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History of Australia
Swan River Colony was a British settlement established at the Swan River on the west coast of Australia in 1829. The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the country in the 17th century This article details the History of Adelaide from the first human activity in the region to the 20th century Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, is named for Sir Thomas Brisbane (1773&ndash1860 British Soldier and colonial administrator born The History of Canberra details the development of the city of Canberra from the time before white settlement to Canberra 's planning by the Chicago The history of Darwin details the city's growth from a fledging settlement into a thriving colonial capital and finally a modern city The first settlement in the Australian city of Hobart was started in 1803 as a penal colony at Risdon Cove on the eastern shores of the Derwent River, amid The history of Melbourne details the city's growth from a fledging settlement into a thriving colonial capital and finally a modern commercial and financial centre as Australia's See also History of Western Australia This article details the History of Perth from the first human activity in the region to the 20th century The History of Sydney stretches back to prehistoric timesThe area surrounding Port Jackson ( Sydney Harbour) was home to many Aboriginal tribes The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Strictly speaking, the Swan River Colony existed only from 1829 until 1832, and encompassed only the lands around and to the south of the Swan River. When the colony's Lieutenant-Governor, Captain (later Admiral Sir) James Stirling, belatedly received his commission in early 1832, the colony was officially referred to by the name Western Australia, and its lands were extended to include the entire western third of Australia. The Governor of Western Australia is the representative in Western Australia of Australia 's Monarch Queen Elizabeth II. Bold text' ]] ==Family background==He was the fifth son of eight of the fifteen children of Andrew Stirling Esq Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. However the name "Swan River Colony" continued to be used informally for many years.
The first recorded Europeans to sight land where Perth is now located were Dutch sailors. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. Most likely the first visitor to the Swan River area was Frederick de Houtman on 19 July 1619, travelling on the ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam. The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. Frederick de Houtman (1571 Gouda - 21 October 1627, Alkmaar) or Frederik de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who sailed Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. His records indicate he first reached the Western Australian coast at latitude 32°20' which would equate to Rottnest or just south of there. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the Rottnest Island is located 18 km off the coast of Western Australia, near Fremantle. He did not land because of heavy surf, and so proceeded northwards without much investigation. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979)
On 28 April 1656, the Vergulde Draeck (Gilt Dragon) en route to Batavia (now Jakarta) was shipwrecked 107 km north of the Swan River near Ledge Point. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title The Vergulde Draeck (Gilded Dragon was a Dutch merchant Ship of the seventeenth century Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. Of the 193 on board, only 75 made it to shore. A small boat that survived the wreckage then sailed to Batavia for help, but a subsequent search party found none of the survivors. The wreck was rediscovered in 1963. 
In 1658, three ships, also partially searching for the Vergulde Draeck visited the area. The Waekende Boey under Captain S. Volckertszoon, the Elburg under Captain J. Peereboom and the Emeloort under Captain A. Joncke sighted Rottnest but did not proceed any closer to the mainland because of the many reefs. Rottnest Island is located 18 km off the coast of Western Australia, near Fremantle. They then travelled north and subsequently found the wreck of the Vergulde Draeck (but still no survivors). They gave an unfavourable opinion of the area partly due to the dangerous reefs. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979)
The Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh was the next European in the area. Willem de Vlamingh (born 28 November 1640, Vlieland - around 1698 was a Dutch sea-captain who explored the southwest coast of Australia Commanding three ships, the Geelvink, Nyptangh and the Wezeltje, he arrived at and named Rottnest on 29 December 1696, and on 10 January 1697 discovered and named the Swan River. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. His ships couldn't sail up the river because of a sand bar at its mouth, so he sent out a sloop which even then required some dragging over the sand bar. They sailed until reaching mud flats probably near Heirisson Island. Heirisson Island is an island in the Swan River in Western Australia at the eastern end of Perth Water ( They saw some Aborigines but were not able to meet any close up. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. Vlamingh was also not impressed with the area, and this was probably the reason for a lack of Dutch exploration from then on. (Appleyard & Manford, 1979)
In 1801, the French ships Geographe captained by Nicolas Baudin and Naturaliste captained by Emmanuel Hamelin visited the area from the south. Nicolas-Thomas Baudin ( February 17, 1754 - September 16, 1803) was a French explorer Baron Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin ( October 13 1768 – April 23 1839) was a Rear admiral of the French navy and later While the Geographe continued northwards, the Naturaliste remained for a few weeks. A small expedition dragged longboats over the sand bar and explored the Swan River. They also gave unfavourable descriptions regarding any potential settlement due to many mud flats upstream and the sand bar (the sand bar wasn't removed until the 1890s when C. Y. O'Connor built Fremantle harbour). C Y O'Connor CMG ( 11 January 1843 – 10 March 1902) full name Charles Yelverton O'Connor, was an Irish
The next visit to the area was the first Australian-born maritime explorer, Phillip Parker King in 1822 on the Bathurst. Admiral Phillip Parker King, FRS, RN ( 13 December 1791 - February 26, 1856) was an early explorer of the King was also the son of former Governor Philip Gidley King of New South Wales. Philip Gidley King RN (23 April 1758 &ndash 3 September 1808 was an British naval officer and colonial administrator However, King also was not impressed with the area. 
The founding father of modern Western Australia was Captain James Stirling who, in 1827, explored the Swan River area in HMS Success which first anchored off Rottnest, and later in Cockburn Sound. The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, in the south west of Western Australia. HMS Success was a 28-gun Sixth rate wooden sailing ship of the Royal Navy. Rottnest Island is located 18 km off the coast of Western Australia, near Fremantle. He was accompanied by Charles Fraser, the New South Wales botanist. Charles Fraser or Frazer (1788– 22 December 1831) was Colonial Botanist of New South Wales from 1821 to 1831
Their initial exploration began on the 8 March in a cutter and gig with parties continuing on foot from the 13 March. Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. In late March, the HMS Success moved to Sydney, arriving there on 15 April. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Stirling arrived back in England in July 1828, promoting in glowing terms the agricultural potential of the area. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland His lobbying was for the establishment of a "free" (unlike the now well established penal settlements at New South Wales, Port Arthur and Norfolk Island) colony in the Swan River area with himself as its governor. Port Arthur is a small town and former convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, in Tasmania, Australia. Norfolk Island ( Norfuk: Norfuk Ailen) is a small inhabited island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand As a result of these reports, and a rumour in London that the French were about to establish a penal colony in the western part of Australia, possibly at Shark Bay, the Colonial Office assented to the proposal in mid-October 1828. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
In December 1828 a Secretary of State for Colonies despatch reserved land for crown, as well as for the clergy, and for education, and specified that water frontage was to be rationed. “The most cursory exploration had preceded the British decision to found a colony at the Swan River; the most makeshift arrangements were to govern its initial establishment and the granting of land; and the most sketchy surveys were to be made before the grants were actually occupied. In addition, very little thought seems to have been given to the Aboriginal inhabitants prior right to occupation of the land, and the possible consequences of depriving them of that right” . A set of regulations were worked out for distributing land to settlers on the basis of land grants. The Swan River Colony, established in June 1829, was the only British Colony in Australia established on the basis of land grants Negotiations for a privately run settlement were also started with a consortium of four gentlemen headed by Potter McQueen, a member of Parliament who had already acquired a large tract of land in New South Wales. The consortium withdrew after the Colonial Office refused to give it preference over independent settlers in selecting land, but one member, Thomas Peel, accepted the terms and proceeded alone. Mr Peel he moans took him from England to Swan River West Australia means of subsistence and of production to the amount of £50000 Peel was allocated 500,000 acres (2,000 km²), conditional on his arrival at the colony before November 1, 1829 with 400 settlers. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Peel arrived after this date with only 300 settlers, but was still granted 250,000 acres (1000 km²). In no case were arrangements made for recompense to Aboriginal people for the seizure and expropriation of their land. This was in violation of British common law principles. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive
|Swan River Colony|
ship arrivals in 1829
|April 25||HMS Challenger|
|June 6||HMS Sulphur|
|August 6||Saint Leonard|
|August 23||Marquis of Anglesea|
|[October 17||Governor Phillip|
|October 31||Admiral Gifford|
|November 11||Lion (Lyon)|
|November 28||HMS Success|
The first ship to reach the Swan River was the HMS Challenger. Eight Ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the Survey vessel ''Challenger'' that carried the Admiral Sir Charles Howe Fremantle RN ( 1 June 1800 - 25 May 1869) was a Captain of the British The Parmelia was a Barque that was used to transport the first civilian officials and settlers of the Swan River Colony to Western Australia Bold text' ]] ==Family background==He was the fifth son of eight of the fifteen children of Andrew Stirling Esq Three ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Sulphur: was an 8-gun Fireship purchased in 1778 and sold in 1783 Mr Peel he moans took him from England to Swan River West Australia means of subsistence and of production to the amount of £50000 Eight Ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Challenger, most famously the Survey vessel ''Challenger'' that carried the After anchoring off Garden Island on 25 April 1829, its Captain Charles Fremantle declared the Swan River Colony for Britain on 2 May 1829. Garden Island is a slender island about ten kilometres long and one and a half kilometres wide lying about five kilometres off the Western Australian coast Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Admiral Sir Charles Howe Fremantle RN ( 1 June 1800 - 25 May 1869) was a Captain of the British The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. For the game see 1829 (board game. Year 1829 ( MDCCCXXIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display
The Parmelia arrived on 31 May carrying Stirling and his party and the HMS Sulphur arrived on 8 June. Three merchant ships arrived shortly after: the Calista on 5 August, the St Leonard on 6 August and the Marquis of Anglesey on 23 August.
A series of accidents followed the arrivals which probably nearly caused the abandonment of the expedition. The Challenger and Sulphur both struck rocks while entering Cockburn Sound and were fortunate to escape with only minor damage. Cockburn Sound is an inlet of the Indian Ocean on the coast of Western Australia. The Parmelia however, under Stirlings "over confident pilotage", also ran aground, lost her rudder and damaged her keel, which necessitated extensive repairs. With winter now set in, the settlers were obliged to land on Garden Island. Garden Island is a slender island about ten kilometres long and one and a half kilometres wide lying about five kilometres off the Western Australian coast Bad weather and the required repairs meant that Stirling did not manage to reach the mainland until 18 June, and the remaining settlers on the Parmelia finally arrived in early August. In early September a major disaster occurred: the Marquis of Anglesea was driven ashore during a gale and wrecked beyond repair.
The first reports of the new colony arrived back in England in late January 1830. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland They described the poor conditions and the land as being totally unfit for agriculture. They went on to say that the settlers were in a state of near starvation and (incorrectly) said that the colony had been abandoned. As a result of these reports, many people cancelled their migration plans or diverted to Cape Town or New South Wales. Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the
Nevertheless a few settlers arrived and additional stores were despatched. By 1832 the settler population of the colony had reached about 1,500 (Aboriginal people were not counted but in the south west have been estimated to number 15,000), but the difficulty of clearing land to grow crops were so great that by 1850 the population had only increased to 5,886. This population had settled mainly around the southwestern coastline at Bunbury, Augusta and Albany. The port of Bunbury is the third largest city in Western Australia after Mandurah and Perth the state capital Augusta is a town on the south-west coast of Western Australia, where the Blackwood River emerges into Flinders Bay. Albany ( is located in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, situated around a port on the southern coast