Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid Dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mameluke sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية From 1914 the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Muhammad Ali Dynasty (أسرة محمد علي Usrat Muhammad 'Ali) was the ruling dynasty of This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. King of Egypt (ملك مصر / Malik Misr) was the title used by the ruler of Egypt between 1922 and 1951 Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
Prior to the rise of Saladin, Egypt was the center of the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, the only period in Islamic history when a caliphate was ruled by members of the Shia branch of Islam. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Fatimids had long sought to completely supplant the Sunni Abbasid Caliphate based in Iraq, and like their Abbasid rivals they also took the title Caliph, representing their claim to the highest status within the Islamic hierarchy. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah However, with Saladin's rise to power in 1169, Egypt returned to the Sunni fold and the Abbasid Caliphate. Recognizing the Abbasid Caliph as his theoretical superior, Saladin took the title of Sultan in 1174, though from this point until the Ottoman conquest, supreme power in the caliphate would come to rest with the Sultan of Egypt. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings
In 1250, the Ayyubids were overthrown by the Mamelukes, who established the Bahri dynasty and whose rulers also took the title sultan. The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (al-Mamalik al-Bahariyya المماليك البحرية) was a Mamluk Dynasty of mostly Kipchak Notable Bahri sultans include Qutuz, who defeated the invading Mongol army of Hulagu at the Battle of Ain Jalut, and Baibars, who finally recaptured the last remnants of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Saif ad-Din Qutuz also spelled Kutuz, (سيف الدين قطز ( epithet: al-Malik al-Muzafar Saif ad-Din Qutuz (Arabic الملك المظفر سيف This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic ar عين جالوت the "Eye of Goliath" or the "Spring of Goliath" took place on 3 September 1260 between Baibars, or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Bunduqdari ( Arabic ar الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian The Bahri were later overthrown by a rival Mameluke group, who established the Burgi Dynasty in 1382. The Burji dynasty المماليك البرجية ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517
The Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517 ended the Egyptian Sultanate, with Egypt henceforth a province of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish It also marked the end of the Abbassid Caliphate, as the Ottomans captured the current Caliph Al-Mutawakkil III, and forced him to relinquish the title to the Ottoman Sultan Selim I. Muhammad al-Mutawakkil III (died 1543 (محمد المتوكل على الله reigned 1509 to 1516 and again in 1517 was the last Caliph of the later Egyptian The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with Selim I ( Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ISelim; also known as "the Grim" or "the Brave" Yavuz in The Ottomans subsequently paid little interest to Egyptian affairs, and the Mamelukes rapidly regained most of their power within Egypt. However, they remained vassals of the Ottoman Sultan and their leaders were limited to the title of Bey. Bey is a Turkish title for "chieftain" traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups
Following the defeat of Napoleon I's forces in 1801, Muhammad Ali Pasha seized power, overthrowing the Mamelukes, and declaring himself ruler of Egypt. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation In 1805, the Ottoman Sultan Selim III reluctantly recognized him as Wali under Ottoman suzerainty. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or Selim III ( Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثالث Selīm-i sālis) ( December 24, 1761 &ndash July 28/29 Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya ' أولياء) is an Arabic word meaning trusted one or friend generally denoting Muhammad Ali, however, styled himself as Khedive, and though technically a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, governed Egypt as if it were an independent state. For the HMS Khedive, see ''USS'' Cordova. Khedive (from Persian for "lord" was a title first A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, Seeking to rival and ultimately supplant the Ottoman Sultan, Muhammad Ali implemented a rapid modernization and militarization program, and expanded Egypt's borders south into Sudan and north into Sham. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Eventually he waged war on the Ottoman Empire with the intention of overthrowing the ruling Osman Dynasty and replacing it with his own. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with Though the intervention of the Great Powers prevented Muhammad Ali from realizing his grandiose ambitions of becoming sultan himself, obliging Egypt to remain technically part of the Ottoman Empire, Egypt's autonomy survived his death with the Porte recognizing the Muhammad Ali Dynasty as hereditary rulers of the country. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale Ottoman Porte (also Sublime Porte, High Porte, or in Ottoman Turkish, Bab-ı Ali) used to refer to the Divan (court The Muhammad Ali Dynasty (أسرة محمد علي Usrat Muhammad 'Ali) was the ruling dynasty of
Muhammad Ali's grandson, Ismail I, acceded to the Egyptian throne in 1863 and immediately set about achieving his grandfather's aims, though in a less confrontation manner. Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A combination of growing Egyptian power, deteriorating Ottoman strength, and outright bribery led to Ottoman Sultan Abdulaziz formally recognizing the Egyptian ruler as Khedive in 1867. Abdul Aziz may refer to Abdülâziz (1830–1876 Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Abdelaziz of Morocco (1878–1943 Sultan of Morocco Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting As Ismail expanded Egypt's borders in Africa, and the Ottoman Empire continued to decay, Ismail believed he was close to realizing formal Egyptian independence, and even contemplated using the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 to declare himself Sultan of Egypt. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year He was persuaded otherwise by pressure from the Great Powers, who feared the consequences of further disintegration of Ottoman power. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale Ultimately, Ismail's reign ended in failure, due to the massive debt his ambitious projects had incurred. European and Ottoman pressure forced his removal in 1879 and replacement by his far more pliant son Tewfik. Year 1879 ( MDCCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Tewfik Pasha (Tawfiq of Egypt (1852-1892 (محمد توفيق باشا was Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, and the sixth ruler from the The subsequent Orabi Revolt resulted in Great Britain invading Egypt in 1882 on the invitation of Khedive Tewfik, and beginning its decades long occupation of the country. The Urabi Revolt or Orabi Revolt (ˈʕoɾɑːˌbi also known as the Orabi Revolution, was an uprising in Egypt in 1879-82 against the Khedive See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
From 1882 onwards, Egypt's status became deeply convoluted: officially a province of the Ottoman Empire, semi-officially a virtually independent state with its own monarchy, armed forces, and territorial possessions in Sudan, and for practical purposes a British puppet. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The legal fiction of Ottoman sovereignty in Egypt was finally ended in 1914 when the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in First World War. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Alarmed that the anti-British Khedive Abbas II would side with the Ottomans, the British deposed him in favor of his uncle Husayn and declared Egypt a British protectorate. Abbas II may refer to Abbas II of Persia, (1633-1666 Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666 Abbas II of Egypt, (also known as Abbas Hilmi Sultan Husayn Kamil ( November 21, 1853 - October 9 1917) (سلطان حسين كامل was the Sultan of Egypt and In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Symbolizing the official end of Ottoman rule, Husayn took the title Sultan as did his brother Fuad I who succeeded him in 1917, though in reality Egypt remained under British domination. Fuad I, born Ahmed Fuad, ( Arabic: فؤاد الأول Fu'ād al-Awwal) ( March 26, 1868 - April 28, 1936 Both Husayn and Fuad maintained Egypt's claim to Sudan, with Egyptian nationalists declaring both in turn to be the "Sultan of Egypt and Sudan". Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa.
In 1922, rising nationalist anger at the continued British occupation forced Britain to formally recognize Egyptian independence. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. However, the title of Sultan was dropped and replaced with King. A king is a male Monarch, or a Head of state, who may or may not depending on the style of government of a nation exercise monarchal powers over a territory usually Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul, who was later exiled by the British, maintained that this was because the British refused to recognize a sovereign Egyptian ruler who outranked their own king (in the hierarchy of titles, sultan, like shah in Iran, is comparable to emperor, being a sovereign who recognizes no secular superior). Saad Zaghloul ( Arabic سعد زغلول; also Saad Zaghloul Sa'd Zaghloul Pasha ibn Ibrahim) ( 1859 - August 23 Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Another reason offered for the change in title, is that it reflected the growing secularization of Egypt at the time, as sultan has Islamic, overtones, whereas the Arabic word for king, malik, does not. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Malik (ملك) as an Arabic word meaning " king " It has been adopted in various other mainly Asian languages for their ruling princes and to
Upon overthrowing Fuad's son, King Farouk I, in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the Free Officers briefly considered declaring his infant son Sultan to reinforce Egypt's sovereignty over Sudan and demonstrate their rejection of British occupation. Farouk I of Egypt ( Arabic: فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal) (February 11 1920 &ndash March 18 1965 was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952 also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military Coup d'état that took place on In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement (Arabic حركة الضباط الأحرار was composed of young junior army officers committed to unseating However, since the revolutionaries had already decided to abolish the Egyptian monarchy after a brief period of consolidating their hold on power, they determined that it would be an idle gesture and Farouk's son was duly declared King Fuad II. Fuad II King of Egypt and the Sudan – (الملك فؤاد الثاني – was born prince Ahmad Fuad on 16 January, 1952. The following year, on 18 June 1953, the revolutionary government officially abolished the monarchy and Egypt became a republic. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its