Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. Cyclopaedia or A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences ( folio, 2 vols These points are usually, but not exclusively, associated with positions on the surface of the Earth, and are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, Regions, and Themes Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over Property, which may be an object, land/real estate, Intellectual property In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law. Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Circle-trig6svg|300px|thumb|right|All of the Trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society
An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details.
Furthermore, as alluded above, a particular type of surveying known as "land surveying" (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, juducial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.
Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (ca. 5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another In Architecture, Construction, Engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following Any man-made Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way
Surveying techniques have existed throughout much of recorded history. In ancient Egypt, when the Nile River overflowed its banks and washed out farm boundaries, boundaries were re-established through the application of simple geometry. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River A farm is an area of land including various structures devoted primarily to the practice of producing and managing food ( Produce, Grains, or Livestock Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position The nearly perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group
A cadastre loses its value if register and maps are not constantly updated.
Large-scale surveys are a necessary pre-requisite to map-making. In the late 1780s, a team from the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, originally under General William Roy began the Principal Triangulation of Britain using the specially built Ramsden theodolite. Ordnance Survey (OS is an Executive agency of the United Kingdom government General William Roy (1726 &ndash 1790 was a Scottish Military engineer, surveyor, and Antiquarian. The Principal Triangulation of Britain was a Triangulation project carried out between 1783 and about 1853 at the instigation of the Director of the The Ramsden theodolite is a large Theodolite that was specially constructed for use in the first Ordnance Survey of Southern Britain.
Historically, distances were measured using a variety of means, such as chains with links of a known length, for instance a Gunter's chain or measuring tapes made of steel or invar. Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are Gunter's chain is a measuring device used for land survey It was designed and introduced in 1620 by English clergyman and mathematician Edmund Gunter (1581-1626 Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Invar®, also known generically as FeNi36 ( 64FeNi in the US is a Nickel Steel Alloy notable for its uniquely low Coefficient In order to measure horizontal distances, these chains or tapes would be pulled taut according to temperature, to reduce sagging and slack. Additionally, attempts to hold the measuring instrument level would be made. In instances of measuring up a slope, the surveyor might have to "break" (break chain) the measurement- that is, raise the rear part of the tape upward, plumb from where the last measurement ended.
Historically, horizontal angles were measured using a compass, which would provide a magnetic bearing, from which deflections could be measured. A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists This type of instrument was later improved upon, through more carefully scribed discs providing better angular resolution, as well as through mounting telescopes with reticles for more precise sighting atop the disc (see theodolite). A theodolite ( is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical Angles as used in Triangulation networks Additionally, levels and calibrated circles allowing measurement of vertical angles were added, along with verniers for measurement down to a fraction of a degree- such as a turn-of-the-century transit. A theodolite ( is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical Angles as used in Triangulation networks
The simplest method for measuring height is with an altimeter — basically a barometer — using air pressure as an indication of height. An altimeter is an instrument used to measure the Altitude of an object above a fixed level History The first barometer is thought to have been built unintentionally by Gasparo Berti, sometime between 1640 and 1643 But for surveying more precision is needed. Toward this end, a variety of means, such as precise levels, have been developed. Levels are calibrated to provide a precise plane from which differentials in height between the instrument and the point in question can be measured, typically through the use of a vertical measuring rod. A Measuring rod is a kind of Ruler. This phrase is often used without mention of a particular kind or length of ruler and has been used since ancient times
As late as the 1990s the basic tools used in planar surveying were a tape measure for determining shorter distances, a level for determine height or elevation differences, and a theodolite, set on a tripod, with which one can measure angles (horizontal and vertical), combined with triangulation. A theodolite ( is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical Angles as used in Triangulation networks In Photography, a tripod is a three-legged stand for a Camera, used to stabilize and elevate the camera In Trigonometry and Geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either Starting from a position with known location and elevation, the distance and angles to the unknown point are measured. A more modern instrument is a total station, which is a theodolite with an electronic distance measurement device (EDM) and can also be used for leveling when set to the horizontal plane. A total station is an optical instrument used in modern Surveying and archaeology as well as by police crime scene investigators private accident reconstructionists and Since their introduction, total stations have made the technological shift from being optical-mechanical devices to being fully electronic with an onboard computer and software. Modern top-of-the-line total stations no longer require a reflector or prism (used to return the light pulses used for distancing) to return distance measurements, are fully robotic, and can even e-mail point data to the office computer and connect to satellite positioning systems, such as a Global Positioning System (GPS). Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth Though GPS systems have increased the speed of surveying, they are still only accurate to about 20 mm. As well GPS systems do not work in areas with dense tree cover. It is because of this that total stations have not completely phased out earlier instruments. Robotics allows surveyors to gather precise measurements without extra workers to look through and turn the telescope or record data. A faster way to measure (no obstacles) is with a helicopter with laser echolocation, combined with GPS to determine the height of the helicopter. Acoustic location is the art and science of using Sound to determine the distance and direction of something To increase precision, beacons are placed on the ground (about 20 km apart). Beacons are aids to Navigation devices Intentionally conspicuous beacons help guide navigators to their destinations This method reaches a precision of about 5 mm.
With the triangulation method, one first needs to know the horizontal distance to the object. If this is not known or cannot be measured directly, it is determined as explained in the triangulation article. In Trigonometry and Geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either Then the height of an object can be determined by measuring the angle between the horizontal plane and the line through that point at a known distance and the top of the object. In order to determine the height of a mountain, one should do this from sea level (the plane of reference), but here the distances can be too great and the mountain may not be visible. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface So it is done in steps, first determining the position of one point, then moving to that point and doing a relative measurement, and so on until the mountaintop is reached.
The basic principles of surveying have changed little over the ages, but the tools used by surveyors have evolved tremendously. Engineering, especially civil engineering, depends heavily on surveyors. Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built Whenever there are roads, Railways,Reservoir,dams,retaining walls, bridges or Residential areas to be built, Civil Engineers(surveyors) are involved. A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees A retaining wall is a structure that holds back Soil or rock from a Building, structure or area A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water They determine the boundaries of private property and the boundaries of various lines of political divisions. They also provide advice and data for geographical information systems (GIS), computer databases that contain data on land features and boundaries.
Surveyors must have a thorough knowledge of algebra, basic calculus, geometry, and trigonometry. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation, and Quantity. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Geometry ( Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth metria = measure is a part of Mathematics concerned with questions of size shape and relative position Circle-trig6svg|300px|thumb|right|All of the Trigonometric functions of an angle θ can be constructed geometrically in terms of a unit circle centered at O. They must also know the laws that deal with surveys, property, and contracts. A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive register of the Metes and bounds real property of a country and commonly includes details of Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law In addition, they must be able to use delicate instruments with accuracy and precision. In the United States, surveyors and civil engineers use units of metric feet wherein a survey foot is broken down into 10ths and 100ths. Many deed descriptions requiring distance calls are often expressed using these units (125. 25 ft). On the subject of accuracy, surveyors are often held to a standard of one one-hundreth of a foot; about 1/8th inch. Calculation and mapping tolerances are much smaller wherein achieving near perfect closures are desired. Though tolerances such as this will vary from project to project, in the field and day to day usage beyond this 100th of a foot is often impractical. In most states of the U. S. , surveying is recognized as a distinct profession apart from engineering. Licensing requirements vary by state, however these requirements generally all have a component of education, experience and examinations. Professional Engineer (PE is the term for registered or Licensed Engineers in some countries who are permitted to offer their Professional services directly In the past, experience gained through an apprenticeship, together with passing a series of state-administered examinations, was required to attain licensure. Apprenticeship is a system of Training a new generation of practitioners of a skill Nowadays, many states insist upon basic qualification of a Degree in Civil Engineering with additional coursework in surveying, in addition to experience and examination requirements. Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built Typically the process for registration follows two phases. First, upon graduation, the candidate may be eligible to sit for the Fundamentals of Land Surveying exam, to be certified upon passing and meeting all other requirements as a Surveyor In Training (SIT). Upon being certified as an SIT, the candidate then needs to gain additional experience until he or she becomes eligible for the second phase, which typically consists of the Principles and Practice of Land Surveying exam along with a state-specific examination.
Registered surveyors usually denote themselves with the letters P. S. (professional surveyor), L. S. (land surveyor), or P. L. S. (professional land surveyor), or R. L. S. (registered land surveyor), R. P. L. S. (Registered Professional Land Surveyor), or P. S. M. (professional surveyor and mapper) following their names, depending upon the dictates of their particular state of registration.
In Canada Land Surveyors are registered to work in their respective province. The designation for a Land Surveyor breaks down by province but follows the rule whereby the first letter indicates the province followed by L. S. There is also a designation as a C. L. S. or Canada Lands Surveyor who has the authority to work on Canada Lands which include Indian Reserves, National Parks, the three territories and offshore lands.
In many Commonwealth countries, the term Chartered Land Surveyor is used for someone holding a professional license to conduct surveys.
Typically a licensed land surveyor is required to seal all plans, the format of which is dictated by their state jurisdiction, which shows their name and registration number. In many states, land surveyors are also required to place caps bearing their registration number on property corners that they have set.
Building Surveying emerged in the 1970s as a profession in the United Kingdom by a group of technically minded General Practice Surveyors. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  Building Surveying is a recognized profession within Britain but not widely recognized overseas although there is growth of the profession within Australia. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Services that Building Surveyors undertake are broad but include:
Building Surveyors also advise on many aspects of construction including:
Clients of a building surveyor can be the public sector, Local Authorities, Government Departments as well as private sector organisations and work closely with architects, planners, homeowners and tenants groups. An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Building Surveyors may also be called to act as an expert witness. An expert witness is a Witness, who by virtue of Education, Training, Skill, or Experience, is believed to have Knowledge Building surveyors must undertake an accredited degree qualification and undertake professional training for a period of at least two years, at the end of which sit an assessment of professional competence. Professional organisations for building surveyors include CIOB, ABE, HKIS and RICS. About The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB is a professional body which represents on behalf of the public a diverse range of professionals who work within the The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS is an independent representative Professional body which regulates property professionals and surveyors
Quantity Surveyors play a key role in the organisation and financial management of construction projects. In essence they manage projects to ensure that they are built on time and to budget. Their job is to manage costs effectively and to ensure that they get the best value from contractors and suppliers. This involves obtaining tenders, arranging contracts and managing costs for the client while the works are undertaken. It is also their job to negotiate with the client's representative on payments and the final settlement. Quantity Surveyors deal with other professionals within their company as well as clients out-side the organisation.
It is an extremely diverse area and can include project management, facility management, construction management and management consultancy.
Cadastral land surveyors are licensed by State governments. In the United States, cadastral surveys are typically conducted by the Federal government, specifically through the Cadastral Surveys branch of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), formerly the General Land Office (GLO). In the states that have been subdivided as per the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), the BLM Cadastral Surveys are carried out in accordance with said system. This information is required to define ownership and rights in real property (land, water, mineral, easements, rights-of-way, etc. ), to resolve boundary disputes between neighbours, and for any subdivision of land, building development, road boundary realignment, etc.
The aim of cadastral surveys is normally to re-establish and mark the corners of original land boundaries. A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive register of the Metes and bounds real property of a country and commonly includes details of The first stage is to research relevant records such as land titles (deeds), easements, survey monumentation (marks on the ground) and any public or private records that provide relevant data.
Monuments are marks on the ground that define location. Pegs are commonly used to mark boundary corners, and nails in bitumen, small pegs in the ground (dumpys) and steel rods are used as instrument locations and reference marks, commonly called survey control. Marks should be durable and long lasting, stable so the marks do not move over time, safe from disturbance and safe to work at. The aim is to provide sufficient marks so some marks will remain for future re-establishment of boundaries. The boundary pegs will most likely be replaced by fences of varying durability which then become evidence of land boundary location which can be used for future re-instatement of boundary location. Typical monuments are steel posts with brass caps containing descriptive markings, aluminum rods, stones with inscriptions, rebar with aluminum caps, etc. These monuments must meet the standards described in the BLM's Manual of Survey Instructions 1973.
The surveyor then examines the site and gathers survey measurements and observations. A total station is used to measure angles and distances and provide measurements from survey control points. A total station is an optical instrument used in modern Surveying and archaeology as well as by police crime scene investigators private accident reconstructionists and Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are A data collector is used to electronically record data which is downloaded to a computer later. GPS equipment can be used to provide absolute coordinates of positions using Global Positioning Satellites. Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth In Mathematics and its applications a coordinate system is a system for assigning an n - Tuple of Numbers or scalars to each point Detail of occupation and boundary fencing is recorded to provide evidence upon which boundary locations can be assessed.
The total station or GPS is set-up over survey marks which were placed as part of a previous survey, or newly placed marks. The bearing datum is established by measuring between points on a previous survey and a rotation is applied to orientate the new survey to correspond with the previous survey.
The data is analysed and comparisons made with existing records to determine evidence which can be used to establish boundary positions. The bearing and distance of lines between the boundary corners and total station positions are calculated and used to set out and mark the corners in the field. Checks are made by measuring directly between pegs places using a cloth tape. Subdivision of land generally requires that the external boundary is re-established and marked using pegs, and the new internal boundaries are then marked.
A plat (survey plan) and description (depending on local and state requirements) are compiled, the final report is lodged with the appropriate government office (often required by law), and copies are provided to the client. A plat consists of a Map, drawn to scale showing the divisions of a piece of land
The Art of Surveying While one might assume that the manipulation of property and numbers might be devoid of art, only the contrary can be true. Many properties have considerable problems with regards to improper bounding, miscalculations in past surveys, titles, easements, and wildlife crossings. Also many properties are created from multiple divisions of a larger piece over the course of years, and with every additional division the risk of miscalculation increases. The result can be abutting properties not coinciding with the your parcel. The art comes in when a surveyor must essentially build a puzzle with pieces that do not exactly fit together. In these cases the solution is based upon the research and interpretation of the surveyor.