The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to end "the Troubles" in Northern Ireland by forcing unionists to share power with nationalists. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and The Agreement had three parts—an elected Northern Ireland Assembly, a power-sharing cross-community Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland. The Northern Ireland Assembly ( Irish: Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann Semmlie) is the devolved The Northern Ireland Executive is the executive arm of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved Legislature for Northern Ireland The Council of Ireland (Comhairle na hÉireann may refer to one of two councils one established in the 1920s the other in the 1970s The Agreement was signed at the Civil Service College (now the National School of Government) in Sunningdale Park located in Sunningdale, Berkshire, on December 9, 1973. The National School of Government (previously known as the Civil Service College and the Centre for Management and Policy Studies (CMPS is a non-ministerial department of the United Sunningdale is a large Village and Civil parish in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in the English county of Berkshire. Berkshire (ˈbɑːkʃə or /ˈbɑːkʃɪə/ say Baak-shuh/-sheer sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a Home County in the South Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar.  Unionist opposition, Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) violence and finally a loyalist general strike caused the collapse of the Agreement in May 1974. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Ulster loyalism is a militant unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. The Ulster Workers Council (UWC Strike was a General strike that took place between Wednesday 15 May 1974 and Tuesday 28 May 1974
On March 20, 1973, the British government published a white paper which proposed a 78-member Northern Ireland Assembly, to be elected by proportional representation. Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that often addresses problems and how to solve them Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes The British government would retain control over law and order, and a Council of Ireland would give the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland a voice in each other's affairs. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. This assembly was to replace the suspended Stormont parliament, but it was hoped that this assembly would not be dominated by the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in the same way, and would thus be acceptable to nationalists. The Parliament of Northern Ireland was the home rule Legislature of Northern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, The Ulster Unionist Party ( UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or in a historic sense simply the Unionist Party
The Northern Ireland Assembly Bill resulting from the white paper became law on 3 May 1973, and elections for the new assembly were held on 28 June. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. The agreement was supported by the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), the unionist UUP and the moderate unionist and cross-community Alliance Party. The Social Democratic and Labour Party ( SDLP; Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre is one of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI is a Political party in Northern Ireland. The pro-agreement parties won a clear majority of seats (52 to 26), but a substantial minority inside the Ulster Unionist Party opposed the agreement.
Republicans boycotted the elections, and the PIRA continued its campaign of violence throughout the events described in this article. Irish republicanism (Poblachtánachas is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent Republic
After the assembly elections, negotiations between the pro-agreement parties on the formation of a "Power Sharing Executive" began. The most contentious issues were internment, policing and the question of a Council of Ireland. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial
On 21 November, agreement was reached on a voluntary coalition of pro-agreement parties (unlike the provisions of the Belfast Agreement, which establishes the D'Hondt method for the election of Ministers, proportionally to the main parties in the Assembly). Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an The D'Hondt method (mathematically but not operationally equivalent to Jefferson's method, and Bader-Ofer method) is a Highest averages method for Prominent members of the executive included former Unionist Prime Minister Brian Faulkner as Chief Executive, then SDLP leader Gerry Fitt as Deputy Chief Executive, future Nobel Laureate and SDLP leader John Hume as Minister for Commerce and then leader of the Alliance Party Oliver Napier as Legal Minister and head of the Office of Law Reform. The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the De facto head of the Government of Northern Ireland. Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick, PC ( February 18, 1921 - March 3, 1977) was the sixth and last Gerard "Gerry" Fitt Baron Fitt ( 9 April 1926 &ndash 26 August 2005) was a Northern Irish politician John Hume (born 18 January 1937) is a former Politician in Northern Ireland, founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party Sir Oliver Napier (born 11 July 1935) was the first leader of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland. Again, the UUP was deeply divided because of the lack of 'tatos' — its Standing Committee voted to participate in the executive by a margin of only 132 to 105. Since the partition of Ireland, unionists had been opposed to sharing power with the nationalist minority, and the end of majoritarianism caused great strife in the UUP. The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Majoritarianism is a traditional Political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a Majority (sometimes categorized by Religion, Language, or
Provisions for a Council of Ireland existed in the Government of Ireland Act 1920, but these had never been enacted. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920, (and sometimes called the Fourth Home Rule Act) was an Act Unionists resented the idea of any "interference" by the Free State in their newly established region. In 1973, after agreement had been reached on the formation of an executive, agreement was sought to re-establish a Council of Ireland to stimulate co-operation with the Republic of Ireland. The Council of Ireland (Comhairle na hÉireann may refer to one of two councils one established in the 1920s the other in the 1970s Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Talks were held between 6 December and 9 December in the Berkshire town of Sunningdale between the British Prime Minister Edward Heath, the Irish Taoiseach Liam Cosgrave and the three pro-agreement parties. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city Berkshire (ˈbɑːkʃə or /ˈbɑːkʃɪə/ say Baak-shuh/-sheer sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a Home County in the South Sunningdale is a large Village and Civil parish in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in the English county of Berkshire. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, MBE (9 July 1916 &ndash 17 July 2005 often known as Ted Heath, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The Taoiseach (ˈtiːʃəx in English t̪ˠiːʃʲəx (plural Taoisigh ( or) in Irish) also referred to as An Taoiseach ( t̪ˠiːʃʲəx is the the Liam Cosgrave ( Irish name: Liam Mac Cosgair; born 13 April 1920 served as the Taoiseach of Ireland between 1973 and 1977 and is the son of
The talks agreed on a two-part Council of Ireland:
On 9 December, a communiqué announcing the agreement was issued, which later became known as the Sunningdale Agreement. Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city A message in its most general meaning is an object of Communication.
It was eventually agreed that the executive functions of the Council would be limited to "tourism, conservation, and aspects of animal health", but this did not reassure the unionists, who saw any influence by the Republic over Northern affairs as a step closer to a united Ireland. A United Ireland is the term used to refer to a sovereign state encompassing the whole of the island of Ireland. They saw their fears confirmed when SDLP councillor Hugh Logue publicly described the Council of Ireland as "the vehicle that would trundle unionists into a united Ireland" in a speech at Trinity College, Dublin. Hugh Logue (born 1949 is a Northern Irish former Social Democratic and Labour Party politician and economist who now works as a commentator on political and economic Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae 
On 10 December, the day after the agreement was announced, loyalist paramilitaries formed the Ulster Army Council — a coalition of loyalist paramilitary groups, including the Ulster Defence Association and the Ulster Volunteer Force, which would oppose the agreement. A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status The Ulster Defence Association ( UDA) is a loyalist Paramilitary criminal organization in Northern Ireland, outlawed as a Terrorist The Ulster Volunteer Force (more commonly referred to as the UVF) is a Loyalist group in Northern Ireland.
In January 1974, the Ulster Unionist Party narrowly voted against continued participation in the Assembly and Faulkner resigned as leader, to be succeeded by the anti-Sunningdale Harry West. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Henry William West ( March 27 1917 &ndash February 5 2004) was a politician in Northern Ireland who served as leader of the Ulster The following month a general election took place. Results |} Total votes 31321982 All parties are shown The seats won by the Ulster Unionists are compared with those won by Unionist MPs in the 1970 election The Ulster Unionists formed the United Ulster Unionist Council (UUUC) as a coalition of anti-agreement unionists with the Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party and the Democratic Unionist Party to stand a single anti-Sunningdale candidate in each constituency. The United Ulster Unionist Council (also known as the United Ulster Unionist Coalition) was a body that sought to bring together the Unionists opposed to the The Vanguard Unionist Progressive Party (VUPP was a unionist political party which existed in Northern Ireland between 1973 and 1978 The Democratic Unionist Party ( DUP) is the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. The pro-Sunningdale parties, the SDLP, the Alliance, the Northern Ireland Labour Party and the "Pro Assembly Unionists" made up of Faulkner's supporters, were disunited and ran candidates against one another. See also Labour Party of Northern Ireland The Northern Ireland Labour Party was a political party which operated from 1924 until 1987 When the results were declared, the UUUC had captured eleven of the twelve constituencies, several of which had been won on split votes. Only West Belfast returned a pro-Sunningdale MP. For other constituencies of the same name see Belfast West. Belfast West is a Parliamentary Constituency in the UK House The UUUC declared that this represented a democratic rejection of the Sunningdale Assembly and Executive, and sought to bring them down by any means possible.
In March 1974, pro-agreement unionists withdrew their support for the agreement, calling for the Republic of Ireland to remove the Articles 2 and 3 of its constitution first (these Articles would not be revised until the Good Friday Agreement of 1998). Article 2 and Article 3 of the Constitution of Ireland ( Bunreacht na hÉireann) were adopted with the constitution as a whole on 29 December 1937 but completely The Agreement, most often referred to as the Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste Belfast Greeance or the Good Friday Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an
Following the defeat of a motion condemning power-sharing in the Northern Ireland Assembly, a loyalist organization called the Ulster Workers' Council called a general strike for 15 May. The Ulster Workers Council (UWC Strike was a General strike that took place between Wednesday 15 May 1974 and Tuesday 28 May 1974 The Ulster Workers Council was a loyalist workers' organisation set up in Northern Ireland in 1974 as a more formalised successor to the Loyalist Association A general strike is a Strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city region or country Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the After two weeks of barricades, shortages, rioting and intimidation, Brian Faulkner resigned as Chief Executive and the Sunningdale Agreement collapsed on 28 May 1974. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar.
The strike succeeded because the British were reluctant to use force at an early stage and later the use of force was vetoed by the unionists in the Executive.
The most crippling aspect of the strike was its effect on electricity supply — the Ballylumford power station controlled Belfast's electricity and that of most of Northern Ireland. Ballylumford power station is a Natural gas -fired Power station in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The workforce was overwhelmingly Protestant and effective control was firmly in the hands of UWC. John Hume's plan to cut the Northern Ireland electricity grid in two and rely on the power generated by Limavady Power Station (where many Catholics worked) to keep Derry and environs in business while undermining the unionist strikers in the east was rejected by the British Secretary of State Merlyn Rees. John Hume (born 18 January 1937) is a former Politician in Northern Ireland, founding member of the Social Democratic and Labour Party Merlyn Rees, later Merlyn Merlyn-Rees Baron Merlyn-Rees, PC ( 18 December 1920 &ndash 5 January 2006) was a
In later strikes the security forces were prepared to use force immediately and so intimidatory barricades — essential to the success of the UWC strike — were suppressed from the outset.