Supersessionism (British English: supercessionism) and replacement theology are particular interpretations of New Testament claims, viewing God's relationship with Christians as superseding his prior relationship with Jews (or Israelites). British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. Biblical expressions of God's relationships with people are known as covenants, so the contentious element of supersessionism is the idea that God's New Covenant with the universal Church replaces God's Mosaic Covenant with Israel and B'nei Noah, and in particular the Mosaic Law (or Torah). Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Covenant, meaning a solemn contract oath or bond is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith ( ברית, The term New Covenant (; Greek:, diathēkē kainē is used in the Bible (both in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament) to refer Church (disambiguation Christian Church and the word church are used to denote both a Christian association of people and a Place of worship In Christian theology, the Mosaic Covenant or Sinaitic Covenant refers to the relationship between Yahweh and the Jews and B'nei B'nei Noah ( Hebrew: בני נוח) or Children of Noah or Noahides is a modern monotheistic movement which observes the Seven Laws of Noah term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to
The word supersessionism comes from English supersede, first known to have been used with the meaning replace in 1642.  Prior to this time the word is attested in Scottish legal English to describe restraining orders against debt collection, restraint being its original Latin sense. An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.  (The Latin for replace is succedere. ) The preposition super is applied to intensify the verb sedere, as in English hold up. Both forms can mean to delay. Hence the term supersessionism does not come from the Latin Church Fathers' description of their own views but as the application of a modern term to older views. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church
The word supersession is used by S. Thelwall in the title of chapter three of his 1870 translation of Tertullian's Adversus Iudaeos (written between 198 and 208). Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, Anglicised as Tertullian, (ca The title is provided by Thelwall; it is not in the original Latin. 
Both Christian and Jewish theologians have identified different types of supersessionism in Christian reading of the Bible.
R. Kendall Soulen notes three categories of supersessionism are identified by Christian theologians: punitive, economic, and structural. 
These three views are neither mutually exclusive, nor logically dependent, and it is possible to hold all of them or any one with or without the others.
He observes, "In the early Church, it seems, the new covenant presented by the New Testament was either taken to be an addition to the old covenant (the religion of the Torah and the Jewish Pharisaic tradition, summarized in the Ten Commandments), or it was taken to be a replacement for the old covenant. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to The word Pharisees ( lat. pharisæ|us, - i) comes from the Hebrew פרושים perushim from פרוש parush, meaning "separated" The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that according to Judeo-Christian tradition were authored by God and given "
Novak considers both understandings to be supersessionist. He designates the first as "soft supersessionism" and the second as "hard supersessionism". The former "does not assert that God terminated the covenant of Exodus-Sinai with the Jewish people. Rather, it asserts that Jesus came to fulfill the promise of the old covenant, first for those Jews already initiated into the covenant, who then accepted his messiahhood as that covenant's fulfillment. And, it asserts that Jesus came to both initiate and fulfill the promise of the covenant for those Gentiles whose sole connection to the covenant is through him. Hence, in this kind of supercessionism, those Jews who do not accept Jesus' messiahhood are still part of the covenant in the sense of 'what God has put together let no man put asunder' [emphasis original]. "
Hard supersessionism, on the other hand, asserts that "[t]he old covenant is dead. The Jews by their sins, most prominently of rejecting Jesus as the Messiah, have forfeited any covenantal status. Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus. " See also Antinomianism. For the term in politics describing socialist movements see Autonomism Antinomianism (from the Greek ἀντί, "against"
This classification provides mutually exclusive options. Hard supersessionism implies both punitive and economic supersessionism, however soft supersessionism does not fall into any of the three classes recognized as supersessionist by Christian theologians.
The early Christian theologians saw Christianity as a replacement of Israel. Historically, statements on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church have claimed her ecclesiastical structures to be a replacement of Israel. Modern Catholicism continues to affirm these spokesmen as authoritative for doctrine, alongside the New Testament. On the other hand, modern Protestants holding to covenant theology or dispensationalism explicitly affirm a continuing relationship between God and Israel, within their respective frameworks for understanding the Bible. Covenant theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology or Federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for Dispensationalism is a Christian theological view of history and Biblical interpretation that became popular during the 1800s and early 1900s and is
The Jewish-Christian dialog has changed dramatically since the early centuries. In the first century Gentile (non-Jewish) inclusion was the significant issue, while two millennia later Jewish exclusion is the issue. The term Gentile (from Latin, gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe refers to non- Israelite tribes or nations in the Bible.
The New Testament repeatedly gives Jews preeminence, as in Jesus' expression of his central mission as being to the Jews rather than Gentiles and in Paul's formula "first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and " Yet after the death of Jesus, the inclusion of the Gentiles as equals in this burgeoning sect of Judaism also caused problems, particularly when it came to Gentiles keeping the Mosaic Law, which was both a major issue at the Council of Jerusalem and a theme of Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. Council of Jerusalem (or Apostolic Conference) is a name applied subsequently to a meeting described in Acts of the Apostles chapter and probably referred to The Epistle to the Galatians is a book of the New Testament. It is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to a number of early Christian communities in the Roman province of
By contrast, in modern discourse, the term supersessionism arises as a criticism of a (perceived) Christian belief in Jewish exclusion, not as a Christian articulation of their own understanding of the relation between the Christians and Jews. Modern Christian descriptions of the New Testament teaching in this area focus on Gentile inclusion in God's plans, without much if any consideration of Jewish exclusion. Although modern Christians, nearly all of whom are Gentiles, naturally believe in Gentile inclusion, they are divided in their understanding of whether the New Testament teaches Jewish exclusion. In short, some modern Christians believe in supersessionism and others don't.
Many Early Christian commentators understood the New Testament to teach supersession, for example:
Augustine (354–430) follows these views of the earlier Church Fathers, but he introduces a new angle on the importance to Christianity of the continued existence of the Jewish people: "The Jews . The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church . . are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ. " Jeremy Cohen, followed by John Y. B. Hood and James Carroll, sees this as having had decisive social consequences, with Carroll saying, "It is not too much to say that, at this juncture, Christianity 'permitted' Judaism to endure because of Augustine. "
Various forms of supersessionism have been the mainstream Christian interpretation of the New Testament since the inception of all three main branches of Christianity — Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
Protestant views on supersessionism revolve around their understanding of the relationship between the various covenants of the Bible, particularly the relationship between the covenants of the Old Testament and the New Covenant. The term New Covenant (; Greek:, diathēkē kainē is used in the Bible (both in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament) to refer The most prominent Protestant views on this relationship are called Law and Gospel, Covenant Theology, New Covenant Theology, and Dispensationalism. The relationship between God's Law and the Gospel is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology Covenant theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology or Federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for New Covenant Theology refers to a theological view of redemptive history primarily found in Baptist circles and contrasted with Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism Dispensationalism is a Christian theological view of history and Biblical interpretation that became popular during the 1800s and early 1900s and is These views are not restricted to a single denomination. Church (disambiguation A religious denomination is a subgroup within a Religion that operates under a common name tradition and identity
The approach among many early Protestants that predominates today in Lutheran churches and some Reformed churches. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically It emphasizes the discontinuity between the old covenant and the new and sees the Mosaic Law primarily as negative. Most of the early advocates of this approach, such as Martin Luther (1483–1546), rejected the Jews as having a continuing positive relationship with God. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer 
Covenant theology, while sometimes mixed with Law and Gospel, is a framework for thinking about biblical ideas typical of (but not exclusive to) the Reformed churches (see also Roman Catholic Covenant Theology). The relationship between God's Law and the Gospel is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology The Reformed churches are a group of Christian Protestant Denominations formally characterized by a similar Calvinist system of doctrine historically Covenantal theology is a distinctive approach to Catholic biblical theology stemming from the mid-twentieth century recovery of Patristic methods of interpreting Scripture The Protestant Reformer John Calvin is typically credited with establishing the basic principles of covenant theology in his Institutes of the Christian Religion (2:9–11). John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin 's seminal work on Protestant Systematic theology. The three covenants Calvin saw implied by the Bible are:
In the view of Calvin, and those who follow him, the first is a covenant between God the Father and God the Son and states that the Son would be the ruler of a people he would personally redeem. In many religions the supreme Deity ( God) is given the title and attributions of Father. God the Son is the second person of the Trinity in Christian Theology. Covenant Theology deliberately views the rescue of humanity as part of God's plan, prior even to creating the world. This idea is as objectionable to some Christians, as it is loved by others, its most common name is predestination. Predestination (also linked with Foreknowledge) is a religious concept which involves the relationship between God and His creation A key New Testament passage is Romans 9, which also deals with the place of Israel.
The covenants of works and grace, on the other hand, refer to God's covenants with man, rather than with himself, and these occur later in time, during human history. Briefly stated, both covenants are conceived of as "gifts" from God to man. They differ in that the covenant of works is a gift received by obedience — God promises good to those who do good. The covenant of grace, however, is an unconditional gift that can only be received by faith — God promises good even to those who have done bad.
In Calvin's scheme, the idea of supersession does not even arise. Because his reading of the Bible saw Jesus as God the Son and Redeemer from even before creation, those saved under Old Testament revelation, and those saved under the New are more properly, in his view, understood as saved under the same, eternal covenant of redemption. All salvation depends on a pact between Father and Son, before creation, independent of humanity. We become aware of the covenant of redemption progressively, through the revelation of various manifestations of the covenants of works and of grace. Calvin says:
|“||Since God was pleased (and not in vain) to testify in ancient times by means of expiations and sacrifices that he was a Father, and to set apart for himself a chosen people, he was doubtless known even then in the same character in which he is now fully revealed to us. ||”|
In Calvin's view, the difference between old and new revelation is a difference in clarity not kind. As such, it is not conceived of as a replacement in any sense. Calvin's ideas were startling and unprecedented, and he is still controversial within Protestantism today. Whatever subsequent covenant theologians may have said, Calvin himself is explicitly against replacement:
|“||Inasmuch as the term Gospel is applied by Paul to the doctrine of faith (2 Tim. 4:10), it includes all the promises by which God reconciles men to himself, and which occur throughout the Law. ||”|
|“||Here we must guard against the diabolical imagination of Servetus, who, from a wish, or at least the pretence of a wish, to extol the greatness of Christ, abolishes the promises [of salvation in the Law of the Old Testament] entirely, as if they had come to an end at the same time with the Law. Michael Servetus (also Miguel Servet or Miguel Serveto; 29 September, 1511 &ndash 27 October, 1553) was a Spanish ||”|
The early development of Dispensationalism is generally attributed to John Nelson Darby (1800–1882), initially of the Plymouth Brethren denomination, but later the founder of the Exclusive Brethren. John Nelson Darby, (18 November 1800 - 29 April 1882 was an Anglo-Irish evangelist, and an influential figure among the original Plymouth Brethren. The Plymouth Brethren is a Conservative, Evangelical Christian movement, whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland The Exclusive Brethren are a subset of the Christian evangelical movement generally described as the Plymouth Brethren. Although Darby's ideas started in the United Kingdom, they became much more widespread in the United States, perhaps due to population, and the non-exclusive nature of the American denominations that valued the teaching. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The notes of the Scofield Reference Bible (1909 revised 1917) are frequently considered to have been particularly influential in establishing the popularity of Dispensationalism. The Scofield Reference Bible is a widely circulated annotated Study Bible edited and annotated by the American Bible student Cyrus I
Like Covenant Theology, Dispensationalism is an interpretive or narrative framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. It perceives the biblical description of God's manner of dealing with mankind to fall into seven epochs known as dispensations:
A natural misunderstanding of Dispensationalism sees the covenant of Sinai (dispensation #5) to have been replaced by the gospel (dispensation #6). This article is about the canonical books of the New Testament However, Dispensationalists believe that ethnic Israel, distinct from the church, and on the basis of the Sinai covenant, are featured in New Testament promises, which they interpret as referring to a future time associated with the Millennium of Revelation 20 (dispensation #7). This is an article on sociological Millennialism You may be looking for the article on Christian Premillennialism. In Dispensational thought, although the time from Jesus' resurrection until his return (or the advent of the Millennium) is dominated by the proclamation of the gospel, the Sinai covenant is neither terminated nor replaced, rather it is "quiescent" awaiting a fulfillment at the Millennium (click to expand diagram). Within the body of Christian beliefs the resurrection of Jesus is a core event on which much of Christian doctrine and theology depend In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven to earth an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic This time of Jewish restoration has an especially prominent place within Dispensationalism.
Dispensationalists do not base this view on the New Testament alone, but consider that certain Old Testament prophecies concerning Israel will also be fulfilled in a return to the Promised Land, and ultimately a large-scale conversion of the Jews to Christianity. Prophecy, generally describes the disclosing of Information that is not known to the Prophet by any ordinary means The Promised Land ( הארץ המובטחת, translit: ha-Aretz ha-Muvtachat) is another name for the Land of Israel, the region which according  Those who hold this view often note that the Bible does not promise that every individual Jew will be saved, but that the nation (or family) as a whole will be saved. It will still be up to individuals to accept Jesus as Messiah, but the nation as a whole will be blessed, because many (or most) will do so.
A distinctive feature of the dispensationalist scheme is that it conceives of the church age as primarily an arrangement through which God gathers in the Gentiles, a parenthesis in his dealing with the Jews, instituted due to the Jewish people rejecting the Messiah at his first coming. Despite recording many Miracles of Jesus, particularly in Capernaum, the Gospels also record some Rejection of Jesus.
In the dispensationalist view, the Jewish restoration and acceptance of the Messiah will be as a people distinct from the Christian Church. Some believe the church will have actually ceased to exist on the earth at this time, having been removed by a miracle called the Rapture. The Rapture is a prophesied event in Christian eschatology, in which Christians will be gathered together at the return of Christ; even Christians who have died Most dispensationalists believe that the 144,000 from the tribes of Israel, spoken of in the Book of Revelation, are either the literal or symbolic number of ethnic Jews who will be followers of the Messiah during a Great Tribulation. The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John ( pronounced, from the Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου The Tribulation (or " Great Tribulation " is an event referred to in the New Testament of the Bible at ("For then shall be great tribulation In the meantime, dispensationalists typically hold that the promise "I will bless those who bless you, and him who dishonors you I will curse" (Genesis 12:3) has abiding reference to the Jewish people; and some apply this to the modern, political state of Israel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Such ideas are often used in support of Christian Zionism. for Christians who belong to Zionist denominations in southern Africa see Zionist Churches Christian Zionism or Restorationism, is a belief
With regard to supersessionism, then, Dispensationalism's key contribution to the history of Christian interpretation is this view that the fulfillment of God's covenant with Israel is postponed until the end of history. End time, End times, or End of days are the eschatological writings in the three Abrahamic religions and in doomsday scenarios in various other Traditional Christian interpretation, on the other hand, has seen the fulfillment of the covenant as progressive — starting with the apostles and early Jewish Christians and continuing throughout subsequent history in Messianic Judaism, until finally complete at the return of the Messiah. In either view, individual Jews are anticipated to accept Jesus as Messiah, and not by becoming Gentile Christians first, but directly on the basis of the original promises to ethnic Israel. Neither of these interpretations is, as such, viewing the promises to Israel as either terminated or replaced.
As has been noted above, Covenant Theology is not a specifically Protestant theological system. It draws on the writings of the Church Fathers, and modern Catholic theologians have also derived similar conclusions in their reading of the Bible. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church However, in contrast to Protestantism, Roman Catholicism has an intricate formal system of checks and balances on biblical interpretation. In an effort to safeguard reliability, it provides a hierarchy of sources, stretching from the absolute authority of the Bible and ex cathedra papal declarations, through approved Church Fathers, right down to authorized, active theological researchers. @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - Papal infallibility is the Dogma in Catholic theology that by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of In this way, Catholicism seeks to serve its members with trustworthy official positions on biblical issues.
Supersessionism is not the name of any official Catholic doctrine. However, Catholicism officially accepts Cyprian's (died 14 September 258) doctrine extra ecclesiam nulla salus — outside the church there is no salvation. This page is about Cyprian bishop of Carthage For other Cyprians see Cyprian (disambiguation. The Latin phrase Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus means "Outside the Church there is no Salvation "  Because church is understood as specifically the Roman Catholic Church, with all its visible structure, there is a concrete sense in which the Judaism of the Old Testament is thus implicitly replaced, in Catholic thought, by: the Catholic hierarchy, Catholic canon law and the sacred rites of the Catholic Church. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. Canon Law, the Ecclesiastical law of the Catholic Church, is a fully developed legal system with all the necessary elements courts lawyers judges a fully articulated This article refers to the religious act For the album by Michael W
Explicit statements that the Catholic system would consider to have a measure of authority, but which critics would consider supersessionist are numerous. In the 5th century, Pope Leo I pointed to Mark 15:38 to support his teaching that, "there [was] effected a transfer from the Law to the Gospel, from the Synagogue to the Church. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461. " In the 15th century during the Council of Florence, Pope Eugene IV wrote in his Bull of Union with the Copts that, "[The Catholic Church] firmly believes, professes and preaches that all those who are outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans but also Jews or heretics and schismatics, cannot share in eternal life and will go into the everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, unless they are joined to the Catholic Church before the end of their lives. The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death The Bull of Union with the Copts was promulgated by Pope Eugene IV at the Ecumenical Council of Florence on 4 February 1442. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The word schism (ˈsɪzəm or /ˈskɪzəm/ from the Greek σχίσμα skhísma (from σχίζω skhízō, "to tear to split" Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an Infinite length of Time. mainstream Christianity, the Devil is named Satan, sometimes Lucifer. In most Christian traditions a fallen angel is an Angel that has been Exiled or banished from Heaven. "
Pope Pius XII, in his 1943 encyclical Mystici Corporis, wrote that, "The New Testament took the place of the Old Law which had been abolished. Pope Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mystici Corporis Christi (June 29 1943 is a Papal encyclical issued by Pope Pius XII during World War II, on the " As authority, he paraphrased Ephesians 2:15 and Colossians 2:14 in paragraph 29, "Jesus made void the Law with its decrees [and] fastened the handwriting of the Old Testament to the Cross;" and he paraphrased Ephesians 2:16 and later 2:14 in paragraph 32, "[Jesus] made the Old Law void 'that He might make the two in Himself into one new man,' that is, the Church, and might reconcile both to God in one Body by the Cross. " Thus Pius condemned a two-path approach to salvation (one way for Christians and another way for Jews), affirming that the Roman Catholic Church was established for the salvation of all people, both Gentiles and Jews, but also excluding a continued validity to the covenant of Exodus-Sinai.
The Vatican II document Lumen Gentium, on the other hand, introduced the idea that, although salvation comes from Christ, those "who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, yet sincerely seek God and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do His will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience" may still attain salvation. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. For an English translation of the text see Dogmatic Constitution on the Church ''Lumen Gentium'' However, the Catholic Church clarified commitment to the necessity of Jesus and membership in the Church for salvation in the declaration Dominus Iesus published in the year 2000. Dominus Iesus ( Latin for "The Lord Jesus" is a declaration by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Despite all the history, however, the United States Catholic Catechism for Adults (2006), states explicitly: "The covenant that God made with the Jewish people through Moses remains eternally valid for them. " Just precisely what authority this statement in the catechism has, or whether it is an error, is a matter of internal debate among American Catholics. See also Biblical law in Christianity#The Roman Catholic view of the Mosaic Law. Biblical law in Christianity generally refers to a discussion as to what and how the biblical law applies in a Christian context.
Eastern Orthodox and Pentecostal groups, although quite different, have in common a focus on the work of the Holy Spirit in defining church membership. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance It has long been noted by theologians that pursuit of a dynamic, experiential and personal experience of faith has been typical of eastern theology, where legal and logical formulations have dominated in the Western churches. When articulated in formal ways, Orthodox theology looks very similar to Catholicism; Pentecostalism, on the other hand, is often associated with Dispensationalism. However, in practice, the focus on personal spirituality rather than intellectual assent, means detailed analysis of covenantal issues is considerably less a feature of these traditions.
A few groups assert that their group is literally descended from Abraham, and has a better claim to being considered the chosen people than the Jewish people. Various groups and individuals(see List of Messiah claimants) have considered themselves chosen by God for some purpose such as to act as God's agent on earth In adopting the identity of "the true Israel," they necessarily see the Jewish people as false Israel (see, for example, Anglo-Israelism, Christian Identity and Black Hebrew Israelite, Abrahamic religions). British Israelism (sometimes called Anglo-Israelism) is the belief that many early Britons, Europeans and/or their royal families were direct lineal descendants For the general identity of an individual with certain core essential religious doctrines see Christianity. Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of Black African ancestry
Some Evangelical Christians reject replacement theology as heretical teaching. Old Testament scriptures can be understood in a way that the Jewish people are the eternal chosen people of the Bible. Some Evangelicals view Jesus as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Christians then, are the continuation and completion of Judaism, not a replacement.
From a Jewish perspective, the Torah was given to the Jewish people as an eternal covenant (for example Exo 31:16-17, Exo 12:14-15) and will never be replaced or added to (for example Deut 4:2, 12:32), and hence Judaism rejects supersessionism as contrary to the Hebrew Bible at best (see also Antinomianism) and antisemitic at worst. This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut The term Hebrew Bible is a generic reference to those books of the Bible originally written in Biblical Hebrew (and the related Biblical Aramaic For the term in politics describing socialist movements see Autonomism Antinomianism (from the Greek ἀντί, "against" Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility For Judaism and other critics, supersessionism is a theology of replacement, which substitutes the Christian church, consisting of Christians, for the Jewish and B'nei Noah people. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A conversion to Judaism (גיור giyur) is a formal act undertaken by a non-Jewish person who wishes to be recognised as a full member of the Jewish community B'nei Noah ( Hebrew: בני נוח) or Children of Noah or Noahides is a modern monotheistic movement which observes the Seven Laws of Noah
Supersessionists, however, understand their view as a theology of fulfillment in which no Jew who truly believes the Gospel is ever replaced and in which any unbelieving Jew (like Ahab or Judas Iscariot) was never truly part of God's chosen people because he or she had never followed God. Ahab (or Ach'av or) was king of Israel and the son and successor of Omri ( 1 Kings 1629-34 Judas Iscariot, יהודה איש־קריות Yəhûḏāh ʾÎš-qəriyyôṯ was according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles Even as Judaism anticipates its own fulfillment in a coming Jewish messiah, Christianity claims that Jesus, at his Second Coming, will be the fulfillment of this hope, rather than a replacement for it. Messiah ( משיח; mashiah, moshiah, mashiach, or moshiach, ("anointed " is a term used in the Hebrew Bible Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) In Christianity, the Second Coming is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven to earth an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions
It should be noted that the traditional Christian belief in supersessionism is considered offensive by modern Jews and is often cited by historians as one of the roots of anti-semitism in western culture.