) chosen by the Swedish parliament. Sture was the name of two influential families in Sweden from the late 15th century to the early 16th century. King Christian II of Denmark, who asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre in 1520 of Swedish nobles at Stockholm. Christian II (1 July 1481 &ndash 25 January 1559 was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 &ndash 1523 and Sweden (1520 &ndash 1521 This came to be known as the “Stockholm blood bath” and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June (now Sweden's national holiday) in 1523, they made Gustav Vasa their king. The Stockholm Bloodbath, or the Stockholm Massacre (Swedish Stockholms blodbad, Danish Det stockholmske blodbad) took place as the result of a successful Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September This is sometimes considered as the foundation of modern Sweden. The Early Vasa era is a period that in Swedish history lasted between 1523&ndash1611 Shortly afterwards he rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Gustav Vasa is considered to be Sweden's "Father of the Nation". Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae) also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin Honorific meaning " Father
The 17th century saw the rise of Sweden as one of the Great Powers in Europe. Sweden proper, or Egentliga Sverige, is a term used to distinguish those territories that were fully integrated into the Kingdom of Sweden, as opposed to Livonia (Līvõmō Latvian and Livonija Estonian: Liivimaa; Finnish: Liivinmaa; German and Swedish: Livland Swedish Pomerania (Svenska Pommern Schwedisch-Pommern was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from the 17th to the 19th century situated on what is now the The Archdiocese of Bremen is a historical Roman Catholic diocese and a former eccesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. Verden (Aller, or Verden (ˈfeːɐdn is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, on Scania ( in Swedish and Danish) is a geographical region on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a traditional province ( is a one of the Provinces of Sweden ( landskap) situated in the south of the country is one of the traditional Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish on the western coast of Sweden. is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the largest Island in the Baltic Sea. is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish situated on the west coast of the country Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the central part of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. is a county in the northernmost part of Western Norway. It borders the counties of Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Sogn og Fjordane. or Jamtland (ˈjamtˌlanː in Jamtish) is a historical province or Landskap in the center of Sweden in Northern is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden. During the 17th century despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants Sweden emerged as a Great Power after winning wars against Denmark–Norway, Sweden was between 1611 and 1718 one of the Great powers of Europe Sweden possessed overseas colonies from 1638 to 1663 and from 1784 to 1878. The Age of Liberty (Frihetstiden is the half a century long experiment with a Parliamentary system and increasing Civil Rights in the period from Charles The Enlightened Despot See also Gustav III of Sweden Adolf Frederick of Sweden died on February 12, 1771. Sweden–Finland is a historiographical term used especially in Finland, to refer to the Swedish Kingdom from the Kalmar Union to the The Union between Sweden and Norway (Unionen mellan Sverige och Norge Unionen mellom Norge og Sverige or the Swedish-Norwegian Kingdom was the union of the kingdoms of During the 17th century despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants Sweden emerged as a Great Power after winning wars against Denmark–Norway, A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale Sweden also had colonial possessions as a minor colonial Empire that existed from 1638—1663 and later 1785—1878. Sweden possessed overseas colonies from 1638 to 1663 and from 1784 to 1878.
Sweden was during Imperial times the most powerful country of northern Europe and the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Sweden's Imperial status took its start with Gustav II Adolph as king, who made Sweden the third biggest nation in Europe by area after Russia and Spain, and his successful participation in the Thirty Years' War, which made Sweden the recognized leader of continental Protestantism in Europe until 1721, when the Empire collapsed. For the other Swedish kings known as Gustavus Adolphus see Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden or Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden For the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War see Char Bouba war. For the band see The 30 Years War.  Sweden's Imperial status during this period is largely credited to Gustav I's major changes on the Swedish economy in the mid-1500s, and his introduction of Protestantism (Lutheran). Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. 
The mid 1600s and the early 1700s were Sweden's most successful years as a great power. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent as an empire during the rule of Charles X (1622–1660) after the treaty of Roskilde in 1658. Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav (8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660 was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death The Treaty of Roskilde was signed on February 26, 1658 in the Danish city of Roskilde. However, Sweden's largest territorial extent lasted from 1319 to 1343 with Magnus Eriksson ruling all of the traditional lands of Sweden and Norway. Magnus Eriksson may refer to Magnus Eriksson (ice hockey Magnus IV of Sweden Historical lands Sweden was historically divided into the four lands Götaland, Svealand, Norrland and 17th century saw Sweden engaged in warfare with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with both sides competing for territories of today's Baltic states, with the disastrous Battle of Kircholm being one of the highlights. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the The Battle of Kircholm ( September 27, 1605, or September 17 in the Old Style calendar then in use in Protestant countries was one of the This period also saw the Deluge - the Swedish invasion of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Deluge ( Polish: Potop, full Polish name is Potop Szwedzki Deluge''' is the name commonly assigned in the History The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic After more than a half century of almost constant warfare the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It would become the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XI (1655-1697), to rebuild the economy and refit the army. Charles XI (Karl XI 24 November 1655old style &ndash 5 April 1697old style was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in an unruly period in His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden Charles XII, was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both equipment and training. After the Battle of Narva in 1700, one of the first battles of the Great Northern War, the Russian army was so severely injured, that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia. The Great Northern War (1700-21 was fought between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic Sea. Instead, however, Charles XII invaded Poland and changed their king to a more Swedish friendly one. However after the crushing defeat at poltava the old king quickly took his throne back. This gave the Russian Tsar time to rebuild and modernise his army. After the success of invading Poland Charles decided to make an invasion attempt of Russia, which however, ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. The Battle of Poltava (or Pultowa on 28 June 1709 ( 8 July, N The campaign had a successful opening for Sweden, which came to occupy Poland and change their rule into a more Swedish friendly king. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland But after a long march exposed by cossack raids, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great's scorched-earth techniques and the cold Russian climate, the Swedes stood weakened with a shattered confidence, and enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Russian (or Soviet) Winter is a common excuse for military failures of invaders in Russia The defeat meant the beginning of the end for Sweden as Empire.
After building up a new army Charles XII attempted to invade Norway 1716, however he was shot at Fredriksten fortress in 1718. Fredriksten is a Fortress in the city of Halden in Norway. History This Norwegian fortress was constructed in the 17th Year 1718 ( MDCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Swedish military was not defeated at Fredriksten. However, when Karl died the whole structure and organisation of the Norwegian campaign fell apart and the army withdrew back home. However this led to defeat, the Swedish head of state signed the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир Uudenkaupungin rauha was signed in 1721 in the then Swedish town of Nystad (which is called Uusikaupunki Forced to cede large areas of land, Sweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea. With Sweden's lost influence, Russia began to emerge as an empire, and become one of Europe's dominant nations. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia and most of them were lost, culminating with the 1809 loss of the eastern part to Russia: forming the semi-autonomous (Duchy) of Finland of Imperial Russia. The Grand Duchy of Finland (Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ Великое княжество Финляндское ' Velikoe knjažestvo finljandskoe) was the Predecessor The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya
After Denmark-Norway was defeated in the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden on 14 January 1814, at the Treaty of Kiel. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. The Treaty of Kiel was a settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king a loser in the The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, Charles XIII. Charles XIII (Karl XIII ( 7 October, 1748 - 5 February, 1818) was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway (where he He launched a military campaign against Norway on July 27, 1814, ending in the Convention of Moss, which forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden, which was not dissolved until 1905. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement signed August 14, 1814, between the Swedish King and the Norwegian Storting. The Union between Sweden and Norway (Unionen mellan Sverige och Norge Unionen mellom Norge og Sverige or the Swedish-Norwegian Kingdom was the union of the kingdoms of The 1814 campaign was also the last war in which Sweden participated as a combatant.
The 18th and 19th centuries saw a significant population increase, which the writer Esaias Tegnér in 1833 famously attributed to "the peace, the (smallpox) vaccine, and the potatoes". Politics in the New Riksdag See also Politics of Sweden The economic condition of Sweden, owing to the progress in material prosperity which During the Swedish emigration to the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries about 1 Esaias Tegnér ( 13 November 1782 in Kyrkerud, Värmland &ndash 2 November 1846) was a Swedish Writer Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae  Between 1750 and 1850, the population in Sweden doubled. According to some scholars, mass emigration to America became the only way to prevent famine and rebellion; over 1 percent of the population emigrated annually during the 1880s.  Nevertheless, Sweden remained poor, retaining a nearly entirely agricultural economy even as Denmark and Western European countries began to industrialize.  Many looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is believed that between 1850 and 1910 more than one million Swedes moved to the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  In the early 20th century, more Swedes lived in Chicago than in Gothenburg (Sweden's second largest city). Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Gothenburg ( Swedish:) /jœte'bɔrj/ is a city, a municipality, and an urban area on the west-coast of Sweden. Most Swedish immigrants moved to the Midwestern United States, with a large population in Minnesota. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Some Swedes moved to Delaware. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Some also moved to Canada and others in smaller numbers to Argentina. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
Despite the slow rate of industrialization into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to innovations and the large population growth.  These innovations included government-sponsored programs of enclosure, aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops such as the potato. Enclosure or inclosure (the latter is used in Legal documents and Place names is the term used in England and Wales  Due also to the fact that the Swedish peasantry had never been enserfed as elsewhere in Europe, the Swedish farming culture began to take on a critical role in the Swedish political process, which has continued through modern times with modern Agrarian party (now called the Centre Party).  Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden began developing the industrialized economy that exists today. 
Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the nineteenth century (trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups), creating a strong foundation of democratic principles. These movements precipitated Sweden's migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the twentieth century, people gradually began moving into cities to work in factories, and became involved in socialist unions. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The Municipalities of Sweden ( kommun) are the Local government entities of Sweden. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming A socialist revolution was avoided in 1917, following the re-introduction of parliamentarism, and the country was democratized. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which Democratization ( British English: Democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic Political regime.
Sweden remained officially neutral during World War I and World War II, although its neutrality during World War II has been vigorously debated. Swedish neutrality refers to Sweden 's policy of neutrality in armed conflicts which has been in effect since the early 19th century World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  Sweden was under German influence for most of the war, as ties to the rest of the world were cut off through blockades.  The Swedish government felt that it was in no position to openly contest Germany, and therefore collaborated with Hitler. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately  Swedish volunteers in Nazi SS units were among the first to invade the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II Sweden also supplied steel and machined parts to Germany throughout the war. Toward the end of the war however, when the defeat of Germany seemed imminent, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts and many refugees, among them many Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were saved partly because of the Swedish involvement in rescue missions at the internment camps and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from Norden and the Baltic states. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the  Nevertheless, internal and external critics have argued that Sweden could have done more to resist the Nazi war effort, even if risking occupation. 
Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe.  By the 1960s, Sweden, like the other Nordic countries, had become an affluent consumer society and welfare state.  Sweden was part of the Marshall Plan and participated in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), many of the policies aiming to improve the quality of life for the general population, in particular Sweden's working class, were successfully implemented. The Marshall Plan (from its enactment officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger
Sweden, like countries around the globe, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval, following the oil embargoes of 1973-74 and 1978-79.  In the 1980s pillars of Swedish industry were massively restructured. Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernized paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialized, and mechanical engineering was roboticized. Automation ( Ancient Greek: = self dictated) roboticization or industrial automation or Numerical control is the use of Control systems  Prime Minister Olof Palme was murdered in 1986. Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ( 30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician
Between 1970 and 1990 Sweden increased overall tax burden by over ten percentage points and the growth was very low compared to most other countries in Western Europe. Sweden steadily lost its position in rankings such as GDP per capita.
A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early 1990s. This article describes the History of Sweden from 1989 until present day. Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions notably in the USA, United Kingdom International or internationally most often describes interaction between Nations or encompassing two or more nations constituting a group or association having  Sweden's GDP declined by around 5%. In 1992 there was a run on the currency, the central bank briefly jacking up interest to 500% in an unsuccessful effort to defend the currency's fixed exchange rate. Total employment fell by almost 10% during the crisis.
The response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden's competitiveness, among them reducing the welfare state and privatizing public services and goods. This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and the Swedish referendum passed by 52-48% in favour of joining the EU on 14 August 1994. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar)
Sweden joined the European Union on1 January 1995, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 During the Cold War, Europe's non-aligned Western countries, except Ireland, had considered membership unwise, as the EU predecessor, the European Community, had been strongly associated with NATO countries. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 Following the end of the Cold War, however, Sweden, Austria and Finland joined, though in Sweden's case without adopting the Euro. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e Sweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive cooperation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry. The North Atlantic Treaty Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that are used by the American military in Iraq.  Sweden also has a long history of participating in international military operations, including most recently, Afghanistan, where Swedish troops are under NATO command, and in EU sponsored peacekeeping operations in UN protectorate Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Cyprus. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Foreign minister Anna Lindh was murdered in 2003. Ylva Anna Maria Lindh (19 June 1957 – 11 September 2003 was a Swedish Social Democratic Politician who served as Swedish Minister for
Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia, providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Location Northern Europe, Scandinavian Peninsula bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti Bottniska viken ie Bottenviken + Bottenhavet is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain (Skanderna), a range that separates Sweden from Norway. The Scandinavian Mountains in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen ("the Fells quot or Kölen, and in Norwegian Kjølen, Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional
Sweden is surrounded by Norway (west), Finland (northeast), the Skagerrak, Kattegat and Öresund straits (southwest) and the Baltic Sea (east). Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Skagerrak Strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the The Kattegat ( Danish) or Kattegatt ( Swedish) is a sea area bounded by Jutland ( Denmark and extreme north Germany) Øresund or The Sound (Øresund Öresund is the Strait that separates the Danish island Zealand (Danish Sjælland) from the A strait is a narrow navigable Channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, and it is also linked to Denmark (southwest) by the Öresund Bridge. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Oresund Bridge ( Danish Øresundsbroen, Swedish Öresundsbron, joint hybrid name Øresundsbron) is a combined two-track rail
At 449,964 km² (173,732 sq mi), Sweden is the 55th largest country in the world. It is the 5th largest in Europe, and the largest in Northern Europe. The country is slightly larger than the U.S. state of California, with a population in 2006 of 9. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. 1 million people.
The lowest elevation in Sweden is in the bay of Lake Hammarsjön, near Kristianstad at -2. Kristianstad kri'ɧansta (older spelling Christianstad) is a city in the province of Scania in southernmost Sweden and 41 m (-7. 91 ft) below sea level. The highest point is Kebnekaise at 2,111 m (6,926 ft) above sea level. See Kebnekajse for the Swedish band Kebnekaise (from Sami Giebmegáisi or Giebnegáisi, "Cauldron Crest"
Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap (landscapes), based on culture, geography and history; Bohuslän, Blekinge, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gotland, Gästrikland, Halland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lapland, Medelpad, Norrbotten, Närke, Skåne, Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värmland, Västmanland, Västerbotten, Västergötland, Ångermanland, Öland and Östergötland. The provinces of Sweden, Landskap, are historical geographical and cultural regions Landskap is common Scandinavian word which means landscape or province and can refer to Districts of Norway - The historical provinces Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical elements such as Landforms living elements of flora and fauna abstract elements such as lighting Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish situated on the west coast of the country is a one of the Provinces of Sweden ( landskap) situated in the south of the country Dalsland is one of the traditional Swedish provinces ( landskap) in the south west of Sweden. is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the largest Island in the Baltic Sea. is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. is one of the traditional Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish on the western coast of Sweden. is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. It borders to Gästrikland, Dalarna, Härjedalen, Medelpad is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden. or Jamtland (ˈjamtˌlanː in Jamtish) is a historical province or Landskap in the center of Sweden in Northern Lapland (Lappland is a province in northernmost Sweden. It borders Jämtland, Ångermanland, Västerbotten, Norrbotten is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders to Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Norrbotten (English meaning Northbottom) is a Swedish province ( landskap) in northernmost Sweden. is a traditional Swedish province or landskap in middle Sweden. Scania ( in Swedish and Danish) is a geographical region on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a traditional province ( is a historical province ( landskap) in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Scania or Skåne Halland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Uppland ( is a historical province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden, just north of Stockholm, the capital is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. is a historical Swedish province, or landskap, in middle Sweden. is a province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders Ångermanland, Lapland, Norrbotten and the Gulf is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish situated in the southwest of Sweden. is a historical province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders to Medelpad, Jämtland, Lapland, Västerbotten is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional Provinces of Sweden. Östergötland is a one of the traditional Provinces of Sweden ( landskap in Swedish) in the south of Sweden. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they are common in everyday language. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands, parts, Norrland, Svealand and Götaland. Historical lands Sweden was historically divided into the four lands Götaland, Svealand, Norrland and Geography Norrland comprises the historical provinces ( landskap) Gästrikland, Medelpad, Ångermanland, Hälsingland, Jämtland Svealand ( or (rarely or historically Sweden Proper is the historical core region of Sweden. Götaland ( Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gotland, Gautland, Geatland is one of three lands of Sweden
About 15% of Sweden lies north of the Arctic Circle. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. The highest population density is in the Öresund region in southern Sweden, and in the valley of lake Mälaren in central Sweden. Øresund or The Sound (Øresund Öresund is the Strait that separates the Danish island Zealand (Danish Sjælland) from the Lake Mälaren ( (historically occasionally referred to as Lake Malar in English is the third-largest Lake in Sweden, after Lakes Vänern and Gotland and Öland are Sweden's largest islands; Vänern and Vättern are Sweden's largest lakes. is a county, province and municipality of Sweden and the largest Island in the Baltic Sea. is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional Provinces of Sweden. This is a list of the largest islands of Sweden. Ordered by size Other well-known islands Adelsö Björkö (Birka Vänern (IPA) is the largest Lake in Sweden and the third largest lake in Europe. Vättern is the second largest Lake (by surface area in Sweden, after Lake Vänern.
Sweden has a temperate climate despite its northern latitude, mainly because of the Gulf Stream. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful warm and swift Atlantic Ocean current that In the mountains of northern Sweden a sub-Arctic climate predominates. The Subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada and North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and in the winter, night is similarly unending. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.
Common temperatures in the seasons (°C):
Average precipitation is between 500 and 800 mm/year. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric In some parts though the average is between 1000 and 1700 mm/year. 
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, in which King Carl XVI Gustaf is head of state, but royal power has long been limited to official and ceremonial functions. Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Constitutional monarchy. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is  The Economist Intelligence Unit, while admitting that democracy is difficult to measure, lists Sweden in first place in its index of democracy assessing 167 countries. The Economist Intelligence Unit ( EIU) is part of The Economist Group.  The nation's modern legislative body is the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament), with 349 members, which chooses the Prime Minister. The Riksdag is the official Swedish term of the Parliament of Sweden and the Parliament of Finland (in Finland alongside This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, on the third Sunday of September.
Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into twenty-one counties (län). The Counties of Sweden, or Län, are the first level administrative and political Subdivisions of Sweden. The Municipalities of Sweden ( kommun) are the Local government entities of Sweden. A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created The Counties of Sweden, or Län, are the first level administrative and political Subdivisions of Sweden. Län and lääni are the Swedish and Finnish language terms respectively for the administrative divisions used in Sweden and Finland Each county has a County Administrative Board or länsstyrelse, which is appointed by the government (the first Swedish County Administrative Board was made up by the Swedish Prime Minister Axel Oxenstierna in 1634). A County Administrative Board ( Länsstyrelse) is a Government appointed board of a County in Sweden. The government of Sweden is a Constitutional monarchy based on Parliamentary democracy. ( June 16, 1583 &ndash August 28, 1654) Count of Södermöre was a Swedish statesman In each county there is also a separate County Council or landsting, which is elected directly by the people. A County Council, or Landsting, is an elected assembly of a County in Sweden. Each county further divides into a number of municipalities or kommuner, with a total of 290 municipalities in 2004. The Municipalities of Sweden ( kommun) are the Local government entities of Sweden. There are also older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance. The provinces of Sweden, Landskap, are historical geographical and cultural regions Historical lands Sweden was historically divided into the four lands Götaland, Svealand, Norrland and The Swedish government is investigating the possibilities of merging the current 21 counties into circa 9 larger regions along the lines of the current riksområden used for statistical purposes. The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics of Sweden are used for statistical purposes in a European Union context If approved, these would come into effect around 2015. 
The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.  It depends mostly on whether Sweden should be considered a nation when the Svear (Swedes) ruled Svealand or if the emergence of the nation started with the Svear and the Götar (Geats) of Götaland being united under one ruler. The Swedes (svear Old Norse: svíar; Old English: Sweonas; Suiones Suehans or Sueones) were an ancient North Svealand ( or (rarely or historically Sweden Proper is the historical core region of Sweden. Geats, Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting Götaland Geats, Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting Götaland Götaland ( Gothia, Gothland, Gothenland, Gotland, Gautland, Geatland is one of three lands of Sweden In the first case, Sweden was first mentioned to have one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Erik the Victorious and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century. This is a list of Swedish Monarchs, that is the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union Eric the Victorious ( VI) Old Norse: Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, Modern Swedish Erik Segersäll, (945?- c 995 was the first Swedish king Olof Skötkonung ( Old Icelandic: Óláfr sænski, Old Swedish: Olawær skotkonongær) was the son of Eric the Victorious and These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden, although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later. The consolidation of Sweden was a long process during which the loosely organized social system consolidated under the power of the king
Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden, many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. In sources such as Heimskringla and Ynglinga saga there appear early Swedish kings who belong in the domain of Mythology, but it is often suggested that The semi-legendary kings of Sweden are the long line of Swedish kings who preceded Eric the Victorious, according to sources such as the Norse Sagas, The sagas (from Icelandic saga, plural sögur) are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history about early Viking voyages Norse mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and Legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland
The title Sveriges och Götes Konung was last used for Gustaf I of Sweden, after which the title became "King of Sweden, of the Goths and of the Wends" (Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung) in official documentation. Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September This is a list of Swedish Monarchs, that is the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden, with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union The title of King of the Goths (Götes konung Gothernes konge / De Gothers konge gothorum rex was for many centuries borne by both the Kings of Sweden and the Kings of The title of King of the Wends denoted sovereignty or claims over once- Slavic lands of southern coasts of the Baltic Sea, those otherwise called Mecklenburg Up until the beginning of the 1920s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends". This title was used up until 1973.  The present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf was the first monarch officially proclaimed "King of Sweden" (Sveriges Konung) with no additional peoples mentioned in his title.
The term Riksdag was used for the first time in the 1540s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as 1435, in the town of Arboga. Arboga is a city in central Sweden and the seat of Arboga Municipality, Västmanland County.  During the assemblies of 1527 and 1544, under King Gustav Vasa, representatives of all four estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, townsmen and peasants) were called on to participate for the first time. Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson (Colloquial 15th century Upplandic Gösta Jerksson) and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September The Estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society usually distinguishing Nobility, Clergy, and Commoners recognized in the Middle Ages Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. The Swedish nobility ( Adeln) were historically a legally privileged class in Sweden, part of the so-called Frälse (a classification A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground  The monarchy became hereditary in 1544.
Executive power was historically shared between the King and a noble Privy Council until 1680, followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the common estates of the Parliament. A privy council is a body that advises the Head of state of a nation on how to exercise their executive authority, typically but not always in the context of a An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, the latter granting several civil liberties. The Great Northern War (1700-21 was fought between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic Sea. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws ( Swedish: grundlagar, singular grundlag) The monarch remains as the formal, but merely symbolic head of state with ceremonial duties. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A ceremony is an activity infused with Ritual significance performed on a special occasion
The Riksdag of the Estates consisted of two chambers. The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled In 1866 Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years. A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. In 1971 the Riksdag became unicameral. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber Legislative power was (symbolically) shared between king and parliament until 1975. Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag (parliament). The Riksdag is the official Swedish term of the Parliament of Sweden and the Parliament of Finland (in Finland alongside
Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those This Riksdag is responsible for choosing the prime minister, who then appoints the government (the ministers). The legislative power is then shared between the parliament and the Prime Minister led government. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The executive power is exercised by the government, while the judiciary is independent. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State Sweden lacks compulsory judicial review, although the non-compulsory review carried out by lagrådet (Law Council) is mostly respected in technical matters but less so in controversial political matters. Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm Acts of the parliament and government decrees can be made inapplicable at every level if they are manifestly against constitutional laws. However, due to the restrictions in this form of judicial review and a weak judiciary, this has had little practical consequence.
Legislation may be initiated by the cabinet or by members of Parliament. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes The Constitution of Sweden can be altered by the Riksdag, which requires a simple but absolute majority and two decisions with general elections in between. The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws ( Swedish: grundlagar, singular grundlag) Sweden has three other constitutional laws: the Act of Royal Succession, the Freedom of Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression.
The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists had confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. The Swedish Social Democratic Party, (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti 'Social Democratic Workers' Party of Sweden' contests elections as 'Workers' Party - Social Democrats' Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a Society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures The Left Party ( Vänsterpartiet) is a Socialist and Feminist political party in Sweden, from 1967 to 1990 known as the Left After 1932, the cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only four general elections (1976, 1979, 1991 and 2006) have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in Parliament to form a government. However, poor economic performance since the beginning of the 1970s, and especially the crisis at the beginning of the 1990s, have forced Sweden to reform its political system to become more like other European countries. In the 2006 general election the Moderate Party, allied with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party, and the Christian Democrats, with a common political platform, won a majority of the votes. A general election was held in Sweden on September 17, 2006, to elect members to the Swedish parliament. This article refers to the Swedish political party for the group that dominated the Church of Scotland in the 18th century see Moderate Party (Scotland The Centre Party ( Centerpartiet, abbreviated c) is a centrist Political party in Sweden. The Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet liberalerna abbreviated fp, meaning literally People's Party the Liberals) is a political party in Sweden The Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna abbreviated kd) is a political party in Sweden. Together they have formed a majority government under the leadership of the Moderate party's leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. John Fredrik Reinfeldt ( pronounced) (born 4 August 1965 in Österhaninge) is the current Prime Minister of Sweden and leader of the liberal The next elections will be held in September 2010
Election turnout in Sweden has always been high in international comparisons, although it has declined in recent decades, and is currently around 80% (80. 11 in general election of 2002, 81. Results of the general election to the Riksdag, the parliament of Sweden, held Sunday September 15, 2002. 99 in general election of 2006). A general election was held in Sweden on September 17, 2006, to elect members to the Swedish parliament. Swedish politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s but it has since declined steadily and has a markedly lower level of trust than its Scandinavian neighbours. 
Some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, former Secretary General of the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld, former Prime Minister Olof Palme, former Prime Minister and Foreign minister Carl Bildt, former President of the General Assembly of the United Nations Jan Eliasson, and former International Atomic Energy Agency Iraq inspector Hans Blix. Raoul Wallenberg (August 4 1912 &ndash July 17 1947? was a Swedish Humanitarian of the prominent Swedish Wallenberg family who worked in Budapest The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( (29 July 1905 &ndash 18 September 1961 was a Swedish Diplomat, Christian mystic, and the second Secretary-General Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ( 30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the Foreign policy of a sovereign nation KCMG (born 15 July 1949) is a Swedish Politician and Diplomat. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members Jan Kenneth Glenn Eliasson (born 17 September 1940) is a Swedish Diplomat and Social Democratic Politician. The International Atomic Energy Agency ( IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its (born 28 June, 1928 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish Diplomat and Politician.
Sweden can be considered to be a present day example of a Social Democracy, a moderate form of socialism that seeks to reform capitalism through greater government regulation and to implement a mixed economy. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system
Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" (Folkrörelser), the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement and—more recently—the sports movement. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement or Women's Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as Reproductive rights (sometimes
Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency  Gudrun Schyman founded the first Swedish feminist party, the Feminist Initiative party, commonly referred to simply as F!, in 2005. Gudrun Schyman (born June 9, 1948, Täby, Uppland) is a Swedish politician Feminist Initiative ( Swedish: Feministiskt initiativ, abbreviated Fi or F!) is a feminist Political party in Ms. magazine quoted Schyman's view of Sweden's reputation for progressive initiatives: "In Sweden there’s a gap between words and reality. Ms is an American feminist magazine co-founded by American feminist and activist Gloria Steinem and founding Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. . . . Internationally a lot of people look upon Sweden as equality paradise, but that is not the truth – and now things are actually going backwards. " In fact the pay gap between men and women in Sweden is 16%, higher than the EU average of 15%. Sweden compares unfavourably with the EU average when it comes to providing full-time jobs for women, with a high fraction of employed women working part-time. 
According to a victimization survey of 1201 residents in 2005, Sweden has above average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Crime statistics attempt to provide a statistical measure of the level or amount of- Crime that is prevalent in societies Sweden has high or above average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking was rare. 
Throughout the twentieth century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national Security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a Neutral The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties  "Sweden's government was left to pursue an independent course based on a foreign policy defined as nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war. "
Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as it has not participated in any war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in 1814. The Campaign against Norway, or The Norwegian-Swedish War of 1814 was fought between Sweden and Norway in the summer of 1814 During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries This has been disputed by many since in effect Sweden allowed the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, especially iron ore from the rich mines in northern Sweden, of vital need to the German war machine. 
During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment with a low profile in international affairs, although it also pursued a security policy based on strong national defence to deter attack. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Security policy is a definition of what it means to be secure for a system organization or other entity National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty  At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange. In 1952, a Swedish DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG-15 jet fighter. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Catalina affair was an incident on June 13, 1952, when a Swedish military DC-3 flying over the Baltic Sea carrying out WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A jet aircraft is an Aircraft propelled by Jet engines Jet aircraft fly much faster than Propeller -powered aircraft and at higher altitudes -- as high as A fighter aircraft is a Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other Aircraft, as opposed to a Bomber, which is designed Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. The North Atlantic Treaty  Another plane, a Catalina search and rescue plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout For the TV series of this title see Search and Rescue (TV series. Olof Palme the former prime minister of Sweden visited Cuba during the 1970s and showed his support for Cuba in his speech which was in Spanish. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la
Beginning in the late 1960s, Sweden for a period attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. This involved significant activity in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Since the murder of Olof Palme in 1986 and the end of the Cold War, this has been significantly toned down, although Sweden remains comparatively active in peace keeping missions and maintains a generous foreign aid budget. Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ( 30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician
In 1981 a Soviet Whiskey class submarine ran aground close to the Swedish naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country. Incidents involving Whiskey class submarines On or about 15 December 1952, the Soviet Whiskey class submarine S-117 was lost due to unknown Karlskrona is a city in the province of Blekinge in south-eastern Sweden. It has never been clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if it was a matter of espionage against Swedish military potential. The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union.
Since 1995 Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation as well. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The Försvarsmakten (Swedish Armed Forces) is a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. The Swedish Air Force (Swedish Flygvapnet) is the Air force Branch of the Swedish Armed Forces. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Ministry of Defence (Försvarsdepartementet is a Swedish government ministry responsible for the national defence policy In politics peacetime is defined as any period of time where there are no violent conflicts occurring The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war. The armed forces are divided into Army, Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces (Överbefälhavaren, ÖB), and after the sovereign is the most senior officer in the country. The Supreme Commander (Överbefälhavaren ÖB) the highest military officer in Sweden and the Commander-in-Chief of the Swedish Armed Forces
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. Military service in its simplest sense is service by an individual or group in an Army or other military organization whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority In recent years, the number of conscripted males has reduced dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In 1975 the total number of conscripts was 45,000. By 2003 it was down to 15,000. After the Defence Proposition 2004, the number of troops in training will decrease even more to between 5,000 and 10,000 each year, while emphasizing the need to recruit only the soldiers later prepared to volunteer for international service. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60,000 men. This could be compared with the 80s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,000,000 men.
Swedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت,
Currently, one of the most important tasks for the Swedish Armed Forces is to form a Swedish-led EU Battle Group to which Norway, Finland, Ireland and Estonia will also contribute. European Union battlegroups (EU BGs are military forces under the direct control of the European Council, each consisting of at least 1500 combat soldiers  The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) is to have a 10-day deployment readiness during the first half of 2008 and, although Swedish led, will have its Operational Headquarters (OHQ) in Northwood, outside London. The Nordic Battlegroup (NBG is one of eighteen European Union Battlegroups.
Sweden is an export-oriented market economy featuring a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labour force. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. Sweden's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Agriculture accounts for 2 percent of GDP and employment. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Growth is expected to reach 3. 3% in 2006.
The Swedish Riksbank—founded in 1668 and thus making it the oldest central bank in the world—is currently focusing on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the Central bank of Sweden and the world's oldest central bank In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time Sweden's industry is overwhelmingly in private control; unlike some other industrialized Western countries, such as Austria and Italy, publicly owned enterprises were always of minor importance. In Economics, the private sector is that part of the economy which is both run for private Profit and is not controlled by the State. Eighty percent of the workforce is organized through the trade-unions which have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees. 
Sweden is known for its high taxes and large public sector. The public sector is the part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the Government, whether national Regional High taxes have ensured a higher degree of government influence on household consumption decisions than in most other Western nations. Public sector spending amounts to 53% of the GDP; the high figure primarily reflects the large transfer payments of the Swedish welfare state and the large public sector. State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more in most Western countries. Sweden has the second highest total tax revenue behind Denmark, as a share of the country's income. As of 2007, total tax revenue was 47. 8% of GDP, down from 49. 1% 2006.  After increasing the tax burden after World War II, Sweden's GDP per capita ranking fell from the 4th to 14th place in a few decades. No new net jobs have been produced in the Swedish private sector since 1950. None of top 50 companies on the Stockholm stock exchange has been started since 1970. 
Swedish unemployment figures are highly contested, with the Social-Democrats defending the official figure of 5. 4% (as of 2006) and the centre-right Alliance for Sweden claiming a much higher figure. Alliance for Sweden (Allians för Sverige is a political alliance in Sweden. These numbers do not, however, include people in government unemployment programmes (about 2% of the workforce), people on extended sick-leave, those in early retirement or those outside the unemployment system. Unemployment is higher amongst younger people. Many Swedes work abroad in Denmark, Norway and the UK, where they are desired and viewed as a skilled workforce. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Because of the contradiction—unemployment despite a growing commercial enterprise economy—politicians and analysts often speak of the "jobless growth". According to Eurostat the unemployment rate in February 2007 was at 6. 7% down from 7. 4% from February 2006. 
Sweden also still bears scars from an economic crisis in the 1990s, which resulted in thousands of people becoming unemployed and a great national debt. Two remnants are an increase in socioeconomic segregation and a national debt of approximately 1 167 billion Swedish Kronor (approx. Socioeconomics or socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and Social life. Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more Populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space Government debt (also known as public debt or national debt) is Money (or credit) owed by any level of government either Central government €124 billion, December 2007), 39% of the GDP. 
According to the book, The Flight of the Creative Class, by the U. S. economist, Professor Richard Florida of George Mason University, Sweden is ranked as having the best creativity in Europe for business and is predicted to become a talent magnet for the world’s most purposeful workers. Richard Florida (born 1957 in Newark New Jersey) is an American Urban studies theorist George Mason University (also referred to as GMU or Mason) is a large Public university in the United States. Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new Ideas or Concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business — talent, technology and tolerance. 
Sweden provides an extensive childcare system that guarantees a place for all young children from 1-5 years old in a public day-care facility (förskola or dagis). Education in Sweden is mandatory for all Children aged 7-16 Most 6 year olds attend a pre-school class run within the school system Childcare (also written child care and babycare is the act of caring for and supervising minor Children (In Australia Daycare is referred Between ages 6-16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school, divided in three stages. After completing the ninth grade, 90% continue with a three-year upper secondary school (gymnasium) leading sometimes to a vocational diploma and (depending on which program you've chosen) to qualifications for further studies at a university or university college (högskola). This article contains a list of Swedish universities and University colleges is based on the Higher Education Ordinance of 1993 (as amended until January 2006 Both upper secondary school and university studies are financed by taxes. Some Swedes go straight to work after secondary school. Along with several other European countries, the government also subsidizes tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Swedish institutions, although there has been talk of this being changed.  The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Swedish education as the 22nd best in the world, being neither significantly higher nor lower than the OECD average.  Only few countries except Canada, United States and Japan have higher levels of tertiary degree holders.
The conservative government that held office in 1991-1994 introduced a voucher system at primary and secondary school level, enabling free choice among public and independent schools (friskolor) in the community. In 2006, 7% of Swedish primary school students and 13% of secondary school students attended private schools. The support the system is extraordinary strong and applications for new private schools have risen fast. 
Sweden's energy market is largely privatized. Nordic energy market is a common market for Energy in Nordic countries. Sweden has an Energy policy focused on Hydroelectricity, which was supplemented by Nuclear power starting in 1965. In 2005 the Government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on Petroleum, Natural gas Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalized energy markets in Europe and it's traded in Nord Pool. Nordic energy market is a common market for Energy in Nordic countries. Nord Pool (the Nordic Power Exchange) is the single power market for Norway Denmark Sweden and Finland
The 1973 oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Among other things, the accident of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (USA) prompted the Swedish parliament to hold a referendum on nuclear power. Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station is a civilian Nuclear power plant located on an island (Three Mile Island in the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Riksdag (officially Sveriges riksdag literally The National Diet of Sweden is the national legislative assembly of Sweden. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The referendum led to a decision that no further nuclear power plants should be built and that a nuclear power phase-out should be completed by 2010.
In 2006, out of a total electricity production of 139 TWh, electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and nuclear power delivered 65 TWh (47%). Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. Peat is an accumulation of partially Decayed Vegetation matter. produced 13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while wind power produced 1 TWh (1%). Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.  Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes. Biomass refers to living and recently dead Biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements For the Grand Central Records albums see Central Heating (Grand Central album and Central Heating 2.
In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power.  Since then however, reports about radioactive leakages at a nuclear waste store in Forsmark, Sweden, have been published, although this does not seem to have changed the public support of continued use of nuclear power. Forsmark is a village with 59 inhabitants on the east coast of Uppland, Sweden. Sweden decided to phase out nuclear fission before 2020, although it is very unlikely that this will happen as the Government has decided to cancel the phase-out. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing Free neutrons and other smaller nuclei which may
In an effort to phase out the dependency on nuclear power and fossil fuels, the Swedish government has launched a multi-billion dollar program to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. In 2005 the Government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on Petroleum, Natural gas Renewable energy is Energy generated from Natural resources mdashsuch as Sunlight, Wind, Rain, tides and geothermal  The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular. Environmental policy is any (course of action deliberately taken (or not taken to manage human activities with a view to prevent reduce or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural An energy tax is a Tax on various forms of Energy production, typically levied on the burning of Fossil fuels Often the purpose of the tax is not so much Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single  Also in 2005, Sweden garnered international attention by announcing its intention to break its dependence on foreign oil within 15 years, with the goal of becoming the world's first oil-free economy. 
In recent years, economic liberalization has ensured that Sweden is now more similar to other European countries with comparatively high tax rates. Economic liberalization is a broad term that usually refers to fewer government regulations and restrictions in the economy in exchange for greater participation of private entities the However, some still claim that the Scandinavian model is mid-way between socialism and capitalism, i. The Scandinavian welfare model is the term used to describe the way in which Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland have chosen Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where e. a mixed economy. A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system The Swedish "welfare state" model of the 20th century is an example (some economists and socialists have said) of effective use of national taxes, although others disagree about its continuing effectiveness. The Swedish welfare system remains extensive, but a recession in the 1990s forced an introduction of a number of reforms, such as education vouchers in 1992 and decentralization of some types of healthcare services to municipal control. A recession is a contraction phase of the Business cycle. The U A school voucher, also called an education voucher, is a certificate issued by the government by which parents can pay for the Education of their children at a 
While similar in form to other governments in Western Europe, the Swedish state is among the most active in the scope of government services provided. These include tax-funded childcare, parental leave, a ceiling on health care costs, tax-funded education (all levels up to, and including university), retirement pensions, tax-funded dental care up to 20 years of age and sick leave (partly paid by the employer). Sick leave (or sickness pay or sick pay) is an employee benefit in the form of paid leave which can be taken during periods of sickness to attend doctor visits or Parents are entitled to a total of 480 days partly paid leave between birth and the child's eighth birthday, with 60 days reserved specifically for each parent, in effect providing the father with two so-called "daddy-months". The ceiling on health care costs makes it easier, relative to other nations, for Swedish workers to take time off for medical reasons.
Since the late 1960s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota (as percentage of GDP) in the industrialized world, although today the difference between other high-tax countries such as France, Belgium and Denmark has narrowed. Sweden has a two step progressive tax scale with a municipal income tax of about 30% and an additional high-income state tax of 20–25% when a salary exceeds roughly 300,000 SEK per year. A progressive tax is a Tax imposed so that the Tax rate increases as the amount subject to taxation increases The employing company pays an additional 32% of an "employer's fee". In addition, a national VAT of 25% or 18% is added to many things bought by private citizens, with the exception of food (12% VAT), transportation, and books (6% VAT). Value added tax ( VAT) or goods and services tax ( GST) is a consumption Tax levied on value added. Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. g. electricity, petrol/diesel and alcoholic beverages.
As of April 2007, the total population of Sweden was estimated to be 9,131,425. The demographics of Sweden have changed significantly as a result of immigration since World War II  The population exceeded 9,000,000 for the first time as of approximately 12 August 2004 according to the Statistics Sweden. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Statistics Sweden, or Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB is the government agency responsible for producing official Statistics on Sweden. Of the 2004 population, 1. 1 million, or 12%, were foreign-born and approximately 16. 7% (1. 53 million) had at least one parent born abroad or were themselves born abroad.  This reflects the inter-Nordic migrations, earlier periods of labour immigration, and later decades of refugee and family immigration. Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term In 2006, immigration to Sweden reached its highest level since records began. 
The largest immigrant group living in Sweden as of 2005 consists of people born in Finland, followed by people born in Turkey, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Russia, Iran, Iraq and Former Yugoslavia. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: 
Immigration from the other Nordic countries reached a peak of more than 40,000 per year in 1969-70 when the new immigration rules introduced in 1967 had made it more difficult for immigrants from outside the Nordic region to settle in Sweden for labour market policy reasons.  Immigration by refugees and immigrating relatives of refugees from outside the Nordic region increased drastically during the late 1980s, with many of the immigrants arriving from Asia and Latin America, especially from Iran and Chile. During the 1990s and onwards another large immigrant group came from former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. 
The primary language of Sweden is Swedish, a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the Sweden has no official language but Swedish, a North Germanic language which is quite similar to its sister North Germanic Languages Danish and Norwegian Swedish dialects can be categorized into Traditional Dialects (with no Standard Swedish influence and Modern Dialects (with various degrees of Standard Swedish influence Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the The North Germanic languages or Scandinavian languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Norwegian ( norsk) is a North Germanic Language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is an official language The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than the Norwegians.  The dominant language is Swedish, though it is not an official language. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory However, with the recognition of five minority languages of Sweden (Finnish, Meänkieli, Sami, Romani and Yiddish) the issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language was raised. In 1999 the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five minority languages of Sweden: Finnish, Sami language, Romani Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Meänkieli (lit "our language" is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in the most northern parts of Sweden around the valley of the Torne River. Sami or Saami is a general name for a group of Finnic languages spoken by the Sami people in parts of northern Finland, Norway Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High The parliament voted in 2005 but the proposal narrowly failed. 
In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English thanks to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Subtitles are textual versions of the dialog in films and television programs usually displayed at the bottom of the screen English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s. Australia See also Education In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of  Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. First grade (called Grade 1 in some regions is a year of Education in the United States and other nations Ninth grade (called Grade 9 or Senior 1 or' Year 9 in some regions also known as freshman year in the U Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French and Spanish. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people  Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of the Swedish course for native speakers.
Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority. Sweden Finns ( ruotsinsuomalaiset in Finnish sverigefinnar in Swedish are a Finnish speaking minority in Sweden. They make around 3 percent of Sweden's population. On the other hand, in neighboring Finland, Swedish is first language for about 5. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. 5 percent (2007) of the population, the so called Swedish-speaking Finns. Swedish -speaking Finns (often called Finland-Swedes, Finnish Swedes, Fennoswedes or Swedish Finns, see below ( Swedish  Swedish-speakers are found in rural and coastal municipalities. Swedish is an official language in these municipalities and holds the status of an official language of the state. There are mandatory Swedish courses in the secondary school. In Finnish schools Swedish is a mandatory school subject for Finnish-speaking pupils from the 7th through 9th grade (13/14 to 15/16-year-olds
Before the eleventh century, Swedes adhered to Norse paganism, worshiping Æsir gods, with its centre at the Temple in Uppsala. Norse paganism is a term used to describe the religious traditions which were common amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries prior to and In Old Norse, áss (or ǫ́ss ás, plural æsir, feminine ásynja, feminine plural ásynjur) is the term denoting one of the principal The Temple at Uppsala was a religious site in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala near modern Uppsala, Sweden, that was created to worship the Norse gods With Christianization in the 11th century, the laws of the country were changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late nineteenth century. The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity
After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change significantly affected by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the Church and state were separated and the authority of Roman Catholic bishops abolished, allowing Lutheranism to prevail. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Olof Persson (sometimes Petersson; born January 6, 1493 in Örebro, died April 19, 1552 in Stockholm better known under Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther This process was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593. The Uppsala Synod in 1593 was the most important Synod of the Lutheran Church of Sweden. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran Orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen, the Moravian Church and Walloons or French Huguenots from Belgium, played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Lutheran Orthodoxy was an era in the history of Lutheranism, which began in 1580 from the writing of the Book of Concord and ended at the Age of Enlightenment Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. This page is about the Moravian Church globally For information about the church in a particular geographic area use the links at Organisation below The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Sami originally had their own shamanistic religion, but they were converted to Lutheranism by Swedish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway
Not until liberalization in the late 18th century, however, were believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism, allowed to openly live and work in Sweden, and it remained illegal until 1860 for Lutheran Swedes to convert to another religion. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches, and, towards the end of the century secularism, leading many to distance themselves from Church rituals. Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches initially designed to be pejorative The free church movement was one created to do away with the system of pew rents wherein persons or families rented or bought the title to a particular church pew Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1860, but only under the provision of entering another denomination. The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan Ruoŧa girkui is the largest church in Sweden. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was established in the Law on Freedom of Religion in 1951. Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance
Today about 75% of Swedes belong to the Church of Sweden (Lutheran), but the number is decreasing by about 1% every year, and Church of Sweden services are sparsely attended (hovering in the single digit percentages of the population).  The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that until 1996, children became members automatically at birth if at least one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, all children that are christened become members. Some 275,000 Swedes are today members of various free churches (where congregation attendance is much higher), and, in addition, immigration has meant that there are now some 92,000 Roman Catholics and 100,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians living in Sweden. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world  Because of immigration, Sweden also has a significant Muslim population. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Almost 500,000 are Muslims by tradition, but approximately 5% (25,000) of these are practising Islam (in the sense of attending Friday prayer and praying five times a day).  (See Islam in Sweden. Sweden has today almost exclusively due to Immigration, a significant Muslim population )
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 23% of Swedish citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 53% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 23% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". Eurobarometer is a series of surveys regularly performed on behalf of the European Commission since 1973
Sweden ranks aside with France and Russia on having a large minority of its citizens who have no religion. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Irreligion is a lack of religion indifference to religion or hostility to religion Independent of these statistics, it is generally known that Swedish society, collectively, is in some ways comparatively secular and non-religious. Irreligion is a lack of religion indifference to religion or hostility to religion 
Healthcare in Sweden is developed. The Swedish Health care system is a socialized, Public health care system The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare ( Socialstyrelsen) is a Swedish government agency Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. Infant mortality is defined as the number of deaths of Infants (one year of age or younger per 1000 live births It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not World-class hospitals in Sweden include Lund University, Karolinska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Linköping University Hospital and Uppsala University Hospital. Lund University (Lunds universitet located in Lund in southernmost Sweden is one of Sweden 's most prestigious Universities and one of Scandinavia The Karolinska University Hospital (Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset is a university Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, with two major sites in the municipalities The Sahlgren University Hospital ( Swedish Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset) is a system of Hospitals associated with the University of Gothenburg Uppsala University Hospital (Akademiska sjukhuset, often referred to colloquially as "Akademiska" or "Ackis") in Uppsala, Sweden is
Sweden has many authors of worldwide recognition including August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren, and Nobel Prize winners Selma Lagerlöf and Harry Martinson. The Culture of Sweden is typically perceived as Egalitarian, simple and open to international influences ( January 22, 1849  &ndash May 14, 1912) was a Swedish Writer, Playwright, and painter. Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren ( Née Ericsson 14 November 1907 &ndash 28 January 2002 was a Swedish children's book author and Screenwriter The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature / sèlˈma ʊ̀tiːlɪa lʊ̀viˈsa lɑ̀ːgərˈløːv / (20 November 1858&ndash16 March 1940 was a Swedish Author and the first woman writer to win the Harry Martinson ( May 6, 1904 — February 11, 1978) was an author and poet In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred The nation's most well-known artists are painters such as Carl Larsson and Anders Zorn, and the sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles. Carl Larsson ( May 28, 1853 &ndash January 22, 1919) was a Swedish painter and interior designer. Anders Leonard Zorn ( February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter sculptor and Printmaker in Etching Johan Tobias Sergel ( September 7, 1740 - February 26, 1814) Swedish sculptor was born in Stockholm. Carl Milles, born Carl Emil Wilhelm Andersson son of lieutenant Emil "Mille" Andersson and his wife Walborg Tisell, ( June 23 1875
Swedish twentieth-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. Mauritz Stiller ( July 17, 1883 – November 18, 1928) was a Finnish Jewish Actor, Screenwriter and influential (in the United States sometimes known as Victor Seastrom) ( September 20, 1879 &ndash January 3, 1960) was a Swedish Actor In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema. Ernst Ingmar Bergman ( pronounced) (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007 was a nine-time Academy Award -nominated Swedish film, stage Greta Garbo ( 18 September 1905 &ndash 15 April 1990) was a Swedish-American actress during Hollywood 's (ˈbærjman in Swedish but usually ˈbɝgmən in English (August 29 1915 &ndash August 29 1982 was a Swedish three-time Academy Award -winning and two-time Emmy More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström have received international recognition. Karl Frederik Lukas Moodysson (Swedish ˈlʉːkas ˈmɔdːʏsɔn (born January 17, 1969) is a Swedish Film writer and director Lars Sven "Lasse" Hallström (b 2 June 1946 Stockholm Sweden) is a Swedish Film director.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the "sexual revolution", with gender equality having particularly been promoted. The sexual revolution refers to the well-documented changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout the Western world that continues to evolve Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the Equality of the Genders  At the present time, the number of single people is one of the highest in the world. The early Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967) reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin". I Am Curious (Yellow (original Swedish title Jag är nyfiken - gul) is a 1967 Swedish Film directed by Vilgot Sweden has also become, in recent decades, fairly liberal regarding homosexuality, as is reflected in the popular acceptance of films such as Show Me Love, which is about two young lesbians in the small Swedish town of Åmål. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Show Me Love, originally titled Fucking Åmål, is a 1998 Swedish Film directed by Lukas Moodysson. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women In the absence of legislation on same-sex marriages, Sweden offers both registered partnerships and domestic partnerships for same-sex couples. Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same Registered partnership was granted in Sweden in 1995. Sweden was the third country to legally recognise same-sex unions after Denmark and Norway A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional Cohabitation (sammanboende) by heterosexual couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread although in recent years it has become administratively problematical with regard to proof in claims of "spousal" social security. About half the children in the country are born out of wedlock. Presence of already obtained common-law offspring in newspaper photographs of marrying couples is commonplace.
Sweden has a rich musical tradition, ranging from medieval folk ballads to hip hop music. Emerging in the first half of the 1980s Swedish hip hop was first heard from the cities of Stockholm and Malmö. The music of the pre-Christian Norse has been lost to history, although historical re-creations have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. Instruments used were the lur (a sort of trumpet), simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind Musical instrument. It is possible that the Viking musical legacy lives on in some of the old Swedish folk music.
Sweden has a significant folk-music scene, both in the traditional style as well as more modern interpretations which often mix in elements of rock and jazz. Väsen is more of a traditionalist group, using a unique traditional Swedish instrument called the nyckelharpa while Garmarna, Nordman, and Hedningarna have more modern elements. Väsen is a Swedish Folk music band originally consisting of Olov Johansson ( Nyckelharpa) Mikael Marin ( Viola) and A nyckelharpa (literally "key harp" plural nyckelharpor or sometimes keyed fiddle) is a traditional Swedish musical instrument Garmarna is a Swedish Folk rock band founded in 1990. Their songs are mainly old Scandinavian Ballads Biography Nordman is a Swedish group founded in 1994 that mixes folk music with rock and pop Hedningarna is a Swedish and for some years partly Finnish, Folk music band that mixes electronics and rock with elements from old Scandinavian folk There is also Saami music, called the joik, which is actually a type of chant which is part of the traditional Saami animistic spirituality but has gained recognition in the international world of folk music as well. Yoik, Joik or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of Song. Originally yoik referred to only one of several Sami singing styles but in Sweden has a major market for new age and ecologically or environmentally aware music, as well a large portion of pop and rock music have liberal and left-wing political messages. New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment.
Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition, deriving in part from the cultural importance of Swedish folk songs. In fact, out of a population of 8. 9 million, it is estimated that five to six hundred thousand people sing in choirs. 
ABBA was one of the first internationally well-known popular music bands from Sweden, and still ranks among the most prominent bands in the world, with about 370 million records sold. With ABBA, Sweden entered into a new era, in which Swedish pop music gained international prominence. There have been many other internationally successful bands since, and recently there has been a surge of Swedish Indie pop bands. "Twee" redirects here For a definition of the word see its entry at wiktionary. Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal (mostly death metal and melodic death metal) as well as progressive- and power metal bands. Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics Melodic death metal (also referred to as melodeath) is a Subgenre of Death metal which combines the melody of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal Progressive metal (often referred to simply as prog metal) is a sub-genre of Heavy metal music which blends the powerful guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex Power metal is a style of Heavy metal music combining characteristics of traditional metal with Thrash metal or Speed metal, often within
Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences. The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin. 
Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. Press The Swedish Press is self-regulated through the Public Press Ombudsman, or Allmänhetens Pressombudsman and the Swedish Press Council, or Pressens A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter (liberal), Göteborgs-Posten (liberal), Svenska Dagbladet (liberal conservative) and Sydsvenska Dagbladet (liberal). ( DN) ( Swedish: lit "news of the day" is a daily newspaper in Sweden. Göteborgs-Posten ( GP) is a major daily newspaper in Sweden. Svenska Dagbladet (common abbreviation SvD; the title translates as "the Swedish daily paper" is a daily newspaper in Sweden. Sydsvenska Dagbladet Snällposten, usually known simply as Sydsvenskan, is a daily newspaper in Sweden, founded in 1848 The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet (social democratic) and Expressen (liberal). A tabloid is a Newspaper industry term which refers to a smaller newspaper format per spread to a weekly or semi-weekly alternative newspaper that focuses on local-interest Aftonbladet ( Swedish for The Evening Sheet) is a Swedish Tabloid founded by Lars Johan Hierta in 1830 during the Expressen is a Swedish centre-right Tabloid newspaper founded in 1944. The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International, was originally founded in Stockholm, Sweden. Metro International is a Swedish media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local (liberal). The Local is an English-language online Newspaper published in Sweden and Germany.
The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in 1925. A second radio network was started in 1954 and a third opened 1962 in response to pirate radio stations. Non-profit community radio was allowed in 1979 and in 1993 commercial local radio started.
The licence funded television service was officially launched in 1956. A second channel, TV2, was launched in 1969. SVT2, until 1996 TV2, is one of two Television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden. These two channels (operated by Sveriges Television since the late '70s) held a monopoly until the 1980s when cable and satellite television became available. Sveriges Television AB ( SVT,) is a national Television broadcaster based in Sweden, funded by an obligatory fee payable by all Television -owners The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in 1987. TV3 is a television channel targeted at a Swedish language audience owned by Modern Times Group (MTG It was followed by Kanal 5 in 1989 (then known as Nordic Channel) and TV4 in 1990. Kanal 5 ( English: Channel 5) is a Swedish commercial Television channel established in 1989 TV4 is the largest commercial Television channel in Sweden. It started broadcasting by Satellite in 1990 and since 1992, on
In 1991 the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network. Terrestrial television is a term which refers to modes of television broadcasting which do not involve satellite transmission TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in 1992, becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.
Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007. Digital terrestrial television was launched in Sweden in 1999
The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök Runestone, carved during the Viking Age circa 800 AD. Swedish literature refers to literature written in the Swedish language or by writers from Sweden. The Rök Runestone ( Swedish: Rökstenen; Ög 136) is one of the most famous Runestones featuring the longest known runic inscription Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 700 to 1066 in European history. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish ( is a North Germanic language spoken by more than nine million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along the Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardized in the 16th century, a standardization largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible. The Gustav Vasa Bible is the common name of the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41
With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Secularization or secularisation generally refers to the process of transformation by which a Society migrates from close identification with religious institutions Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm (17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren (18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman (late 18th century), the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg (late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. Georg Stiernhielm ( August 7, 1598 &ndash April 22, 1672) was a Swedish civil servant linguist and poet Johan Henrik Kellgren ( 1 December[[ 751]]- 1795) Swedish poet and critic was born at Floby in Västergötland, west Sweden ( February 4, 1740 - February 11, 1795) was a Swedish Poet and Composer. Burlesque is theatrical entertainment of broad and parodic humor which usually consists of comic skits (and sometimes a strip tease) ( January 22, 1849  &ndash May 14, 1912) was a Swedish Writer, Playwright, and painter. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf (Nobel laureate 1909) and Pär Lagerkvist (Nobel laureate 1951). / sèlˈma ʊ̀tiːlɪa lʊ̀viˈsa lɑ̀ːgərˈløːv / (20 November 1858&ndash16 March 1940 was a Swedish Author and the first woman writer to win the The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Pär Fabian Lagerkvist ( May 23, 1891 — July 11, 1974) was a Swedish
In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. Henning Mankell (born 3 February 1948) is an internationally known Swedish Crime writer, children's author and Playwright Jan Oscar Sverre Lucien Henri Guillou (jɑːn gɪjuː born 17 January, 1944) is a Swedish Author and Journalist. But the only Swedish writer to have made a significant mark on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking, Emil of Maple Hills, and others. Astrid Anna Emilia Lindgren ( Née Ericsson 14 November 1907 &ndash 28 January 2002 was a Swedish children's book author and Screenwriter Pippi Longstocking ( Swedish Pippi Långstrump) is a Fictional character in a series of children's books created by Swedish author Astrid Emil i Lönneberga is a series of children's novels by Astrid Lindgren, covering 12 books written from 1963 to 1997
In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Swedish inventions are novel ideas and machines that have been pioneered in Sweden. The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published Previously, technical progress had mainly come from professionals who had immigrated from mainland Europe. In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carolus Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Anders Celsius ( November 27, 1701 &ndash April 25, 1744 in Uppsala) was a Swedish astronomer. From the 1870s, engineering companies were created at an unmatched rate and engineers became heroes of the age. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers are still internationally familiar. Gustaf Dalén founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve. Nils Gustaf Dalén ( November 30, 1869 &ndash December 9 1937) was a Swedish Nobel Laureate and industrialist the founder of the A sun valve ( Solventil, "solar valve" is a form of Flow control valve, notable because it earned its inventor Gustaf Dalén the Nobel prize Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. (21 October 1833 Stockholm, Sweden – 10 December 1896 Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist engineer innovator armaments manufacturer Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of Nitroglycerin, initially using Diatomaceous earth (kieselgur US Spelling kieselguhr The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Lars Magnus Ericsson ( May 5, 1846 - December 17, 1926) was a Swedish Inventor and founder of Telephone equipment Ericsson ( Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson) () one of the largest Swedish companies is a leading provider of telecommunication and data communication systems Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system. An alternating current ( AC) is an Electric current whose direction reverses cyclically as opposed to Direct current, whose direction remains constant There have already been discussions about Tesla's ethnicity on the talk page 
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak is an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Tetra Pak is a multinational Food processing and Packaging company of Swedish origin Håkan Lans invented the Automatic Identification System, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. Anders Håkan Lans (born November 2, 1947) is a Swedish Engineer and Inventor who invented the graphic processor for colour computer The Automatic Identification System ( AIS) is a System used by ships and Vessel Traffic Services (VTS principally for identification and locating vessels Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca. Omeprazole ( INN) (oʊˈmɛprəzoʊl is a Proton pump inhibitor used in the treatment of Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD Gastroesophageal AstraZeneca PLC (,) is a large Anglo-Swedish Pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the remerger of Swedish Astra AB A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors. 
Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays, Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. All official Holidays (helgdagar in Sweden are established by acts of Parliament. The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice; Walpurgis Night (Valborgsmässoafton) on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations. Midsummer may simply refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, but more often refers to specific European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes Walpurgis Night is a traditional religious holiday (celebrated by Pagans Roman Catholics and Satanists ref> About the Church of Satan alike celebrated Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Labour Day is an annual Holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia, 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season. This article is about the Catholic saint For other meanings see Saint Lucia (disambiguation Saint Lucy of Syracuse also known as Saint Lucia Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life 6 June is the National Day of Sweden and, as of 2005, a public holiday. Events 1508 - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year National Day of Sweden, or the Swedish Flag's Day ( Sveriges nationaldag or svenska flaggans dag) is observed in Sweden on June 6 Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. By Swedish law a number of days of the calendar year are designated as official flag days. This is the old Swedish Name day calendar, sanctioned by the Swedish Academy in 1901 with official status until 1972. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor (crayfish dinner parties). Martin of Tours Eve is celebrated in Scania in November with Mårten Gås parties, where roast goose and svartsoppa ('black soup', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served. Saint Martin of Tours (Martinus (316/317 Savaria, Pannonia &ndash November 8, 317, Candes, Gaul; buried November Scania ( in Swedish and Danish) is a geographical region on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a traditional province ( Svartsoppa ("Black-soup" is a Soup consumed in Scania in Southern Sweden. The Sami, one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on February 6 and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July. The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio
Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries (Denmark and Norway), was traditionally simple. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Danish cuisine features the products suited to its cool and moist northern climate barley potatoes rye beetroot greens berries and mushrooms are locally grown and dairy products are one Norwegian cuisine is in its traditional form largely based on the raw materials readily available in a country dominated by mountains wilderness and the sea Fish (particularly herring), meat and potatoes played prominent roles. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Herring are small Oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow temperate waters of the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea, the North In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Spices were sparse. Famous dishes include Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and lingonberry jam; pancakes, lutfisk, and Smörgåsbord, or lavish buffet. Lingonberry jam ( lingonsylt) is a staple food in Scandinavian Cuisine. Lutefisk (lutfisk (lʉːtəfɪsk in Southern Norway, in Central and Northern Norway Sweden and the Swedish-speaking areas in Finland Smörgåsbord is a Swedish word which refers to a type of Scandinavian meal served Buffet -style in Swedish cuisine. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage, and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. Akvavit, also known as aquavit or akevitt, is a Scandinavian Distilled beverage of approximately 40% alcohol by volume Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal very much like the German Schnapps. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Crisp bread ( Swedish: knäckebröd, hårt bröd, spisbröd, Danish: knækbrød, Norwegian: knekkebrød Regionally important foods are the surströmming (a fermented fish) in Northern Sweden and eel in Scania in Southern Sweden. Surströmming ("soured (Baltic herring" is a northern Swedish delicacy consisting of fermented Baltic Herring. True eels ( Anguilliformes) are an order of Fish, which consists of four suborders 19 families 110 Genera and approximately 600 Scania ( in Swedish and Danish) is a geographical region on the southernmost tip of the Scandinavian peninsula, a traditional province ( However, Swedes have traditionally also been very open to foreign influences, ranging from the French cuisine during the eighteenth century, to the sushi and cafe latte of today. French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. In Japanese cuisine, is Vinegared Rice, usually topped with other ingredients including fish various meats and vegetables A latte (also referred to as a caffè latte) is a type of coffee drink made with hot Milk.
Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years, to several successful Swedish Hollywood actors can be mentioned: Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo, Max von Sydow, Dolph Lundgren, Lena Olin, Stellan Skarsgård, Peter Stormare, Izabella Scorupco, Pernilla August, Ann Margaret, Anita Ekberg, Alexander Skarsgård, Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Ingrid Thulin and Gunnar Björnstrand. Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world and during the 20th century was the most prominent of Scandinavia. (ˈbærjman in Swedish but usually ˈbɝgmən in English (August 29 1915 &ndash August 29 1982 was a Swedish three-time Academy Award -winning and two-time Emmy Greta Garbo ( 18 September 1905 &ndash 15 April 1990) was a Swedish-American actress during Hollywood 's (born 10 April 1929 is a well-known Swedish actor known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. Dolph Lundgren (born Hans Lundgren on November 3, 1957 in Stockholm, Sweden is a Swedish Actor, director Lena Maria Jonna Olin (born March 22, 1955) is an Academy Award -nominated Swedish actress (ˈstɛlːan ˈskɒːʂgɔɖ in Swedish or "Skashgord" born 13 June 1951 is a Swedish Film Actor, known for his roles in Breaking (born August 27 1953) is a Swedish Film, stage, voice and television Actor as well as a theatrical director and playwright Izabella Dorota Scorupco (born June 4 1970 in Białystok, Poland, original last name was Skorupko) is a Polish -born Pernilla August (born Mia Pernilla Wallgren; 13 February 1958 is a Swedish actress Ann-Margret (born April 28 1941 is a Swedish -born American actress singer Kerstin Anita Marianne Ekberg (born on September 29 1931 is a Swedish model, actress and cult Sex symbol. Alexander Johan Hjalmar Skarsgård (ˈskɑːʂgoːɖ born August 25, 1976, in Stockholm, Sweden) is a Swedish actor and director Harriet Andersson (born 14 January 1932 in Stockholm) is a Swedish actress best known for being one of Ingmar Bergman 's regular Birgitta "Bibi" Andersson (born 11 November 1935) is a Swedish actress. Ingrid Thulin (ˈɪŋrɪd tɵˈliːn in Swedish ( 27 January 1926 &ndash 7 January 2004) was a Swedish actress Gunnar Björnstrand, ( 13 November 1909 - 26 May 1986) was a Swedish Character actor known for his frequent work with writer/director Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned: Ingmar Bergman and Lasse Hallström. Ernst Ingmar Bergman ( pronounced) (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007 was a nine-time Academy Award -nominated Swedish film, stage Lars Sven "Lasse" Hallström (b 2 June 1946 Stockholm Sweden) is a Swedish Film director.
Sweden has in late years taken an interest in the fashion industry, through headquartering famous brands like Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M), J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), Gina Tricot, Tiger of Sweden and Filippa K within its borders. Hennes & Mauritz AB (operating as H&M) is a Swedish clothing company known for its inexpensive and fashionable clothing offerings for women men teenagers and children JLindeberg (operating as JL) is a Swedish clothing company marketed as a 21st Century lifestyle brand Tiger of Sweden was founded 1903 in the Swedish town Uddevalla, by the Tailors Markus Schwarmann and Hjalmar Nordström Filippa K, is a Swedish clothing company Founded in 1993 by Filippa Knutsson Filippa K has grown to be one of Sweden's leading fashion brands These companies, however, are comprised largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and the Americas, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.
Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating, much thanks to the heavy government subsidies of sport associations (föreningsstöd). Stockholms Olympiastadion, most often called Stockholms Stadion or just Stadion, is a Stadium in Stockholm, Sweden. Sport is considered a National pastime in Sweden, and about half of the population actively takes part in Sports activities The two main spectator sports are association football and ice hockey. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners, mostly women. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Thereafter follow golf, athletics, and the team sports of handball, floorball, basketball and bandy. Team sport refers to Sports that are practiced between opposing teams where the players interact directly and simultaneously between them to achieve an objective Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Floorball is an indoor Team sport that was developed in Sweden in the late 1970's Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Bandy is a Winter sport, where a ball is hit with a stick It shares a common ancestry with Ice hockey, in that it likely developed from the informal "ball and
The Swedish ice hockey team Tre Kronor is regarded as one of the best in the world and has won the World Championships seven times, and Olympic gold medals in 1994 and 2006. 2008 World Championship team 2006 teams Olympic record 1920 - Finished in 4th place 1924 - Finished The Ice Hockey World Championship is an annual event organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation. In 2006, as the first nation in history, they won both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in 1950 and 1994. The Swedish national football team is the national football team of Sweden and is controlled by the Swedish Football Association. Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years.
In schools, on meadows and in parks, the game brännboll, a sport similar to baseball, is commonly played for fun. Brännboll (pronounced) is a game similar to Rounders, Baseball, lapta and Pesäpallo played on Amateur level throughout Sweden Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Other leisure sports are the historical game of kubb, and boules among the older generation. Kubb (pronounced /kʉb/ in Swedish or /kub/ in Gutnish) is a Lawn game where the object is to knock over wooden blocks by throwing wooden sticks at Boules (French bul is a collective name for games played with metal balls
Sweden hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in 1958. The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1912 in The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup was hosted by Sweden from June 8 to June 29. Other big sports events held here include 1992 UEFA European Football Championship, FIFA Women's World Cup 1995, and several championships of ice hockey, athletics, skiing, bandy, figure skating and swimming. The 1992 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was hosted by Sweden. The FIFA Women's World Cup 1995 was held in Sweden and won by Norway women's national football team. Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Snow skiing is a group of sports utilizing Skis as primary equipment Bandy is a Winter sport, where a ball is hit with a stick It shares a common ancestry with Ice hockey, in that it likely developed from the informal "ball and Figure skating is an athletic Sport in which individuals pairs or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging Swimming is the movement by humans or animals through Water, usually without artificial assistance
|Name||Year||Place||Out of #||Reference|
|Environmental Performance Index||2008||3rd||149|||
|CIA World Factbook – GDP – PPP per capita||2008||25th||230|||
|Save the Children - Mother's Index Rank||2007||1st||141|||
|Save the Children - Women's Index Rank||2007||1st||141|||
|Save the Children - Children's Index Rank||2007||4th||141|||
|Save the Children - Child mortality rate||2007||2nd||141|||
|Global Peace Index||2007||7th||121|||
|Environmental Performance Index||2006||2nd||133|||
|International Monetary Fund – GDP (nominal) per capita||2007||8th||179|||
|UN Human Development Index||2007||6th||177|
|World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007||3rd||125|||
|Reporters Without Borders world-wide press freedom index||2006||6th||168|||
|The Economist Intelligence Unit's democracy index||2006||1st||167|||
|Nation Master's list by economic importance||19th||25|||
|Nation Master's list by Technological Achievement||3rd||68|||
|Privacy International's European rankings on protection of civil liberties||2006||24th||25|||
|CIA World Factbook – GDP – PPP per capita||2005||18th||194|||
|The Economist Intelligence Unit's worldwide quality of life index||2005||5th||111|||
|Save the Children - % seats in the national government held by women||2004||1st (47%)||141|||
|Happy Planet Index - Well-being and environmental impact||2007||2nd||30|||
|Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning [. . . ]||How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written document begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent [. . . ]|