|Location||South East Asia|
|Archipelago||Greater Sunda Islands|
|West Sulawesi (Mamuju)|
North Sulawesi (Manado)
Central Sulawesi (Palu)
South Sulawesi (Makassar)
South East Sulawesi (Kendari)
|Population||16 million (as of 2005)|
Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, IPA: [ˈsɛlɛbiz]) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. The Greater Sunda Islands are a group of Islands within the Malay Archipelago. This is a list of Islands in the world ordered by area. It includes all islands with an area greater than 2500 km² (970 square miles Rantemario (Indonesian Bulu Rantemario) is a mountain located in the province of South Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. West Sulawesi or Sulawesi Barat (short form Sulbar) is a province of Indonesia, created in 2004. Mamuju is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Sulawesi. North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sulawesi, and borders the province of Gorontalo to the Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. Central Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located in the heart of Sulawesi. Palu is a City on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, located 1650 km northeast of Jakarta, at. South Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island South East Sulawesi ( Indonesian: Sulawesi Tenggara) is a province of Indonesia on the island of Sulawesi. Kendari is the capital of the Indonesian province of South East Sulawesi. Gorontalo city is the capital of the Gorontalo province, Indonesia. The Sunda Islands are a group of Islands in the western part of the Malay Archipelago. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago
The Portuguese were the first to refer to Sulawesi as 'Celebes'. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The meaning of this name is unclear; originally it did not refer to the entire island as the Portuguese thought Sulawesi was an archipelago. The modern name 'Sulawesi' possibly comes from the words sula ('island') and besi ('iron') and may refer to the historical export of iron from the rich Lake Matano iron deposits. Lake Matano ( Danau Matano) also known as Matana, is a natural Lake in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 
The settlement of South Sulawesi by modern humans is dated to c. 1500 BC. Following Bellwood's model of a southward migration of Austronesian-speaking farmers (AN), radiocarbon dates from caves in Maros suggest a date in the mid-second millennium B. C. for the arrival of an AN group from east Borneo speaking a Proto-South Sulawesi language (PSS). Initial settlement was probably around the mouth of the Sa'dan river, on the northwest coast of the peninsula, although the south coast has also been suggested.  Subsequent migrations across the mountainous landscape resulted in the geographical isolation of PSS speakers and the evolution of their languages into the eight families of the South Sulawesi language group.  If each group can be said to have a homeland, that of the Bugis – today the most numerous group – was around lakes Témpé and Sidénréng in the Walennaé depression. The Bugis are the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia's third largest Here for some 2,000 years lived the linguistic group that would become the modern Bugis; the archaic name, which is preserved in the languages of other Indonesian groups, was Ugiq. Despite the fact that today they are closely linked with the Makasar, their closest linguistic neighbors are the Toraja.
Pre-1200 CE Bugis society was organized into petty chiefdoms, which would have warred and, in times of peace, exchanged women with each other. Personal security would have been negligible, and head-hunting an established cultural practice. The political economy would have been a mixture of hunting and gathering and swidden or shifting agriculture. Speculative planting of wet rice may have taken place along the margins of the lakes and rivers.
Starting in the 13th century, access to prestige trade goods and to sources of iron started to alter long-standing cultural patterns, and to permit ambitious individuals to build larger political units. It is not known why these two ingredients appeared together; one was perhaps the product of the other. By 1400, a number of nascent agricultural principalities had arisen in the western Cenrana valley, as well as on the south coast and on the east coast near modern Parepare. 
The first Europeans to visit the island (which they believed an archipelago due to its contorted shape) were Portuguese sailors in 1525, sent from the Moluccas in search of gold, which the islands had the reputation of producing.  The Dutch arrived in 1605 and were quickly followed by the English, who established a factory in Makassar.  From 1660, the Dutch were at war with Gowa, the major Makasar west coast power. In 1669, Admiral Speelman forced the ruler, Sultan Hasanuddin, to sign the Treaty of Bongaya, which handed control of trade to the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian The Dutch were aided in their conquest by the Bugis warlord Arung Palakka, ruler of the Bugis kingdom of Bone. The Dutch built a fort at Ujung Pandang, while Arung Palakka became the regional overlord and Bone the dominant kingdom. Political and cultural development seems to have slowed as a result of the status quo. In 1905 the entire island became part of the Dutch state colony of the Netherlands East Indies until Japanese occupation in World War II. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below Imperial Japan occupied Indonesia during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of War in 1945 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In 1949, after the Indonesian National Revolution, during which the notorious Dutch Captain 'Turk' Westerling is believed to have murdered 3-4,000 people, Sulawesi became part of the independent United States of Indonesia, which in 1950 became the Republic of Indonesia. Timeline of the Indonesian National RevolutionThe Indonesian National Revolution or Indonesian War of Independence was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between The Republic of the United States of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Republik Indonesia Serikat (RIS) was a Federal state to which The Netherlands formally The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. 
Sulawesi has been plagued by Muslim-Christian violence in recent years. The most serious violence occurred between 1998 and 2001 on the once peaceful island. Over 1,000 people were killed in violence, riots, and ethnic cleansing that ripped through Central Sulawesi.  The violence pitted the island's Muslims against Christians (and vice versa). A peace accord was not agreed to until 2001.
The Malino peace accord did not eradicate the violence. In the following years, tension and systematic attacks persisted.  In 2003, 13 Christian villagers were killed in the Poso District by unknown masked gunmen. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. And in 2005 three Christian schoolgirls were beheaded in Poso by Islamic militants. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A message next to one of the heads allegedly read: "A life for a life. A head for a head". 
Riots erupted again in September 2006 in Christian dominated areas of Central Sulawesi, as well as other part of Indonesia, after the execution by firing squad of Fabianus Tibo, Dominggus da Silva and Marinus Riwu, three Catholics convicted of leading Christian militias during the violence of the early 2000s. Fabianus Tibo was an Indonesian Catholic militant executed by firing squad on September 22, 2006 at 120 a Fabianus Tibo was an Indonesian Catholic militant executed by firing squad on September 22, 2006 at 120 a Fabianus Tibo was an Indonesian Catholic militant executed by firing squad on September 22, 2006 at 120 a Their supporters claimed that Muslims who participated in the violence received very light sentences and that none were sentenced to death, and that the government used a double standard. The violence appeared to be aimed at government authorities, not Muslims.
Sulawesi is the world's eleventh-largest island, covering an area of 174,600 km². This is a list of Islands in the world ordered by area. It includes all islands with an area greater than 2500 km² (970 square miles The island is surrounded by Borneo to the west, by the Philippines to the north, by Maluku to the east, and by Flores and Timor to the south. Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an Island arc with an estimated area of 14300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia Timor is an Island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, north of the Timor Sea. It has a distinctive shape, dominated by four large peninsulas: the Semenanjung Minahassa; the East Peninsula; the South Peninsula; and the South-east Peninsula. Minahassa Peninsula is one of the four principal peninsulas on the island of Sulawesi that stretches north from the central part of the island before turning to the east and The East Peninsula is one of the four principal peninsulas on the island of Sulawesi. The South Peninsula is one of the four principal peninsulas on the island of Sulawesi, stretching south from the central part of the island The South-east Peninsula is one of the four principal peninsulas on the island of Sulawesi, stretching south-east from the central part of the island The central part of the island is ruggedly mountainous, such that the island's peninsulas have traditionally been remote from each other, with better connections by sea than by road.
According to reconstruction of plate tectonics, the island is believed to have been formed by the collision of terranes from the Asian Plate (forming the west and southwest), from the Australian Plate (forming the southeast and Banggai), and from island arcs previously in the Pacific (forming the north and east peninsulas). Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere A terrane in Geology is a fragment of crustal material formed on or broken off from one Tectonic plate and accreted — " sutured " The Eurasian Plate is a Tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional Continents of Europe The Indo-Australian Plate is a major Tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding Ocean, and extends northwest to include the Banggai Archipelago (Kepulauan Banggai is a group of islands which is located at the far eastern end of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. 
The island is subdivided into six provinces: Gorontalo, West Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and North Sulawesi. West Sulawesi or Sulawesi Barat (short form Sulbar) is a province of Indonesia, created in 2004. South Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island Central Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located in the heart of Sulawesi. South East Sulawesi ( Indonesian: Sulawesi Tenggara) is a province of Indonesia on the island of Sulawesi. North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sulawesi, and borders the province of Gorontalo to the West Sulawesi is a new province, created in 2004 from part of South Sulawesi. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The largest cities on the island are Makassar, on the southwestern coast of the island, and Manado, on the northern tip. Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia.
Sulawesi straddles Wallace's Line meaning that it has a mix of both Asian and Australasian species. The Wallace Line (or Wallace's Line) is a boundary that separates the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australia. However, the majority of Sulawesi's wildlife belongs to the Australasia region. The Australasian zone is an ecological region that is coincident but not synonymous (by some definitions with the geographic Region of Australasia 2,290 km² of the island is devoted to Lore Lindu National Park. Lore Lindu National Park is a Forest preserve on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in the province of Central Sulawesi.
There are 127 known mammalian species in Sulawesi. A large percentage of these mammals, 62% (79 species) are endemic, meaning that they are found nowhere else in Indonesia or the world. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere The largest native mammal in Sulawesi is the dwarf buffalo, locally known as the anoa. Anoa are a subgenus of buffalo comprising two species native to Indonesia: the Mountain Anoa ( Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa Other mammalian species inhabiting Sulawesi are the babirusa, a pig-like animal, the Sulawesi palm civet, several species of cuscus, and primates such as the spectral tarsier and several species macaque; including the crested black macaque, the moor macaque and the booted macaque. The Babirusa or pig-deer, Babyrousa babyrussa, is a Pig -like animal native to Sulawesi and surrounding islands of Indonesia. The Sulawesi Palm Civet ( Macrogalidia musschenbroekii) also known as the Sulawesi Giant Civet, the Giant Civet and the Celebes Palm Civet, is Cuscus is the common name generally given to the species within four genera of Australasian Possum. The Spectral Tarsier ( Tarsius tarsier) is apparently less specialized than the Philippine Tarsier or Horsfield's Tarsier; for example it lacks adhesive The macaques (məˈkæk constitute a genus ( Macaca, /məˈkækə/ of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. The Celebes Crested Macaque ( Macaca nigra) also known as the Crested Black Macaque, Sulawesi Crested Macaque, or the Black "Ape" The Moor Macaque ( Macaca maura) is an Macaque with brown/black body fur with a pale rump patch and pink bare skin on the rump The Booted Macaque ( Macaca ochreata) is a Macaque of the Sulawesi island Indonesia.
By contrast, because many birds can fly between islands, Sulawesian bird species tend to be found on other nearby islands as well, such as Borneo; only 34% of Sulawesi's birds are found nowhere else. Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. One endemic bird is the largely ground-dwelling, chicken-sized maleo, which reproduces like no other bird: taking advantage of the hot sand produced by the island's volcanic vents, they dig holes in the sand, lay their eggs, and promptly leave the scene. The Maleo, Macrocephalon maleo, is a medium-sized (approximately 55cm long blackish Megapode with bare yellow facial skin reddish-brown iris, reddish-orange There are known 1450 bird species in Sulawesi. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The Togian White-eye is another endemic that was described in 2008. The Togian White-eye ( Zosterops somadikartai) is a species of Bird in the Zosteropidae family An international partnership of conservationists, donors, and local people have formed the Alliance for Tompotika Conservation, in an effort to raise awareness and protect the nesting grounds of these birds on the central-eastern arm of the island.
Sulawesi also has several endemic species of freshwater fish, such as those in the genus Nomorhamphus, a species flock of livebearing freshwater halfbeaks containing at least 19 distinct species, most of which are only found on Sulawesi. The Freshwater Halfbeaks of the genus Nomorhamphus are widely distributed in South East Asia in particular the islands of the Philippines Indonesia In Evolutionary biology, a species flock is a diverse group of closely related Species in an isolated area Live-bearing aquarium fish, often simply called livebearers, are Fish that retain the eggs inside the body and give birth to live free-swimming young The halfbeaks ( family Hemiramphidae) are a geographically widespread and numerically abundant family of Epipelagic Fish inhabiting  
The island was recently the subject of an Ecoregional Conservation Assessment, coordinated by the Nature Conservancy. Detailed reports about the vegetation of the island are available . The assessment produced a detailed and annotated list of 'conservation portfolio' sites . This information was widely distributed to local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. Detailed conservation priorities have also been outlined in a recent publication .
The lowland forests on the island are, unfortunately, almost gone . Because of the relative geological youth of the island and its dramatic and sharp topography, the lowland areas are naturally limited in their extent. The past decade has seen dramatic conversion of this rare and endangered habitat. The island also possesses one of the largest outcrops of Serpentine soil in the world, which support an unusual and large community of specialized plant species. Serpentine soils are soils derived from Ultramafic rocks in particular Serpentinite, an ultramafic rock formed by the hydration and metamorphic transformation Overall, the flora and fauna of this unique center of global biodiversity is very poorly documented and understood and remains critically threatened.
The 2000 census population of the provinces of Sulawesi was 14,946,488, about 7. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. 25% of Indonesia's total population.  The largest city is Makassar. Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island
The people of Sulawesi are famous for their dedication to their diverse art abilities, which include pottery, weaving, and dancing. Pottery is the Ceramic ware made by potters It also refers to a group of materials that includes Earthenware, Stoneware This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic Their pottery was originally made specifically for the purpose of storing rice and water, but when the Dutch arrived, it became useful for commercial exporting and sale, and was noted for its extensive detail. The Sulawesian people also excel at intricate weaving, and repeat the same pattern at least once in every project they do. Although the women are predominantely weavers, both genders dance. The male dance is rigid, mechanical and robotic, while the female's dances are fluid and smooth. They combine these aspects to tell a story.
Islam is the majority religion in Sulawesi. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The conversion of the lowlands of the south western peninsula (South Sulawesi) to Islam occurred in the early 17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The kingdom of Luwu in the Gulf of Bone was the first to accept Islam in February 1605; the Makasar kingdom of Goa-Talloq, centered on the modern-day city of Makassar, followed suit in September. Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island  However, the Gorontalo and the Mongondow peoples of the northern peninsula largely converted to Islam only in the 19th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Most Muslims are Sunnis. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Muslims can be found in all parts of Sulawesi.
Though Islam is the religion of the majority of Sulawesi's people, large regions of the island observe other religions as well.
Christians form a substantial minority. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings According to the demographer Toby Alice Volkman, 17% of Sulawesi's population is Protestant and 2% is Roman Catholic. Demography is the statistical study of all Populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic population that is one that changes over Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Christians are concentrated on the tip of the northern peninsula around the city of Manado, which is inhabited by the Minahasa, a predominantly Protestant people, and the northernmost Sangihe and Talaud islands. Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. The Minahasa (alternative spelling Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an Ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia Sangir may refer to Sangir Island Sangir language Sangir Islands Sangir Central Asia, in the Talaud Islands is a group of Islands located north of Sulawesi island in Indonesia. The famous Toraja people of Tana Toraja in Central Sulawesi have largely converted to Christianity since Indonesia's independence. The Toraja are an Ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tana Toraja Regency ( Torajaland, Land of the Toraja or Tator) is a regency ( Kabupaten) of South Sulawesi, Indonesia There are also substantial numbers of Christians around Lake Poso in Central Sulawesi and among the Pamona speaking peoples of Central Sulawesi. Lake Poso ( Danau Poso) is a Lake in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the third-deepest lake in the Indonesia There has also been growth in the Christian population of the Banggai Islands and the Eastern Peninsula in Central Sulawesi, traditionally thought of as Muslim areas (which in the past were controlled by Muslim sultanates in Tidore and Ternate). Banggai Archipelago (Kepulauan Banggai is a group of islands which is located at the far eastern end of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tidore is an island in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. Ternate is an island and town in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas of eastern Indonesia, located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. Christians can be found in every major Sulawesi city.
Though most people identify themselves as Muslims or Christians, they often subscribe to local beliefs and deities as well. It is not unusual (and fully accepted) for Christians to make offerings to local gods, goddesses, and spirits.
Smaller communities of Buddhists and Hindus are also found on Sulawesi, usually among the Chinese, Balinese and Indian communities. A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the People's Republic of China (including Hong The Balinese population of 30 million (15% of Indonesia 's population live mostly on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population A non-resident Indian (NRI is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country a person of Indian origin who is born outside India or a person of
20. Luis Pancorbo: "La viva muerte de los torayas". En "Fiestas del Mundo. Las Máscaras de la Luna". Pp. 123-129. Ediciones del Serbal. Barcelona, 1996.