|History of suicide|
|List of suicides|
|Views on suicide|
|Medical | Cultural|
|Legal | Philosophical|
|Religious | Right to die|
|Intervention | Prevention|
|Crisis hotline | Suicide watch|
|Types of suicide|
|Suicide methods | Copycat suicide|
|Cult suicide | Euthanasia|
|Familicide | Forced suicide|
|Internet suicide | Mass suicide|
|Murder-suicide | Ritual suicide|
|Suicide attack | Suicide pact|
|Suicide by cop | Teenage suicide|
|Self-harm | Suicidal ideation|
Suicide (Latin suicidium, from sui caedere, to kill oneself) is primarily the act of intentionally ending one's own life, though it is also used as a metaphor for the "willful destruction of one's self-interest" either as an individual or as a group. George Grie (born May 14, 1962) is a Russian Canadian artist One of the first digital real Neo-surrealist artists Grie Among the famous who have taken their own lives are Boudicca, Brutus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt, Judas Iscariot, Hannibal See also List of famous deaths by accidental drug overdose, Lists of people by cause of death, The following are lists of notable people who intentionally terminated The following is a List of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization in which a country's rank is determined by its total rate of Suicides Suicide intervention or Suicide crisis intervention is direct effort to stop or prevent persons attempting or contemplating suicide from killing themselves Various human cultures may have views on suicide not directly or solely linked to Religious views of suicide. Suicide has historically been treated as a criminal matter in many parts of the world In Ethics and other branches of Philosophy, Suicide poses a difficult question answered differently by philosophers from different times and traditions There are a variety of religious views of Suicide. Judaism Judaism has traditionally in light of its great emphasis on the sanctity of Life For the 1987 film see Right to Die (film The term " right to die " refers to various issues related to the decision of whether an A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill him or herself or is seriously contemplating Suicide intervention or Suicide crisis intervention is direct effort to stop or prevent persons attempting or contemplating suicide from killing themselves Suicide prevention is an umbrella term for the collective efforts of mental health practitioners and related professionals to reduce the incidence of Suicide through proactive A crisis hotline is a phone number people can call to get immediate over-the-phone emergency Counseling, usually by trained Volunteers Such hotlines Suicide watch is an intensive monitoring process used to ensure that an individual does not commit Suicide. A suicide method is any means by which a person purposely kills himself or herself A copycat suicide is defined as a duplication or Copycat of another Suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts A cult suicide is a term used to describe the mass Suicide by the members of groups that have been considered as Cults In some cases all or nearly all members have Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner A familicide is a type of Murder or Murder-suicide in which at least one spouse and one or more children are killed Forced suicide is a method of Execution where the victim is given the choice of committing Suicide or facing an alternative they perceive as worse such as suffering An Internet suicide pact (cybersuicide pact is a Suicide pact made between individuals who meet on the Internet. Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together and/or for the same reason A murder-suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before or at the same time as killing him or herself This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons A suicide pact describes the Suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan Suicide by cop is a suicide method in which a person deliberately acts in a threatening way with the goal of provoking a lethal response from a law enforcement officer such as being Teenage suicide is the act of self-killing by a Teenager. Although the Suicide rate among youth significantly decreased in the mid-1990s suicide deaths in the Self-injury ( SI) or self-harm ( SH) is deliberate Injury inflicted by a person upon their own body without suicidal intent Suicidal ideation is a common medical term for thoughts about Suicide, which may be as detailed as a formulated plan without the suicidal act itself A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits Suicide. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects  Suicide may occur for a number of reasons, including depression, shame, pain, financial difficulties, or other undesirable situations. In the fields of Psychology and Psychiatry, the terms depression or depressed refer to both expected and pathologically chronic or severe Shame is variously an affect emotion cognition state or condition Nearly one million people worldwide die by suicide annually.  There are an estimated 10 to 20 million attempted suicides every year. 
Views on suicide have been influenced by cultural views on existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Honor or Honour (see spelling differences) (the latter directly from the Latin word honos honoris) is the evaluation of a person's See also Western philosophy, Eastern religions, Eastern philosophy The Most Western and some Asian religions—the Abrahamic religions, Hinduism—consider suicide a dishonorable act; in the West it was regarded as a serious crime and offense against God due to religious belief in the sanctity of life. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Suicide has historically been treated as a criminal matter in many parts of the world Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. In Religion and Ethics, inviolability or sanctity of life is a principle of implied protection regarding aspects of sentient life which are said to be holy Japanese views on honor and religion led to seppuku, one of the most painful methods of suicide, to be respected as a means to atone for mistakes or failure or a form of protest during the samurai era. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by Disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for Samurai. is the term for the military nobility of Pre-industrial Japan. In the 20th century, suicide in the form of self-immolation has been used as a form of protest, and in the form of kamikaze and suicide bombing as a military or terrorist tactic. This is an article on the ritualistic suicide practice For the record company see Self Immolation. ( is a word of Japanese origin which in English usually refers to the Suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Sati was a Hindu funeral practice in which the widow would immolate herself on her husband’s funeral pyre. Satī ( Devanagari: सती, the feminine of sat "true" (also suttee) is a Funeral practice among some A funeral is a Ceremony marking a person's Death. Funerary customs comprise the complex of Beliefs and practices used by a Culture to remember WIDOW is a full-length Album recorded by British rock band Ritual released in 1983 This is an article on the ritualistic suicide practice For the record company see Self Immolation. A pyre (from the Greek: πυρά pyrá, from πυρ pýr, fire is a structure usually made of Wood, for burning a body as part of a 
Medically assisted suicide (euthanasia, or the right to die) is a controversial ethical issue involving people who are terminally ill, in extreme pain, and/or have minimal quality of life through injury or illness. Assisted suicide is the process by which an individual who may otherwise be incapable is provided with the means (drugs or equipment to commit Suicide. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner For the 1987 film see Right to Die (film The term " right to die " refers to various issues related to the decision of whether an Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Terminal illness is a medical term popularized in the 20th century to describe an active and Malignant Disease that cannot be cured or adequately treated Pain, in the sense of physical pain, is a typical sensory experience that may be described as the unpleasant awareness of a noxious stimulus or bodily harm Quality of life is the degree of well-being felt by an individual or group of people Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health or ail) can be defined as a state of poor Health. Self-sacrifice for others is not usually considered suicide, as the goal is not to kill oneself but to save another. Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning "to make sacred" from Old French, from Latin sacrificium: sacr, "sacred"
The predominant view of modern medicine is that suicide is a mental health concern, associated with psychological factors such as the difficulty of coping with depression, inescapable suffering or fear, or other mental disorders and pressures. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or Emotional wellbeing or an absence of a Mental disorder. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression Suffering, or pain, is an individual's basic Affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm Fear is an Emotional response to Threats and Danger. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific Stimulus, such as Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as Suicide is sometimes interpreted in this framework as a "cry for help" and attention, or to express despair and the wish to escape, rather than a genuine intent to die.  Most people who attempt suicide do not complete suicide on a first attempt; those who later gain a history of repetitions are significantly more at risk of eventual completion. 
Suicidal ideation is a medical term for thoughts about suicide, which may range from vague or unformed urges to meticulously detailed plans and posthumous instructions. Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. Suicidal ideation is a common medical term for thoughts about Suicide, which may be as detailed as a formulated plan without the suicidal act itself Medical terminology is a vocabulary for accurately describing the Human body and associated components conditions processes and process in a science-based manner The condition requires professional intervention to determine its extent, including the presence of a suicide plan and the patient's means to commit suicide. Severe suicidal ideation is a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment. A medical emergency is an Injury or Illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health 
Sometimes, a person will make actions resembling suicide attempts while not being fully committed. This is called a suicidal gesture. Prototypical methods might be a non-lethal method of self-harm that leaves obvious signs of the attempt, or simply a lethal action at a time when the person considers it likely that he/she will be rescued or prevented from fully carrying it out. Self-injury ( SI) or self-harm ( SH) is deliberate Injury inflicted by a person upon their own body without suicidal intent
On the other hand, a person who genuinely wishes to die may survive, due to lack of knowledge, unwillingness to try methods that may end in permanent damage to her- or himself (in the event of an attempt which does not result in death), unwillingness to try methods which may harm others, an unanticipated rescue, among other reasons. There may be conflict, whereby a genuinely suicidal person can be desperate enough to want to kill themselves but at the same time, too afraid to go through with the extreme measures that are needed to guarantee death. It may be incorrect to state that a person who survived an overdose was issuing a 'cry for help' when in reality it was a suicide attempt that simply did not result in death. This highlights a basic fact that it is not easy to kill oneself in a way that is not traumatic or painful, hence the phenomenon of assisted suicides. This is referred to as a suicide attempt.
Distinguishing between a suicide attempt and a suicidal gesture may be difficult. Intent and motivation are not always fully discernible since so many people in a suicidal state are genuinely conflicted over whether they wish to end their lives. One approach, assuming that a sufficiently strong suicide intent will ensure death, considers all near-suicides to be suicidal gestures. This, however, does not explain why so many people whose suicide attempts do not result in death end up with severe injuries, often permanent, which are most likely undesirable to those who are making a suicidal gesture. (See: self-harming. Self-injury ( SI) or self-harm ( SH) is deliberate Injury inflicted by a person upon their own body without suicidal intent ) Another possibility is those wishing merely to make a suicidal gesture may end up accidentally killing themselves, perhaps by underestimating the lethality of the method chosen or by overestimating the possibility of external intervention by others. Suicide-like acts should generally be treated as seriously as possible, because if there is an insufficiently strong reaction from loved ones from a suicidal gesture, this may motivate future and ultimately more committed attempts.
In the technical literature the use of the terms parasuicide, or deliberate self-harm (DSH) are preferred – both of these terms avoid the question of the intent of the actions.
Nearly half of all suicides are preceded by an attempt at suicide that does not end in death. Those with a history of such attempts are 23 times more likely to eventually end their own lives than those without.  Those who attempt to harm themselves are, as a group, quite different from those who actually die from suicide; females attempt suicide much more frequently than males, however males are four times more likely to die from their attempt. 
A suicide being attempted, or a situation in which a person is seriously contemplating suicide or has strong suicidal thoughts, is considered by public safety authorities to be a medical emergency requiring suicide intervention. A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill him or herself or is seriously contemplating Suicidal ideation is a common medical term for thoughts about Suicide, which may be as detailed as a formulated plan without the suicidal act itself A medical emergency is an Injury or Illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health Suicide intervention or Suicide crisis intervention is direct effort to stop or prevent persons attempting or contemplating suicide from killing themselves
A suicide note is a written message left by someone who attempts, or dies by suicide, though a large number of people who complete suicide do not leave one. A suicide note is a message left by someone who later attempts or commits Suicide.  Studies give inconsistent results as to the proportion of people who leave suicide notes - with a range of approx. 12 to 37%. Motivations for leaving a note range widely, from seeking closure with loved ones to exacting revenge against others by blaming them for the decision. Need for closure is a psychological term used to describe an individual’s desire for a quick answer as opposed to enduring ambiguity It may also contain a few sentences apologizing to those they have left behind.
Individuals who wish to end their own life may enlist the assistance of another person to achieve death, e. Euthanasia (literally "good death" in Ancient Greek) refers to the practice of ending a life in a painless manner g. by a deadly poison. The other person, usually a family member or physician, may help carry out the act if the individual lacks the physical capacity to do so even with the supplied means. According to different moral views, this may not be considered a form of suicide. The assistant may think of it as acting in behalf of the individual, perhaps to end suffering, while opponents regard it as akin to murder. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Assisted suicide is a contentious moral and political issue in many countries, as seen in the scandal surrounding Dr. Jack Kevorkian, a medical practitioner who supported euthanasia, was found to have helped patients end their own lives, and was sentenced to jail time. Jack Kevorkian (kɛˈvɔrkiːɛn (born on May 26, 1928) is an Armenian-American
The motivation for the murder in murder-suicide can be purely criminal in nature or be perceived by the perpetrator as an act of care for loved ones in the context of severe depression. Major depressive disorder, also known as major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder, clinical depression, or simply depression The severely depressed person may see the world as a terrible place and can feel that they are helping those they care about by removing them from it. Thoughts like this are generally regarded as a medical emergency requiring suicide intervention. A medical emergency is an Injury or Illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health
Since crime just prior to suicide is often perceived as being without consequences, it is not uncommon for suicide to be linked with homicide. List of countries by homicide rate Homicide ( Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut kill refers to the act of killing another Motivations may range from guilt to evading punishment, insanity, part of a suicide pact, or exacting revenge on those whom they feel are responsible. ---- Guilt is the Fact, state or Verdict (by a Court or other Tribunal) of an Offence, Crime, Violation A suicide pact describes the Suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan
A famous example of murder-suicide is the double murder-suicide of professional wrestler Chris Benoit, who was found hanging in his home along with the bodies of his wife and son. Christopher Michael Benoit (bə'nwɑ (May 21 1967—June 24 2007 was a Canadian professional wrestler who in 2007 received extensive media coverage as a
A murder-suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, at the same time as, or after killing him or herself.
The combination of murder and suicide can take various forms, including:
A suicide attack is when an attacker perpetrates an act of violence against others, typically to achieve a military or political goal, that foreseeably results in his or her own death as well. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Suicide bombings have been prominent in the news in recent years as an act of terrorism. Other historical examples include the assassination of Tsar Alexander II and the in part successful kamikaze (Divine Wind) attacks by Japanese air pilots during the Second World War. Alexander (Aleksandr II Nikolaevich (Александр II Николаевич ( Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St ( is a word of Japanese origin which in English usually refers to the Suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including As the WW2 progressed some pilots were locked into their cockpits to prevent escape. In that situation, the Japanese almost always chose to die with honor in an attempt to take out an aircraft carrier in the Carrier War. They tended to aim for the elevators which, when crippled, would stop the carrier from launching planes.
Self-injury is not a suicide attempt; however, initially self-injury was erroneously classified as a suicide attempt. Self-injury ( SI) or self-harm ( SH) is deliberate Injury inflicted by a person upon their own body without suicidal intent There is a non-causal correlation between self-harm and suicide; both are most commonly a joint effect of depression. In Statistics, a spurious relationship (or sometimes spurious correlation) is a Mathematical relationship in which two occurrences have no causal connection
In countries where firearms are readily available, many suicides involve the use of firearms. A suicide method is any means by which a person purposely kills himself or herself A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion Over 52% of suicides that occurred in the United States in 2005 were by firearm.  Asphyxiation methods (including hanging) and toxification (poisoning and overdose) are fairly common as well. Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the Ingestion or application of a Drug or other substance in quantities Both comprised about 40% of suicides in the U. S. during the same time period. Other methods of suicide include blunt force trauma (jumping from a building or bridge, stepping in front of a train, or car collision, for example). Exsanguination or bloodletting (slitting one's wrist or throat), intentional drowning, self-immolation, electrocution, and intentional starvation are other suicide methods. Exsanguination (also known colloquially as bleeding out) is the fatal process of total Hypovolemia (blood loss Drowning is Death as caused by suffocation when a liquid causes interruption of the body's absorption of oxygen from the air leading to Asphyxia. "Electrocute" redirects here For the band see Electrocute (band. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of
There are a variety of reasons posited or given for suicide:
Studies show a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in suicide victims at the time of their death with the total figure ranging from 98% to 87. Mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as 3% with mood disorders and substance abuse being the two most common. A mood disorder is the term given for a group of diagnoses in the DSM IV TR classification system where a disturbance in the person's emotional mood is hypothesised Substance abuse is the overindulgence in and dependence of a Drug or other chemical leading to effects that are detrimental to the individual's physical and mental health In schizophrenia suicide can be triggered by either the depression that is common with this disorder, or in response to command auditory hallucinations. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn A hallucination, in the broadest sense is a Perception in the absence of a stimulus. Suicide among people suffering from bipolar disorder is often an impulse, which is due to the sufferer's extreme mood swings (one of the main symptoms of bipolar disorder), or also possibly an outcome of delusions occurring during an episode of mania or psychotic depression. A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed False Belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false fanciful or derived from Deception Mania (from Greek μανία and that from μαίνομαι - mainomai, "to rage to be furious" is a severe medical condition Psychotic major depression (PMD is a type of depression that can include symptoms and treatments that are different from those of non-psychotic Major depressive disorder (NPMD Severe depression is considered a terminal illness due to the likelihood of suicide when left untreated. 
According to official statistics, about a million people die by suicide annually, more than those murdered or killed in war. It is probable that the incidence of Suicide is widely under-reported due to both religious and social pressures and possibly completely unreported in some areas  According to 2005 data, suicides in the U. S. outnumber homicides by nearly 2 to 1 and ranks as the 11th leading cause of death in the country, ahead of liver disease and Parkinson's disease. 
Gender and suicide: In the Western world, males die much more often by means of suicide than do females, although females attempt suicide more often. Male (♂ refers to the sex of an organism or part of an organism which produces small mobile Gametes called spermatozoa. Female (♀ is the Sex of an Organism, or a part of an organism which produces ova (egg cells This pattern has held for at least a century.  Some medical professionals believe this stems from the fact that males are more likely to end their lives through effective violent means (guns, knives, hanging, etc. A gun is a particular Weapon that propels Projectiles The projectile is generally fired through a hollow tube known as the gun's barrel. A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting ), while women primarily use more failure-prone methods such as overdosing on medications; again, this has been the case for at least a century. 
Others ascribe the difference to inherent differences in male/female psychology. Greater social stigma against male depression and a lack of social networks of support and help with depression are often identified as key reasons for men's disproportionately higher level of suicides, since suicide as a "cry for help" is not seen by men as an equally viable option. Typically males die from suicide three to four times more often as females, and not unusually five or more times as often.
Excess male mortality from suicide is also evident from data from non-western countries. In 1979–81, 74 territories reported one or more cases of suicides. Two of these reported equal rates for both sexes: Seychelles and Kenya. Seychelles (seɪˈʃɛl or /seɪˈʃɛlz/ in English and seʃɛl in French) officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles Creole The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Three territories reported female rates exceeding male rates: Papua New Guinea, Macau, French Guiana. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France The remaining 69 territories had male suicide rates greater than female suicide rates. 
Barraclough found that the female rates of those aged 5–14 equaled or exceeded the male rates only in 14 countries, mainly in South America and Asia. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a 
National suicide rates sometimes tend to remain stable. For example, the 1975 rates for Australia, Denmark, England, France, Norway, and Switzerland were within 3. 0 per 100,000 of population from the 1875 rates.  The rates in 1910–14 and in 1960 differed less than 2. 5 per 100,000 of the population in Australia, Belgium, Denmark, England and Wales, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and the Netherlands. 
|1||Lithuania||70. Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the 1||14. 0||40. 2||2004|
|2||Belarus||63. Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east 3||10. 3||35. 1||2003|
|3||Russia||61. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 6||10. 7||34. 3||2004|
|4||Kazakhstan||51. Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the 0||8. 9||29. 2||2003|
|5||Hungary||44. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic 9||12. 0||27. 7||2003|
|6||Guyana||42. Guyana (ɡaɪˈænə or /ɡiːˈɑːnə/ officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only Nation state 5||12. 1||27. 2||2003|
|7||South Korea||N/A||N/A||26. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː 1||2005|
|8||Slovenia||37. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west 9||13. 9||25. 6||2004|
|9||Latvia||42. Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. 9||8. 5||24. 3||2004|
|10||Japan||35. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. 6||12. 8||24. 0||2004|
There are considerable differences in national suicide rates among various countries. Findings from two studies showed a range from 0 to more than 40 suicides per 100,000 of population. 
National suicide rates, apparently universally, show a long-term upward trend. This trend has been well-documented in European countries.  The trend for national suicide rates to rise slowly over time might be an indirect result of the gradual reduction in deaths from other causes, i. e. falling death rates from causes other than suicide uncover a previously hidden predisposition towards suicide.  There may also be an explanation in the reduced stigma attached to survivors as suicide is no longer considered a crime or a sin. This may allow coroners to record more suicides as such and so increase stats.
Ethnic groups and suicide: In the USA, Asian-Americans are more likely to die by suicide than any other ethnic group. Caucasians die by suicide more often than African Americans do. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa This is true for both genders. Non-Hispanic Caucasians are nearly 2. 5 times more likely to kill themselves than are African Americans or Hispanics. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically 
Age and suicide: In the USA, males over the age of seventy die by suicide more often than younger males. There is no such trend for females. Older non-Hispanic Caucasian men are much more likely to kill themselves than older men or women of any other group, which contributes to the relatively high suicide rate among Caucasians.
Season and suicide: People die by suicide more often during spring and summer. The idea that suicide is more common during the winter holidays (including Christmas in the northern hemisphere) is a common misconception. Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball'  There is also potential risk of suicide in some people experiencing Seasonal affective disorder. Seasonal affective disorder ( SAD) also known as winter depression, is a Mood disorder in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year experience
Heroic suicide, for the greater good of others, is often celebrated. For instance, Mahatma Gandhi went on a hunger strike to prevent fighting between Hindus and Muslims, and, although he was stopped before dying, it appeared he would have willingly succumbed to starvation. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January A hunger strike is a method of Non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political Protest, or to provoke feelings of A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion This attracted attention to Gandhi's cause, and generated a great deal of respect for him as a spiritual leader. In the 1960s, Buddhist monks, most notably Thích Quảng Đức, in South Vietnam drew Western attention to their protests against President Ngô Đình Diệm by burning themselves to death. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective "RVN" redirects here RVN is also the former callsign of a TV station in Wagga Wagga New South Wales Australia Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Also in the 1960s, Quaker Norman Morrison committed suicide by self-immolation to protest the United States involvement in the Vietnam War. Norman Morrison ( December 29, 1933 - November 2, 1965) born in Erie Pennsylvania, was a Baltimore The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Similar events were reported during the Cold War in eastern Europe, such as the deaths of Ryszard Siwiec and later of Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc following the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, or Romas Kalanta's self-immolation in the main street of Kaunas, Lithuania in 1972. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Ryszard Siwiec (1909— September 12, 1968) was a Polish Accountant, teacher and former Home Army soldier who was the first person This article is about a person For the sword see Backsword. Jan Palach ( August 11, 1948 – January 19, 1969 Jan Zajíc ( 3 July 1950 - 25 February 1969) was a Czech student who committed Suicide by Self-immolation as a The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Romas Kalanta ( February 22 1953 - May 14, 1972) was a Lithuanian political victim known for his Kaunas ( ˈkoʊnəs is the second largest City in Lithuania and a former temporary capital. More recently, in 2006, an American anti-war activist, Malachi Ritscher, died by suicide by self-immolation as a protest against the Iraq war. Malachi Ritscher ( Mark David Ritscher; January 13, 1954 – November 3, 2006 The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia In Ireland there exists a long tradition of hunger strike to the death against British rule, predominantly in Northern Ireland during the infamous 1981 hunger strikes, led by Bobby Sands, which resulted in 10 deaths. Robert Gerard Sands (Roibeard Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981 was a Provisional Irish Republican Army The period caused international outrage as shown, for example, by the Indian parliament standing for two minutes of silence or, more bemusingly, the Iranian government renaming the street in Tehran on which the British Embassy stands to "Bobby Sands Street", named after the first hunger-striker to die in 1981. Before the Republic of Ireland got its independence there were also examples of hunger striking, such as Terence McSwiney in Cork. Terence Joseph MacSwiney (məkˈswiːni Tordhealbhach Mac Suibhne (20 March 1879 – 25 October 1920 was born in Cork City, County Cork Ireland. Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast Critics may see such suicides as counter-productive, arguing that these people would probably achieve a comparable or greater result by spending the rest of their lives in active struggle. This is a contentious issue, especially when one considers that the Northern Ireland hunger strikers who died trying to obtain certain prisoners rights (e. g. POW status, right to wear own clothes, right not to have to work, etc. ) actually had nearly all their requests eventually granted in the years after the spate of 1981 hunger strikes happened.
People who commit suicide may not always be suffering from depression or despair. Some people may kill themselves for the purpose of experiencing life after death, or have a different existential, religious or philosophical motive. This points out that views of suicide are individually and culturally subjective.
A person who has committed a crime will often commit suicide to avoid prosecution and disgrace:
In the desperate final days of World War II, many Japanese pilots volunteered for kamikaze missions in an attempt to forestall defeat for the Empire. This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons Early career The escort aircraft carrier completed outfitting at Astoria on 4 December 1943 and began shakedown training on 8 December. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. ( is a word of Japanese origin which in English usually refers to the Suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Near the end of WW2 the Japanese attempted to design a small bomb laden aircraft whose only purpose was kamikaze missions. However, the craft was a failure, partly because its range was insubstantual to that of other more conventional planes but also because it was produced at a far greater cost than even the Japanese felt necessary to spend on their kamikaze pilots. In Nazi Germany, many soldiers and government officials (including Adolf Hitler and many in his inner circle) killed themselves rather than surrender to Allied forces; Luftwaffe squadrons were formed to smash into American B-17s during daylight bombing missions, in order to delay the highly-probable Allied victory, although in this case, inspiration was primarily the Soviet and Polish taran ramming attacks, and death of the pilot was not a desired outcome. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose In warfare ramming is a technique that was used in the air sea and land combat Whether such pilots were engaging in heroic, selfless actions or if immense social pressure motivated them is a matter of historical debate. The Japanese also built one-man "human torpedo" suicide submarines. Human torpedoes or manned torpedoes were secret naval weapons of World War II. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability
However, suicide has been fairly common in warfare throughout history. Soldiers and civilians committed suicide to avoid capture and slavery (including the wave of German and Japanese suicides in the last days of World War II). Commanders committed suicide rather than accept defeat. Spies and officers have often committed suicide to avoid revealing secrets under interrogation and/or torture. Interrogation or questioning is Interviewing as commonly employed by officers of the Police and Military. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Behaviour that could be seen as suicidal occurred often in battle, for instance a soldier falling on a grenade to save his comrades. Falling on a grenade refers to the act of lying on top of a live Hand grenade, usually with the intention of saving others nearby Other examples include soldiers under cannon fire at the Battle of Waterloo who took fatal hits rather than duck and place their comrades in harm's way. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural In the Battle of Waterloo (Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo Belgium The Charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimean War, Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg in the American Civil War, and the charge of the French cavalry at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War were assaults that continued even after it was obvious to participants that the attacks were unlikely to succeed, and would probably be fatal to most of the attackers. The Charge of the Light Brigade was a disastrous Cavalry charge led by Lord Cardigan during the Battle of Balaclava on 25 October The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought See also Battle of Gettysburg See also [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] and [[Gettysburg Union order Background and movement to battle See also [[Gettysburg Campaign]] [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War on 1 September 1870 The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Japanese infantrymen usually fought to the last man, launched "banzai" suicide charges, and committed suicide during the Pacific island battles in World War II. The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists A was a name applied during World War II to Human wave -style attacks mounted by infantry forces of the Imperial Japanese Army. The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20000 to 30000 Islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined At Saipan and Okinawa, civilians joined in the suicides. Saipan (saɪˈpæn /saɪˈpɑn/ or /ˈsaɪpæn/ in English is the largest Island and Capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern is one of Japan 's southern prefectures, and consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1000 km long which extends southwest from Kyūshū Suicidal attacks by pilots were common in the 20th century: the attack by U. S. torpedo planes at the Battle of Midway was very similar to kamikaze. Types The torpedo bomber first appeared during the later years of World War I. The Battle of Midway was a major Naval battle, widely regarded as the most important one of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. ( is a word of Japanese origin which in English usually refers to the Suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against
Ritual suicide is the act of suicide motivated by a religious, spiritual, or traditional ritual.
An extreme interpretation of Hindu custom historically practiced, mostly in the 2nd millennium, was self-immolation by a widow as an assurance that she will be with her husband for the next life. This, however, is extreme, and is looked down upon by other Hindus in most cases. Other rituals of self-immolation or self-starvation were used by Hindu, Jain and Buddhist monks for religious or philosophical purposes, or as a form of extreme non-violent protest. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. In China, some groups would practice suicide for similar reasons. In Japan, rituals of suicide like seppuku by men and jigai by women were practiced. is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by Disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for Samurai. The word means "suicide" in Japanese. The usual modern word for suicide is.
Dutiful suicide is an act, or attempted act, of fatal self-violence at one's own hands done in the belief that it will secure a greater good, rather than to escape harsh or impossible conditions. It can be voluntary, to relieve some dishonor or punishment, or imposed by threats of death or reprisals on one's family or reputation (a kind of murder by remote control). It can be culturally traditional or generally abhorred; it can be heavily ritualized as in seppuku or purely functional. Dutiful suicide can be distinguished from a kamikaze or suicide bomb attack, in which a fighter consumes his own life in delivering a weapon to the enemy. Perhaps the most famous example of dutiful suicide is a soldier in a foxhole throwing his body on a live grenade to save the lives of his comrades.
It is estimated that each suicide in the United States leaves an average of six people intimately affected by the death, either as a spouse, parent, significant other, sibling, or child of the deceased person. These people are referred to as survivors.  Of course, this estimate does not represent the total number of people who may be affected by an individual suicide. For example, the suicide of a child may leave not only his/her immediate family to make sense of the act, but also his/her extended family, school and entire community.
As with any death, family and friends of a suicide victim feel grief associated with loss. Grief is a multi-faceted response to loss Although conventionally focused on the emotional response to loss it also has physical cognitive behavioral social and philosophical However, suicide deaths leave behind a unique set of issues for the survivors. Suicide survivors are often overwhelmed with psychological trauma that vary depending on the factors comprising the event, including discovery of the body. Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. The survivor's trauma can leave him/her feeling guilty, angry, remorseful, helpless, and confused. Anger is an emotional state that may range from minor irritation to intense rage Remorse (also called compunction) is an emotional expression of personal regret felt by a person after he or she has committed an act which they deem to be shameful Confusion, of a Pathological degree usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time location and personal identity and It can be especially difficult for survivors because many of their questions as to the victim's final decision are left unanswered, even if a suicide note is left behind (the "why" questions). Moreover, survivors often feel that they should have intervened in some way to prevent the suicide, even if the suicide comes as a surprise and there are no obvious warning signs (the "coulda, shoulda, woulda" or "if only" questions). Along with this sense of regret and failure, there is sometimes relief if the survivor's relationship with the victim was difficult, strained, or otherwise complicated. Given this complex and conflicting set of emotions associated with a loved one's suicide, survivors usually find it difficult to discuss the death with others, even with those who have also faced the death of a loved one, but by some other means. These feelings cause survivors to feel isolated from their network of family and friends and often making them reluctant to form new relationships as well. 
Fortunately, "survivor support groups" can offer counseling and help bring many of the issues associated with suicide out into the open. They can also help survivors reach out to their own friends and family who may be feeling similarly and thus begin the healing process. In addition, counseling services and therapy can provide invaluable support to the bereaved. Some such groups can be found online, providing a forum for discussion amongst survivors of suicide. 
Deaths and injuries from suicidal behavior represent $25 billion each year in direct costs, including health care services, funeral services, autopsies and investigations, and indirect costs like lost productivity. 
These costs may be counterbalanced by economic gains. Expenditure on those who would have continued living is reduced, including pensions, social security, health care services for those with brain disorders ("mentally ill"), as well as other normal budgetary expenditure per head of living population.
Modern medicine treats suicide as a mental health issue. Suicide intervention or Suicide crisis intervention is direct effort to stop or prevent persons attempting or contemplating suicide from killing themselves Overwhelming or persistent suicidal thoughts are considered an emotional crisis. Mental health professionals advise that people who have expressed plans to kill themselves be encouraged to seek help. This is especially relevant if the means (weapons, drugs, or other methods) are available, or if the patient has crafted a detailed plan for executing the suicide. Medical personnel and mental health professionals frequently receive special training to look for suicidal signs in patients. Individuals suffering from depression are considered a high-risk group for suicidal behavior. Suicide hotlines are widely available for people seeking help anonymously. 
In the United States, individuals who express the intent to harm themselves are automatically determined to lack the present mental capacity to refuse treatment, and can be transported to the emergency department against their will. An emergency physician will determine whether inpatient care at a mental health care facility is warranted. An emergency physician is a Physician who works at an Emergency department to care for acutely ill patients A psychiatric hospital (previously called insane asylum, mental hospital; or derogatorily looney bin, nut house or Funny Farm) is This is sometimes referred to as being "committed". Involuntary commitment is the practice of using legal means or forms as part of a Mental health law to commit a person to a Mental hospital, Insane asylum A court hearing may be held to determine the patient's competence. In American law competence concerns the mental capacity of an individual to participate in legal proceedings
In some jurisdictions, an act or incomplete act of suicide is considered to be a crime. Suicide has historically been treated as a criminal matter in many parts of the world More commonly, a surviving party member who assisted in the suicide attempt will face criminal charges.
In Brazil, if the help is directed to a minor, the penalty is applied in its double and not considered as homicide. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld In Italy and Canada, instigating another to suicide is also a criminal offense. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page In Singapore, assisting in the suicide of a mentally handicapped person is a capital offense. Singapore In India, abetting suicide of a minor or a mentally challenged person can result in a possible death penalty, otherwise a maximum 10 years prison term. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 
In North Korea, suicide is considered treason against the party and is punishable by death. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, formed on July 22 1946 is a North Korean United front led by the Workers' Party of Korea. Due to Kim Il Sung's decree that the seed of class enemies should be destroyed to the third generation, families of persons who have committed suicide are sent to labor camps with life sentences. Kim Il-sung ( 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from its founding in early Generation (from the Greek γενεά) also known as procreation, is the act of producing Offspring. A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in Penal labor. Life imprisonment or life incarceration is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime often for most
In the Warring States Period and the Edo period of Japan, samurai who disgraced their honor chose to end their own lives by seppuku, a method in which the samurai takes a sword and slices into his abdomen, causing a fatal injury. A is a common Japanese single or occasionally double edged Knife or Dagger with a blade length between 15 and 30 cm (6-12 inches is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by Disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for Samurai. Various human cultures may have views on suicide not directly or solely linked to Religious views of suicide. is the term for the military nobility of Pre-industrial Japan. is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by Disembowelment. Seppuku was originally reserved only for Samurai. In Vertebrates such as Mammals the abdomen (belly constitutes the part of the body between the Thorax (chest and Pelvis. The cut is usually performed diagonally from the top corner of the samurai's writing hand, and has long been considered an honorable form of death (even when done to punish dishonor). Though such a wound would be fatal, seppuku was not always technically suicide, as the samurai's assistant (the kaishaku) would usually stand by to cut short any suffering by quickly administering a fatal cut to the back of the neck (just short of decapitation), sometimes as soon as the first tiny incision into the abdomen was made. Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head or beheading, is the cutting off of the head of a person or animal
In most forms of Christianity, suicide is considered a sin, based mainly on the writings of influential Christian thinkers of the Middle Ages, such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas; suicide was not considered a sin under the Byzantine Christian code of Justinian, for instance. There are a variety of religious views of Suicide. Judaism Judaism has traditionally in light of its great emphasis on the sanctity of Life Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law" is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in Jurisprudence, issued from 529 . The argument is based on the commandment "Thou shalt not kill" (made applicable under the New Covenant by Jesus in Matthew 19:18), as well as the idea that life is a gift given by God which should not be spurned, and that suicide is against the "natural order" and thus interferes with God's master plan for the world. The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that according to Judeo-Christian tradition were authored by God and given The term New Covenant (; Greek:, diathēkē kainē is used in the Bible (both in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament) to refer Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel  However, it is believed that mental illness or grave fear of suffering diminishes the responsibility of the one completing suicide.  Counter-arguments include the following: that the sixth commandment is more accurately translated as "thou shalt not murder", not necessarily applying to the self; that taking one's own life no more violates God's plan than does curing a disease; and that a number of suicides by followers of God are recorded in the Bible with no dire condemnation. 
Judaism focuses on the importance of valuing this life, and as such, suicide is tantamount to denying God's goodness in the world. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Despite this, under extreme circumstances when there has seemed no choice but to either be killed or forced to betray their religion, Jews have committed individual suicide or mass suicide (see Masada, First French persecution of the Jews, and York Castle for examples) and as a grim reminder there is even a prayer in the Jewish liturgy for "when the knife is at the throat", for those dying "to sanctify God's Name". Mass suicide occurs when a number of people kill themselves together and/or for the same reason Masada ( Hebrew מצדה pronounced Metzada, from מצודה metzuda, "fortress" is the name for a site of ancient Palaces and The Jewish community in France presently numbers around 600000 according to the World Jewish Congress and 500000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France and is York Castle (also known as Clifford's Tower) is a fortification in the city of York, England. (See: Martyrdom). The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom These acts have received mixed responses by Jewish authorities, regarded both as examples of heroic martyrdom, whilst others state that it was wrong for them to take their own lives in anticipation of martyrdom. 
Suicide is not allowed in the religion of Islam; however, martyring oneself for Allah (during combat) is not the same as completing suicide. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Suicide by Muslim standards is traditionally seen as a sign of disbelief in God.  The use of suicide bombing is therefore a controversial one in Islam. Groups like Hamas consider it necessary—for instance, in the struggle against occupation. Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة
In Hinduism, suicide is frowned upon and is considered equally sinful as murdering another. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Hindu Scriptures state that one who commits suicide will become part of the spirit world, wandering earth until the time one would have otherwise died, had one not committed suicide. Literature regarded as central to the Hindu literary tradition was predominantly composed in Sanskrit, Indeed much of the morphology and linguistic  The ghost can feel hunger and thirst, but can not eat or drink.
Some see suicide as a legitimate matter of personal choice and a human right (colloquially known as the right to die movement), and maintain that no one should be forced to suffer against their will, particularly from conditions such as incurable disease, mental illness, and old age that have no possibility of improvement. In Ethics and other branches of Philosophy, Suicide poses a difficult question answered differently by philosophers from different times and traditions For the 1987 film see Right to Die (film The term " right to die " refers to various issues related to the decision of whether an Proponents of this view reject the belief that suicide is always irrational, arguing instead that it can be a valid last resort for those enduring major pain or trauma. This perspective is most popular in continental Europe, where euthanasia and other such topics are commonly discussed in parliament, although it has a good deal of support in the United States as well.
A narrower segment of this group considers suicide something between a grave but condonable choice in some circumstances and a sacrosanct right for anyone (even a young and healthy person) who believes they have rationally and conscientiously come to the decision to end their own lives. Notable supporters of this school of thought include German pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, and Scottish empiricist David Hume. David Hume (26 April 1711 25 August 1776 Scottish Philosopher, Economist, and Historian is an important figure in Western philosophy  Adherents of this view often advocate the abrogation of statutes that restrict the liberties of people known to be suicidal, such as laws permitting their involuntary commitment to mental hospitals.