A supreme court, also called a court of last resort or high court, is in some jurisdictions the highest judicial body within that jurisdiction's court system, whose rulings are not subject to further review by another court. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority A court is a forum used by a power base to adjudicate disputes and dispense civil, labour administrative and criminal Justice under its The designations for such courts differ among jurisdictions. Courts of last resort typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from the lower trial courts or intermediate-level appellate courts. Court of Appeal, Court of Appeals, and Appellate Division redirect here for a list of specific courts using those titles see Court of Appeal In Law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision A trial court or court of first instance is the Court in which most civil or criminal cases begin
Many countries in fact have multiple "supreme courts," with each being the court of last resort for a particular geographical region or on a particular area of law. The United States, having a federal system of government, has a single Supreme Court of the United States, but each U.S. state furthermore has its own high court over which the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government S. Supreme Court only has jurisdiction on issues of federal law. Other jurisdictions follow the Austrian model of a separate constitutional court (first developed in the Czechoslovak constitution and Austrian Constitution of 1920). Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with Constitutional law. Independence The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National The Constitution of Austria ( Österreichische Bundesverfassung) is the body of all constitutional law of the Republic of Austria on the federal level. Furthermore, in e. g. Finland, Sweden, Czech republic and Poland, there is a separate Supreme Administrative Court whose decisions are final and whose jurisdiction does not overlap with the Supreme Court. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The Polish law, or Legal system in Poland. has been developing since the first centuries of Polish history, over 1000 years ago The U. S. states of Texas and Oklahoma also divide subject matter jurisdiction among two separate courts of last resort, with one hearing criminal cases and the other civil cases. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America.
In Australia, the High Court of Australia became the court of last resort with the passing of the Australia Act in 1986. The law of Australia consists of the Australian Common law (which is based on the English common law) federal laws enacted by the Parliament The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. The Australia Act 1986 is the name given to a pair of two separate but related pieces of legislation one an Act of the Parliament of Australia (No This act abolished the last rights of appeal to the Privy Council. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 Each state and territory has its own Supreme Court, which is the highest court in that state/territory. There are two streams within the hierarchy of Australian Courts the federal stream and the state and territory stream This leads to some confusion among those from other jurisdictions as the term "supreme court" seems to refer to the court of last resort. The reason that the High Court of Australia is not named the "supreme court" is purely historical. The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. Before the federation of the Australian colonies as states of Australia (in 1901), each colony had its own independent judicial system with a supreme court as the highest court physically within the colony (with a right of appeal to the Privy Council). The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 On federation, the constitution provided for the establishment of the 'High Court' which could hear appeals from the state Supreme Courts. With the exception of The Australian Capital Territory, each state's Supreme Court are divided into two divisions: The Trial Division and The Court of Appeals. Appeals from The ACT Supreme Court are heard in The High Court Justice of Australia. The current Chief Justice is Murray Gleeson. Anthony Murray Gleeson, AC, QC (born 30 August, 1938) is a former Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, the
In Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada was established in 1875 but only became the highest court in the country in 1949 when the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was abolished. The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British Common law system inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. The Supreme Court of Canada ( French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 This court hears appeals of decisions rendered by appellate courts from each of the country's provinces and territories, as well as appeals of judgments created by the Federal Court of Appeal. The court's decisions are final and binding on the federal courts and the courts from all provinces and territories, including the Province of Quebec which has its own distinct legal system in matters of property and civil law based on the Civil Code of Quebec. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Civil Code of Québec ( Code civil du Québec) is the Civil code in force in the province of Quebec, Canada.
In Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PRC prior to the transfer of sovereignty in 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony. Law of the People's Republic of China is the legal regime of the People's Republic of China, with the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Supreme Court of Hong Kong (now known as High Court) was the final court of appeal within the colony. The Supreme Court was the highest court in Hong Kong prior to the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic For the High Court of Justice which was renamed in 1997 see Court of First Instance. The final adjudication power, as in any other British Colonies, rested with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) in London, United Kingdom. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 After the transfer of sovereignty to the People's Republic of China, the power of final adjudication is now vested in the Court of Final Appeal created in 1997. The Court of Final Appeal ( is the court with the final adjudication power on the laws of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic Under the Basic Law, Constitution of Hong Kong, the territory remains a common law jurisdiction. The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, or simply Hong Kong Basic Law, serves as the Constitutional document Consequently, judges from other common law jurisdictions (including England and Wales) can be recruited and continue to serve in the judiciary according to Article 92 of the Basic Law. History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception The Judiciary of Hong Kong is responsible for the administration of justice in Hong Kong On the other hand, the power of interpretation of the Basic Law itself, being a national law, is vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) in Beijing in accordance with Article 158 of the Basic Law. The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC of the People's Some are concerned that this arrangement would amount to undermining judicial independence in Hong Kong. Such controversies have arisen in the right of abode issue in 1999. The issue of who has the right of abode in Hong Kong prompted a fierce debate at the end of the 20th century and tested the One Country Two Systems policy in China
In India, the Supreme Court of India was created on January 28, 1950 after the adoption of the Constitution. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. The Supreme Court is a constitutional authority independent from political interference. All judgements are binding across all states of India. The exception being the state of Jammu and Kashmir where the Indian Penal Code is not applicable. ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. The court rulings take precedence over state High Courts. India 's judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court of India at the apex of the hierarchy for the entire country and twenty-one High Courts at the In extremely rare cases such as capital punishment, the decision may be passed on to the President of India for clemency petitions. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit
Israel's The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit haMishpat ha'Elyon) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. Law of Israel combines Common law and civil law. Sources of Israeli law Israeli law draws on the following sources The Mecelle The Supreme Court ( Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון Beit haMishpat ha'Elyon) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. It is the highest judicial instance. The Supreme Court sits in Jerusalem. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The area of its jurisdiction is the entire State. A ruling of the Supreme Court is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court itself. The Israeli supreme court is both an appellate court and the high court of justice. As an appellate court, the Supreme Court considers cases on appeal (both criminal and civil) on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts. It also considers appeals on judicial and quasi-judicial decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association. As the High Court of Justice (Hebrew: Beit Mishpat Gavoha Le'Zedek בית משפט גבוה לצדק; also known by its initials as Bagatz בג"ץ), the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, primarily in matters regarding the legality of decisions of State authorities: Government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, and direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, and which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal. The High Court of Justice grants relief through orders such as injunction, mandamus and Habeas Corpus, as well as through declaratory judgments. The Supreme Court can also sit at a “further hearing” on its own judgment. In a matter on which the Supreme Court has ruled - whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court of Justice - with a panel of three or more justices, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of justices. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court justifies such hearing. The Supreme Court also holds the unique power of being able to order "trial de novo," (a retrial). In Law, the expression trial de novo means a "new trial " by a different tribunal ( de novo is a Latin expression meaning 'afresh' 'anew'
In Republic of Ireland, the Supreme Court is the highest court in the Republic of Ireland. The Republic of Ireland has a Common law Legal system with a written constitution which provides for a parliamentary democracy based on the British parliamentary system The Supreme Court (Cúirt Uachtarach is the highest judicial authority in the Republic of Ireland. It has authority to interpret the constitution, and strike down laws and activities of the state that it finds to be unconstitutional. It is also the highest authority in the interpretation of the law. Constitutionally it must have authority to interpret the constitution but its further appellate jurisdiction from lower courts is defined by law. The Irish Supreme Court consists of its presiding member, the Chief Justice, and seven other judges. Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President in accordance with the binding advice of the Government. The Supreme Court currently sits in the Four Courts in Dublin. The Four Courts (Na Ceithre Cúirteanna in Dublin is the Republic of Ireland 's main courts building
In New Zealand, the right of appeal to the Privy Council has recently been abolished following the passing of the Supreme Court Act (2003). New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 The new Supreme Court of New Zealand was officially established at the beginning of 2004, although it did not come into operation until July. The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court in the land and the Court of last resort in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning In September 2006, a new design for a dedicated Supreme Court building was announced, with completion set for 2009. The High Court of New Zealand was until 1980 known as the Supreme Court
In the United Kingdom, there are three Supreme Court systems, one each for the separate legal systems of England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980 The United Kingdom has three Legal systems. English law, which applies in England and Wales, and Northern Ireland law, which applies in The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, Common law and Religious law. History The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scots law is not a common law legal system, but rather a pluralistic one, based on civil law (see the section for Scotland below. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. )
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council hears a small group of cases: appeals from certain Commonwealth realms (in the sections below, one may take note of the several countries which have abolished Privy Council appeals), admiralty cases, certain appeals from the ecclesiastical courts, and devolution matters under the Scotland Act 1998, Government of Wales Act and Northern Ireland Act. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch An ecclesiastical court (also called "Court Christian" or "Court Spiritual" is any of certain Courts having Jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level The Scotland Act 1998 (1998 c 46 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The Northern Ireland Act 1998 (1998 c 47 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established a Devolved Legislature
In both the Privy Council and House of Lords, the entire body does not hear the cases; rather, the "Law Lords", qualified judges, consider the matter. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 will replace the House of Lords, insofar as judicial functions are concerned, with a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, and renames the Supreme Court of Judicature for England and Wales as the Senior Courts of England and Wales. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c 4 is an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 2005. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in England
In England and Wales, the Royal Courts of Justice and the Courts of England and Wales following the enactment of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 the body known as the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords (the Law Lords) will sit as a separate 'supreme' court (although the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty remains unchanged by this somewhat confusing use of terminology). English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal Courts responsible for the administration of Justice in England English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c 4 is an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 2005. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function has a judicial function as a Court of last resort within the United Kingdom. Parliamentary sovereignty, Sovereignty of Parliament, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in Constitutional law The body currently known as the Supreme Court which consists of the Crown Court (which deals with criminal cases), the High Court of Justice (which deals mostly with civil cases) and the Court of Appeal (which considers appeals from both the Crown Court, the High Court and elsewhere) will be re-named to the "Senior Court of Judicature. For the TV programme see Crown Court (TV series. The Crown Court of England and Wales is together with the High Court of Justice For the Cameroonian court by this name see High Court of Justice (Cameroon, for the Israeli court of this name see Supreme Court of Israel. The Court of Appeal of England and Wales is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords above " Notably the Privy Council endures. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom, established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833
In Northern Ireland, the Royal Courts of Justice, Belfast and Courts of Northern Ireland follow a similar arrangement is followed. Northern Ireland law concerns the Legal system of Northern Ireland. The Royal Courts of Justice in Belfast is the home of the Supreme Court of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland law concerns the Legal system of Northern Ireland.
In the United States, the Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the country, with powers of judicial review first asserted in Calder v. Bull (1798) in Justice Iredell's dissenting opinion. The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the Common law system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm Calder v Bull, 3 US 386 ( 1798) is a famous case in which the United States Supreme Court examined its authority to review State legislature The power was later given binding authority by Justice Marshall in Marbury v. Madison (1803). Marbury v Madison, is a Landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of Judicial review in the United States under Each U.S. state has a state supreme court, though some do not actually use the term "supreme court. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government This article discusses the state supreme courts in the United States " In Maine and Massachusetts the highest court is styled the "Supreme Judicial Court", as well as the oldest appellate court of continuous operation in the Western hemisphere. The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. In New York, Maryland, and the District of Columbia the highest court is the "Court of Appeals. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D " (In New York, the "Supreme Court" is the trial court of general unlimited jurisdiction and the intermediate appellate court is called the "Supreme Court — Appellate Division". ) In West Virginia, the highest court of the state is called "Supreme Court of Appeals. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by " Oklahoma and Texas each have two separate highest courts, one for criminal appeals ("Court of Criminal Appeals") and one for civil cases ("Supreme Court"). Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State.
The Roman law and the Corpus Juris Civilis are generally held to be the historical model for civil law. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting The Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law" is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in Jurisprudence, issued from 529 From the late 18th century onwards, civil law jurisdictions began to codify their laws, most of all in civil codes. Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of Private law.
In Austria, the Austrian Constitution of 1920 (based on a draft by Hans Kelsen) was the third (after the USA and Czechoslovakia) to introduce judicial review of legislative acts for their constitutionality. The Constitution of Austria ( Österreichische Bundesverfassung) is the body of all constitutional law of the Republic of Austria on the federal level. Hans Kelsen ( October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian American Jurist. Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable Constitution. This function is performed by the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof), which is also charged with the review of administrative acts on whether they violate constitutionally guaranteed rights. Other than that, administrative acts are reviewed by the Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof). The Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof), stands at the top of Austria's system of "ordinary courts" (ordentliche Gerichte) as the final instance in issues of private law and criminal law. Private law (Civil law is that part of a Legal system that involves relationships between individuals The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential
In Brazil, the Supreme Federal Tribunal is the highest court. Brazilian law derives from Portuguese civil law and is based on statutes and partly and more recently súmula vinculante ( Stare decisis The Supreme Federal Court ( Portuguese: Supremo Tribunal Federal or STF) is the Supreme court (court of last resort of Brazil It is both the constitutional court and the court of last resort in Brazilian law. It only reviews cases that may be unconstitutional. It also judges, in original jurisdiction, cases involving members of congress, senators, ministers of state, members of the Court and the President and Vice-President of the Republic. The original jurisdiction of a court is the right to hear a case for the first time as opposed to Appellate jurisdiction when a court has the right to review the decision of Brazil 's bicameral National Congress ( Congresso Nacional) consists of Senate of Brazil (the Upper house) and the Chamber of In its present configuration the Federal Brazilian Senate ( Portuguese: Senado Federal Brasileiro) is a federal legislative body and the Upper house The President of Brazil is both the Head of state and Head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. The Vice-President of Brazil is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of Brazil after the President The Superior Justice Tribunal grants writs of certiorari for civil law and criminal law cases. In Law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial Jurisdiction. Certiorari (ˌsɚʃioʊ('rɛri 'rɑri is a legal term in Roman, English, Philippine and American law referring to a type of Writ Private law (Civil law is that part of a Legal system that involves relationships between individuals The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential The Superior Labour Tribunal reviews cases involving labour law. Labour law (also known as employment or labor law is the body of Laws administrative rulings and precedents which address the legal rights of and restrictions The Superior Electoral Tribunal is the court of last resort of electoral law, and also oversees general elections. Election law is a discipline falling at the juncture of Constitutional law and Political science. Brazil elects on the national level a Head of state &ndash the president &ndash and a Legislature. The Superior Military Tribunal is the highest court in matters of military law. Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of Armed forces are subject
In Taiwan, there are three types of court in the legal system:
In Croatia, the supreme jurisdiction is given to the Supreme Court, which secures a uniform application of laws. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Croatia (Vrhovni sud Republike Hrvatske is a highest court and it ensures the uniform application of Laws and equal Justice The Constitutional Court exists to verify constitutionality of laws and regulations, as well as decide on individual complaints on decisions on governmental bodies. Constitutional Court of the Republic of Croatia (Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske is not considered as part of the judicial branch but a court Sui generis Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable Constitution. It also decides on jurisdictional disputes between the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
In Denmark, all ordinary courts have original jurisdiction to hear all types of cases, including cases of a constitutional or administrative nature. The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in Denmark. As a result, there exists no special constitutional court, and therefore final jurisdiction is vested with the Danish Supreme Court (Højesteret). The Danish Supreme Court is the highest civil and criminal court responsible for the administration of justice in Denmark.
France divides supreme jurisdiction into 5 entities:
In Germany, there is no single supreme court. The modern German legal system is a system of Law which is grounded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of Final interpretation of the German Constitution, the Grundgesetz, is the task of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court of Germany). The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland is the Constitution of Germany. The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht BVerfG) is a special Court established by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic With civil and criminal cases, the highest court in a hierarchy of appellate courts is the Bundesgerichtshof. The “ Federal Court of Justice of Germany ” ( German: “ Bundesgerichtshof ” or “ BGH ” is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction The other branches of the German judicial branch each have their own appellate systems and highest courts for social (Bundessozialgericht), labor (Bundesarbeitsgericht), taxes (Bundesfinanzhof) and administrative cases (Bundesverwaltungsgericht). In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Bundessozialgericht ( German for Federal Social Court) is the German federal court of Appeals for Social security cases The Federal Labor Court ( Bundesarbeitsgericht) is the German federal court of appeals for cases of Labour law, both individual labour law (mostly concerning The Federal Finance Court ( Bundesfinanzhof) is one of the five federal supreme courts of Germany. The Federal Administrative Court ( Bundesverwaltungsgericht) is one of the five federal Supreme courts of Germany. The so-called Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe (Common Senate of the Federal Supreme Courts), is no supreme court in itself, but an ad-hoc body that convenes and acts only in the case that one supreme court intends to diverge from another supreme court's legal opinion. The Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe des Bundes ( Common Senate of the Federal Supreme Courts of Justice, often abbreviated as Common Senate) is often regarded As the courts have well-defined areas of responsibility, this situation rarely arises, and the Common Senate only gathers rather rarely and only on matters which are mostly definitory.
In the Netherlands, the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden is the Supreme Court. The Netherlands is a civil law country Its laws are written and the application of Customary law is exceptional The Hoge Raad der Nederlanden ( High Council of the Netherlands) is the Supreme Court of the Netherlands, situated in The Hague. Its decisions, known as "arresten", are absolutely final. The court is banned from testing legislation against the constitution, pursuant to the principle of the sovereignty of the States-General; the court can, however, test legislation against treaties, which amounts to some form of de facto constitutional review. Also, the ordinary courts in The Netherlands, including the Hoge Raad, do not deal with administrative law, which is dealt with in separate administrative courts, the highest of which is the Council of State (Raad van State)
In Italy, the Italian court of last resort for most disputes is called Corte di Cassazione. The Supreme Court of Cassation (Corte Suprema di Cassazione is the major Court of last resort in Italy. There is a separate constitutional court, the Corte costituzionale and also a parliamentary court of last resort. The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana is a Supreme court of Italy, the other being the Court of Cassation
In Japan, the Supreme Court of Japan is called 最高裁判所(Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest court in Japan. Law of Japan was historically heavily influenced by Chinese law and developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所 Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest It has ultimate judicial authority within Japan to interpret the Constitution and decide questions of national law (including local bylaws). It has the power of judicial review (i. e. , it can declare Acts of Diet and Local Assembly, and administrative actions, unconstitutional).
In Luxembourg, challenges on the conformity of the law to the Constitution are brought before the Cour Constitutionnelle (Constitutional Court). — The most used and common procedure to present these challenges is by way of the "question préjudicielle" (prejudicial question).
The Court of last resort for civil and criminal proceedings is the "Cour de Cassation".
For administrative proceedings the highest court is the "Cour Administrative" (Administrative Court).
For Perusee Supreme Court of Peru. The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial court in Peru.
While the Philippines is generally considered a civil law nation, its Supreme Court is heavily modeled after the American Supreme Court. Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. The Supreme Court of the Philippines ( Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas or Korte Suprema) is the country's highest judicial court as well The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. This can be attributed to the fact that the Philippines was colonized by both Spain and the United States, and the system of laws of both nations strongly influenced the development of Philippine laws and jurisprudence. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Even as the body of Philippine laws remain mostly codified, the Philippine Civil Code expressly recognizes that decisions of the Supreme Court "form part of the law of the land", belonging to the same class as statutes. A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County. The 1987 Philippine Constitution also explicitly grants to the Supreme Court the power of judicial review over laws and executive actions. The Constitution of the Philippines ( Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas in Filipino) is the supreme Law of the Philippines Judicial review is the power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm The Supreme Court is composed of 1 Chief Justice and 14 Associate Justices. The Supreme Court of the Philippines ( Filipino: Kataas-taasang Hukuman ng Pilipinas or Korte Suprema) is the country's highest judicial court as well The Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court presides over the Supreme Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer of the government of the An Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines is one of 15 members of the Philippine Supreme Court, the highest court in the Philippines. The court sits either en banc or in divisions, depending on the nature of the case to be decided. En banc, in banc, in banco or in bank is a French term used to refer to the hearing of a legal case where all
For Poland, see Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland. The Polish law, or Legal system in Poland. has been developing since the first centuries of Polish history, over 1000 years ago The Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in General courts - these are district regional and appeal
For Portugal, see Supreme Court of Portugal. The Portuguese legal system is a civil law or continental legal system based on Roman law. Portuguese Supreme Court of Justice ( Portuguese: Supremo Tribunal de Justiça, pron.
In Scotland, the College of Justice, the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session are collectively known as the Supreme Courts, with the High Court being the supreme criminal court, with no appeal to the House of Lords, and the Court of Session the superior civil court. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. The College of Justice is a term used to describe the Supreme Courts of Scotland, and its associated bodies The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court of Scotland. The Court of Session is the supreme civil court of Scotland. It is both a Court of first instance and a court of Appeal and sits exclusively There remains the possibility of appeal to the House of Lords on matters of civil cases, as well as appeals under the Scotland Act 1998 to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Scotland Act 1998 (1998 c 46 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In Spain, high courts can create binding precedents if they choose to do so. Spanish law is the term used to describe the legislation which is in force in the Kingdom of Spain, which is understood to mean Spanish territory its waters consulates and
In Sri Lanka, the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka was created in 1972 after the adoption of a new Constitution. The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is the highest court of the nation of Sri Lanka. the Supreme Court is the highest and final superior court of record and is empowered to exercise its powers, subject to the provisions of the Constitution. The court rulings take precedence over all lower Courts. The Sri Lanka judicial system is complex blend of both common-law and civil-law. In some cases such as capital punishment, the decision may be passed on to the President of the Republic for clemency petitions.
In South Africa, the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA) was created in 1994 and replaced the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa as the highest court of appeal in non-constitutional matters. The Law of South Africa has a 'hybrid' or 'mixed' legal system, made of the interweaving of a number of distinct legal traditions a civil law system inherited from its Dutch The South African Supreme Court of Appeal is the South African Court that has the final say on all matters other than those that involve the interpretation of Court of Appeal, Court of Appeals, and Appellate Division redirect here for a list of specific courts using those titles see Court of Appeal The SCA is subordinate to the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court in matters involving the interpretation of the Constitution. The South African Constitutional Court was established in 1994 by South Africa 's first democratic Constitution: the Interim Constitution The current and official Constitution of the Republic of South Africa was adopted on 8 May 1996.
In Switzerland, the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland is the final court of appeals. The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (Bundesgericht Tribunal fédéral Tribunale federale Tribunal federal is the Supreme court of Switzerland. Due to Switzerland's system of direct democracy, it has no authority to review the constitutionality of federal statutes, but the people can strike down a proposed law by referendum. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public According to settled case law, however, the Court is authorised to review the compliance of all Swiss law with certain categories of international law, especially the European Convention of Human Rights. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the
In most nations with constitutions modeled after the Soviet Union, the legislature was given the power of being the court of last resort. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation However, because of the lack of a strong legal system, this power was only nominal. In People's Republic of China, the final power to interpret the law is vested in Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China. Law of the People's Republic of China is the legal regime of the People's Republic of China, with the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC of the People's This power includes the power to interpret the basic laws of Hong Kong and Macau, the constitutional documents of the two special administrative regions which are common law and Portuguese-based legal system jurisdictions respectively. The term basic law is used in some places as an alternative to " Constitution " implying it is a temporary but necessary measure without formal enactment Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. A special administrative region or SAR may be;People's Republic of China Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, present-day Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive This power is a legislative power and not a judicial one in that an interpretation by the NPCSC does not affect cases which have already been decided.