|Motto: We wun't be druv|
Ancient extent of Sussex
|Status||Ceremonial county (until 1974)|
|1831 area||907,920 acres (367,422 ha)|
|1901 area||932,409 acres (377,333 ha)|
|1991 area||934,900 acres (378,341 ha)|
|HQ||Chichester or Lewes|
|Origin||Kingdom of Sussex|
|Succeeded by||East Sussex and West Sussex|
- 1831 density
0. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, England. It has a long history as a settlement its Roman past and its subsequent importance Lewes (ˈluːɨs Lewis) is the County town of East Sussex, England and gives its name to the Local government district in which it Chapman codes are largely a superset of the ISO 3166-2GB and BS 6879 codes identifying administrative divisions in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the The Kingdom of Sussex, ( Suth Seaxe, ie the South Saxons was one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms the boundaries of which coincided in general with those of the earlier kingdom The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the Settlements Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or are situated in the M23 corridor 3/acre
- 1901 density
- 1991 density
Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. South East England is one of the nine official Regions of England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Kingdom of Sussex, ( Suth Seaxe, ie the South Saxons was one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms the boundaries of which coincided in general with those of the earlier kingdom It is bounded on the north by Surrey, east by Kent, south by the English Channel, and west by Hampshire, and is divided for local government into West Sussex and East Sussex and the City of Brighton and Hove. Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format Wildlife Hampshire has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain Settlements Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or are situated in the M23 corridor East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the Council and directorates The leader of the council is Conservative Mary Mears The city of Brighton & Hove was created a unitary authority in 1997; and was granted City status in 2000. See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions Until then Chichester had been Sussex's only city. Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, England. It has a long history as a settlement its Roman past and its subsequent importance
The divisions of West Sussex and East Sussex were originally established in 1189, and had obtained separate administrations (Quarter Sessions) by the 16th century. The Courts of Quarter Sessions or Quarter Sessions were periodic courts held in each County and County borough in England and Wales until This situation was recognised by the County of Sussex Act 1865. Under the Local Government Act 1888 the two divisions became two administrative counties (along with three county boroughs: Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings). The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict c 41 was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1888 and established County councils and County borough Administrative counties were a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government from 1889 to 1974 County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (excluding Scotland) to refer to a Borough or a City Eastbourne ( is a large town and borough of East Sussex, on the south coast of England with an estimated population of 94816 as of 2007 Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name 
The appellation Sussex remained in use as a ceremonial county until 1974, when the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex. The ceremonial counties are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as the Counties for the purposes of the Lieutenancies The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British Monarch 's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription with varying The whole of Sussex has had a single police force since 1968.
Sussex still retains a strong local identity and the county's unofficial anthem is Sussex by the Sea. Sussex by the Sea is a Song written in 1907 by William Ward-Higgs. The county's motto, "We wun't be druv", reflects the strong-willed nature of its people in past centuries. Sussex's device shows six martlets. A Coat of arms has been associated with the historic county of Sussex since the seventeenth century Note that the British version of the F4F Wildcat was initially called the Martlet. Sussex's county flower is the round-headed rampion, also known as the Pride of Sussex. In a number of countries plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas Phyteuma is a genus of about 40-45 species of Flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae, native to Europe and western Asia. June 16, the feast day of the county's patron saint St Richard, has been declared Sussex Day by West Sussex County Council. Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. "Saint Richard" redirects here For other saints with this name see Saint Richard (disambiguation Saint Richard of Chichester  Although it retains a strong identity, most people say West Sussex and East Sussex today and even use them in lists of traditional counties sometimes.
The physical geography of Sussex relies heavily on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline. The Weald (wɪəld is the name given to a physiographic area in south-east England situated between the parallel Chalk Escarpments of the North The major features of that are the high lands which cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself, and the South Downs. The South Downs is one of the four areas of Chalk Downland in southern England. The former consists of clays and sands; the latter chalk. Between those two ridges, mainly in West Sussex, lies the ‘’Vale of Sussex’’; at the eastern end of the county is the valley of the River Rother, which flows into what was a long sea inlet to reach the sea at Rye Bay. There is also a River Rother in West Sussex The River Rother (originally named “ Limen ” at 35 miles (56km is a The small town of Rye, in East Sussex, England, stands at the confluence of two rivers although in medieval times as an important member of the Cinque Ports
The Weald runs in an easterly direction from St Leonard’s Forest, south-west of Crawley; and continues to Ashdown Forest. Crawley ( is a town and Local government district with Borough status in West Sussex, England Ashdown Forest is in the county of East Sussex, in South East England is an open area of of heathland together with pine birch and oak woodland in the High Its eastern extremity is in two sections, divided by the River Rother valley. There is also a River Rother in West Sussex The River Rother (originally named “ Limen ” at 35 miles (56km is a The northern arm reaches the sea at Folkestone (in Kent); the southern at Fairlight Down east of Hastings,
Within the Weald lies Sussex's highest point, the pine-clad Black Down, close to the Surrey border at 917 feet (280 m). Folkestone (ˈfoʊkstən is a resort town on the south coast of Kent, England, traditionally known as "The Garden Coast" Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name The Weald (wɪəld is the name given to a physiographic area in south-east England situated between the parallel Chalk Escarpments of the North Blackdown, or Black Down, is the highest hill in the historic county of Sussex, at 280 metres (918 feet and is second only to Leith Hill (295 metres Another high point is in the part called Forest Ridges: a height of about 800 feet (240 m) is reached at Beacon Hill in the neighbourhood of Crowborough. Crowborough is a town in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England.
The High Weald, as the main area is known, gets its name from ’’wilderness’’ or forest, and it retains the highest proportion of ancient woodlands in the country. Around 1660 the total area under forest was estimated to exceed 200,000 acres (81,000 ha) , and supplied the furnaces of the ironworks which formed an important industry in the county until the 17th century, and which survived even until the early years of the 19th century. Ironwork is any Weapon, artwork, Utensil or architectural feature made of Iron especially used for decoration
The South Downs start from a point near Petersfield in Hampshire . Petersfield is a Market town and Civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England. Wildlife Hampshire has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain On entering Sussex, their summit is about 10 miles (16 km) from the sea. They run east for some 50 miles (80 km), gradually approaching the coast, and terminating in the bold promontory of Beachy Head near Eastbourne. Beachy Head is a Chalk headland on the south coast of England, close to the town of Eastbourne in the county of East Sussex, Eastbourne ( is a large town and borough of East Sussex, on the south coast of England with an estimated population of 94816 as of 2007 Their average height is about 500 feet (150 m) though Ditchling Beacon is 813 feet (248 m) (the third highest summit) and many other summits exceed 700 feet (210 m). Ditchling Beacon is the third-highest point on the South Downs in south-east England, behind Butser Hill (270 m 886 ft and Crown Tegleaze (253 m
The Vale of Sussex is the lower undulating land which came into being when the softer clays between the Weald and the Downs were worn away. Crossing the Vale are most of the rivers in Sussex: those rising on the slopes of the Weald and cutting through the Downs to reach the sea (see Drainage).
This is a fertile narrow belt from Chichester to Brighton. Once noted for market gardening, it is now heavily built-up into a sprawling coastal conurbation. The beaches along the coast vary from sandy to shingle: that factor, together with the mild climate of the coast, sheltered by the hills from north and east winds, have resulted in the growth of numerous resort towns, of which the most popular are (east to west) Hastings, Bexhill, Eastbourne, Seaford, Brighton, Shoreham-by-Sea, Worthing, Littlehampton and Bognor. Hastings is a town on the coast of East Sussex in England; it is also the administrative centre for the Borough of the same name Bexhill can refer to Bexhill-on-Sea, East Sussex England Bexhill New South Wales, Australia Eastbourne ( is a large town and borough of East Sussex, on the south coast of England with an estimated population of 94816 as of 2007 Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove. Shoreham-by-Sea (shortened to Shoreham) is a small Town, Port and Seaside resort, also being the major settlement in the Adur District Worthing (ˈwɜrðɪŋ is a large seaside town and a local government borough in West Sussex, England Littlehampton is a Seaside resort town and Civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. Bognor Regis is a Seaside resort town and Civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England.
See also: Sussex coast. The Sussex Coast is the southern coast of Sussex in England. The coast faces the English Channel, and is largely built-up with a variety of resort
There are several areas of low-lying marshland along the coast; from west to east these are:
All were originally bays; natural coastal deposition and man-made protective walls have given rise to alluvial deposition.
The rivers wholly within the county are relatively short. All rise in the Weald (St Leonard’s Forest area) and, apart from the eastern River Rother, flow south to the English Channel, using gaps in the South Downs as they do so. The mouths of all have been affected by longshore drift, particularly during violent storms during the Middle Ages. Longshore drift (sometimes known as shore drift, LSD or littoral drift) is a geological process by which Sediments such as sand From west to east they are:
South East England combines the highest average daytime temperatures found in the British Isles with the highest sunshine averages on the British mainland. There are between 25 and 30 inches (635-760 mm) of rainfall; and there can be high variation of temperature between day and night.
The climate of the coastal districts is strongly influenced by the sea, which because of its tendency to warm up slower than land, can result in cooler temperatures than inland in the summer. In the autumn months, the coast sometimes has higher temperatures. Rainfall during the summer months is mainly from thunderstorms and thundery showers; from January to March the heavier rainfall is due to south-westerly frontal systems. The coast has consistently more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, clear any cloud from the coast.
Sussex has retained much of its rural nature: apart from the coastal strip, it has few large towns. Although in 1841 over 40% of the population were employed in agriculture (including fishing}, today less than 2% are so employed. There are still fishing fleets, notably at Rye and Hastings, but the number of boats is much reduced.
Historically, the fisheries were of great importance, including cod, herring, mackerel, sprats, plaice, sole, turbot, shrimps, crabs, lobsters, oysters, mussels, cockles, whelks and periwinkles. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Bede records that St Wilfrid, when he visited the county in 681, taught the people the art of netfishing. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c Wilfrid (c 634 - 24 April 709 was an English Bishop and Saint. At the time of the Domesday survey the fisheries were extensive, and no fewer than 285 salinae (saltworks) existed. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey The customs of the Brighton fishermen were documented in 1579.
There are working harbours at Rye, Hastings, Newhaven and Shoreham; whilst Pagham and Chichester harbours cater for leisure craft, as does Brighton Marina. Pagham is a large coastal village and Civil parish in the Arun district of West Sussex, England, with a population of some 5500 Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, England. It has a long history as a settlement its Roman past and its subsequent importance
As much of the Mid Sussex area has clay not far under the surface, clay has in the past been a focus of industry in central Sussex, in particular in the Burgess Hill area. Civil parishes Within the District are the following civil parishes Albourne Ardingly Ashurst Wood Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Burgess Hill is a town and Civil parish in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England, close to the border with East Sussex Although in the first quarter of the 20th Century, Burgess Hill, and the Hassocks and Hurstpierpoint areas had many kilns, clay pits and similar infrastructure to support the clay industry, nowadays the majority of this form of industry has left the area, but it still can be seen in place names such as "Meeds Road"", "The Kiln", or Oakmeeds Community College, which is named after the oak trees in the area and Meeds Pottery, a once significant pottery in the centre of Burgess Hill. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on For the floor cushion see Hassock. Hassocks is a large Village and Civil parish in the Mid Sussex district Hurstpierpoint is a village in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England. Oakmeeds Community College is a Secondary School located in central Burgess Hill, West Sussex, England. The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin At the height of the success of this industry, tiles and bricks were from Sussex were used to build landmarks such as Manchester's G-Mex, but now, there is just one main tileworks in the area, Keymer Tileworks. Manchester Central (Formerly known as the GMEX centre and Manchester International Conference Centre (MICC is an exhibition and conference centre housed in a former Plan have been submitted to develop the area into housing, so even this tileworks now has a closing date, albeit a closing date not in the near future.
In medieval times the Weald was of national importance in the iron industry, and the remains of that industry are still to be seen in the form of Furnace ponds. The Wealden iron industry was located in the Weald of south-eastern England.
The string of holiday resorts, and the many tourist attractions, form part of the main economic base in Sussex. The presence of the University of Sussex and the University of Brighton provide employment for many more; whilst reasonable rail connections allow many people to work in London. The University of Sussex is a British Campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is from Brighton The University of Brighton (formerly Brighton Polytechnic until its re-designation in 1992 is a multi-site University based in the City of Brighton
The custom of borough-English, by which land descends to the youngest son, prevailed to an extraordinary degree in Sussex, and no fewer than 140 manors have been catalogued in which it was found. Ultimogeniture, also known as postremogeniture or junior right, is the tradition of Inheritance by the last-born of the entirety of or a privileged position Gavelkind tenure existed in Rye, in the large manor of Brede, and in Coustard manor (in Brede parish). Gavelkind was a peculiar system of Land tenure associated chiefly with the county of Kent, but found also in other parts of England. Brede is a village and Civil parish in the Rother District of East Sussex, England.
The area of the ancient county is 933,887 acres (377,931 ha) with a population in 1891 of 550,446 and in 1901 of 605,202. The earliest statement as to the population is made by Bede, who describes the county as containing in the year 681 land of 7000 families; allowing ten to a family (a reasonable estimate at that date), the total population would be 70,000.
In 1693 the county is stated to have contained 21,537 houses. If seven were allowed to a house at that date, the total population would be 150,759. It is curious, therefore, to observe that in 1801 the population was only 159,311. The decline of the Sussex ironworks probably accounts for the small increase of population during several centuries, although after the massacre of St Bartholomew upwards of 1500 Huguenots landed at Rye, and in 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, many more refugees were added to the county. The St Bartholomew's Day massacre ( Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) was a wave of Roman Catholic Mob violence against the Huguenots The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth The Edict of Nantes was issued on April 13, 1598 by Henry IV of France to grant the Calvinist Protestants of
An act of Henry VII (1504) directed that for convenience the county court should be held at Lewes as well as at Chichester, and this apparently gave rise to the division of Sussex into east and west parts.
See main article: History of Sussex
From early times castles guarded three important entries from the coast through the South Downs into the interior provided by the valleys of the Ouse, the Adur and the Arun. Prehistoric Sussex Archaeological collections contain a neanderthal handaxe found at Hamsey near Lewes dated to perhaps 80000 years ago A castle is a defensive structure seen as one of the main symbols of the Middle Ages. The South Downs is one of the four areas of Chalk Downland in southern England. The River Ouse is a River in the County of West and East Sussex in England. The Adur is a River in Sussex, England. The Adur district of West Sussex is named after it The Arun is a River in the English county of West Sussex. Its source is a series of small streams (known locally as gills in the St Leonard's Forest area These are respectively at Lewes, Bramber and Arundel. Lewes (ˈluːɨs Lewis) is the County town of East Sussex, England and gives its name to the Local government district in which it Bramber is a village and Civil parish in the Horsham District of West Sussex, England. Arundel is a Market town and Civil parish in the South Downs of West Sussex in the south of England. The ruins of the first two, though imposing, do not compare in grandeur with the third, which is still the seat of the dukes of Norfolk.
More famous than these are the massive remains, in part Norman but mainly of the 13th century, of the stronghold of Pevensey Castle, within the walls of Roman Anderitum. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Pevensey Castle is a medieval Castle and former Roman fort at Pevensey in the English county of East Sussex. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Anderitum was a Saxon Shore Fort in the Roman province of Britannia. Other ruins are those of the finely situated Hastings Castle; the Norman remains at Knepp near West Grinstead; the picturesque and remarkably perfect moated fortress of Bodiam, of the 14th century; and Herstmonceux Castle, a beautiful 15th century building of brick. Hastings Castle is situated in the town of Hastings, East Sussex ( West Grinstead is a small Village and Civil parish in the Horsham District of West Sussex, England. A moat is deep broad Trench, usually filled with Water, that surrounds a structure installation or town normally to provide it with a preliminary line of Fortifications are Military Constructions and Buildings designed for defense in Warfare Humans have constructed defensive works for Bodiam is a small village and Civil parish in East Sussex, England in the valley of the River Rother near to the Sussex villages of Herstmonceux (ˌhɜːsmənˈzuː is a village and Civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England.
The County is also rich in moated sites, and smaller castles, mostly found in the low weald.
Major towns and cities of Sussex include:
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone