The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface. s are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current Science has confirmed to exist in Space. In Physics, gravitational acceleration is the Acceleration of an object caused by the Force of gravity from another object The surface gravity may be thought of as the acceleration due to gravity experienced by a hypothetical test particle which is very close to the object's surface and which, in order not to disturb the system, has negligible mass.

Surface gravity is measured in units of acceleration, which, in the SI system, are meters per second squared. It may also be expressed as a multiple of the Earth's standard surface gravity, g = 9. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Standard gravity, usually denoted by g 0 or g n is the nominal acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface at sea level 80665 m/s2. [1] In astrophysics, the surface gravity may be expressed as log g, which is obtained by first expressing the gravity in cgs units, where the unit of acceleration is centimeters per second squared, and then taking the base 10 logarithm. Astrophysics is the branch of Astronomy that deals with the Physics of the Universe, including the physical properties ( Luminosity, The centimetre-gram-second system ( CGS) is a system of physical units. A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth In Mathematics, the logarithm of a number to a given base is the power or Exponent to which the base must be raised in order to produce [2]

## Mass, radius and surface gravity

In the Newtonian theory of gravity, the gravitational force exerted by an object is proportional to its mass: an object with twice the mass produces twice as much force. Newton 's law of universal Gravitation is a physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Newton 's law of universal Gravitation is a physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass Newtonian gravity also follows an inverse square law, so that moving an object twice as far away divides its gravitational force by four, and moving it ten times as far away divides it by 100. This is similar to the intensity of light, which also follows an inverse square law: lights far away give the observer less light. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700

These proportionalities may be expressed by the formula g = m/r2, where g is the surface gravity of an object, expressed as a multiple of the Earth's, m is its mass, expressed as a multiple of the Earth's mass (5. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 976·1024 kg) and r its radius, expressed as a multiple of the Earth's (mean) radius (6371 km). The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand [8] For instance, Mars has a mass of 6. 4185·1023 kg = 0. 107 Earth masses and a mean radius of 3390 km = 0. 532 Earth radii. [9] The surface gravity of Mars is therefore approximately

$\frac{0.107}{0.532^2} = 0.38$

times that of Earth. Without using the Earth as a reference body, the surface gravity may also be calculated directly from Newton's Law of Gravitation, which gives the formula

$g = {\frac{GM}{r^2}}$

where M is the mass of the object, r is its radius, and G is the gravitational constant. Newton 's law of universal Gravitation is a physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass The gravitational constant, denoted G, is a Physical constant involved in the calculation of the gravitational attraction between objects with mass If we let ρ = m/V denote the mean density of the object, we can also write this as

$g = {\frac{4\pi}{3} G \rho r}$

so that, for fixed mean density, the surface gravity g is proportional to the radius r. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different

Since gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, a space station 100 miles above the Earth feels almost the same gravitational force as we do on the Earth's surface. The reason a space station does not plummet to the ground is not that it is not subject to gravity, but that it is in a free-fall orbit. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Free fall is motion with no Acceleration other than that provided by Gravity. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star This would not be true of a space elevator—a concept you can find explained in the SF novel The Fountains of Paradise, written by Sir Arthur C. Clarke, who has a good understanding of the physics and engineering involved. A space elevator is a proposed structure designed to transport Material from a celestial body 's Surface into space. The Fountains of Paradise is a 1979 novel by Arthur C Clarke. Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and

## Non-spherically symmetric objects

Most real astronomical objects are not absolutely spherically symmetric. One reason for this is that they are often rotating, which means that they are affected by the combined effects of gravitational force and centrifugal force. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another This causes stars and planets to be oblate, which means that their surface gravity is smaller at the equator than at the poles. An oblate Spheroid is a rotationally symmetric Ellipsoid having a polar axis shorter than the diameter of the equatorial circle whose plane This effect was exploited by Hal Clement in his SF novel Mission of Gravity, dealing with a massive, fast-spinning planet where gravity was much higher at the poles than at the equator. Harry Clement Stubbs ( May 30, 1922 in Somerville Massachusetts – October 29, 2003 in Milton Massachusetts) better Mission of Gravity is a Science fiction Novel by Hal Clement.

To the extent that an object's internal distribution of mass differs from a symmetric model, we may use the measured surface gravity to deduce things about the object's internal structure. This fact has been put to practical use since 19151916, when Roland Eötvös's torsion balance was used to prospect for oil near the city of Egbell (now Gbely, Slovakia. Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Baron Loránd von Eötvös, more commonly called Baron Roland von Eötvös in the English literature (in Hungarian Vásárosnaményi Báró Eötvös Loránd, or A torsion spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting that is a flexible elastic object that stores Mechanical energy when it is twisted An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is Gbely ( German and Hungarian: Egbell) is a town in the Skalica District, Trnava Region in western Slovakia, close to Gbely ( German and Hungarian: Egbell) is a town in the Skalica District, Trnava Region in western Slovakia, close to Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million )[10], p.  1663;[11], p.  223. In 1924, the torsion balance was used to locate the Nash Dome oil fields in Texas. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. [11], p.  223.

It is sometimes useful to calculate the surface gravity of simple hypothetical objects which are not found in nature. The surface gravity of infinite planes, tubes, lines, hollow shells, cones, and even more unrealistic structures may be used to provide insights into the behavior of real structures.

## Surface gravity of a black hole

The surface gravity κ of a static Killing horizon is the acceleration, as exerted at infinity, needed to keep an object at the horizon. A Killing horizon is a null hypersurface on which there is a null Killing vector field Mathematically, if ka is a suitably normalized Killing vector, then the surface gravity is defined by

$k^a \nabla_a k^b = \kappa k^b$,

where the equation is evaluated at the horizon. In Mathematics, a Killing vector field, named after Wilhelm Killing, is a Vector field on a Riemannian manifold (or Pseudo-Riemannian manifold For a static and asymptotically flat spacetime, the normalization should be chosen so that $k^a k_a \rightarrow -1$ as $r\rightarrow\infty$, and so that $\kappa \geq 0$. For the Schwarzschild solution, we take ka to be the time translation Killing vector $k^a\partial_a = \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$, and more generally for the Kerr-Newman solution we take $k^a\partial_a = \frac{\partial}{\partial t}+\Omega\frac{\partial}{\partial\phi}$, the linear combination of the time translation and axisymmetry Killing vectors which is null at the horizon, where Ω is the angular velocity. In Mathematics, a Killing vector field, named after Wilhelm Killing, is a Vector field on a Riemannian manifold (or Pseudo-Riemannian manifold

### The Schwarzschild solution

Since ka is a Killing vector $k^a \nabla_a k^b = \kappa k^b$ implies $-k^a \nabla^b k_a = \kappa k^b$. In (t,r,θ,φ) coordinates ka = (1,0,0,0). Performing a coordinate change to the advanced Eddington-Finklestein coordinates v = t + r + 2Mln | r − 2M | causes the metric to take the form $ds^{2} = -\left(1-\frac{2M}{r}\right)dv^{2}+2dvdr+r^{2}(d\theta^{2}+\sin^{2}\theta d\phi^{2})$.

Under a general change of coordinates the Killing vector transforms as $k^{v} = A_{t}^{v}k^{t}$ giving the vectors ka' = (1,0,0,0) and $k_{a'} = \left(-1+\frac{2M}{r},1,0,0\right)$

Considering the b=v entry for $k^a \nabla_a k^b = \kappa k^b$ gives the differential equation $-\frac{1}{2}\frac{\partial}{\partial r}\left(-1+\frac{2M}{r}\right) = \kappa$

Therefore the surface gravity for the Schwarzschild solution with mass M is $\kappa = \frac{1}{4M}$. In Einstein's theory of General relativity, the Schwarzschild solution (or the Schwarzschild vacuum) describes the Gravitational field outside

### The Kerr-Newman solution

The surface gravity for the Kerr-Newman solution is

$\kappa = \frac{r_+-r_-}{2(r_+^2+a^2)} = \frac{\sqrt{M^2-Q^2-J^2/M^2}}{2M^2-Q^2+2M\sqrt{M^2-Q^2-J^2/M^2}}$,

where Q is the electric charge, J is the angular velocity, we define $r_\pm := M \pm \sqrt{M^2-Q^2-J^2/M^2}$ to be the locations of the two horizons and a: = J / M. The Kerr-Newman metric is a solution of Einstein's General relativity field equation that describes the spacetime geometry in the region surrounding a charged

## References

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8. ^ 2.7.4 Physical properties of the Earth, web page, accessed on line May 27, 2007. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
9. ^ Mars Fact Sheet, web page at NASA NSSDC, accessed May 27, 2007. Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
10. ^ Ellipsoid, geoid, gravity, geodesy, and geophysics, Xiong Li and Hans-Jürgen Götze, Geophysics, 66, #6 (November–December 2001), pp. 1660–1668. DOI 10.1190/1.1487109.
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