The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (Arabic: أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي; French: Crise du canal de Suez; Hebrew: מבצע קדש) (Kadesh Campaign) was a military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Moshe Dayan, DSO (משה דיין born 20 May 1915 died 16 October 1981 was an Israeli military leader and politician General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, GCB, GBE, DSO (24 June 1901 – 17 June 1974 was a senior officer in the British Army during Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President Abdel Hakim Amer (عبد الحكيم عامر ( December 11 1919 &ndash September 14 1967) was an Egyptian military general Killed in action ( KIA or K I A) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own forces by other WIA is a Three letter abbreviation standing for Wounded In Action. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The attack followed Egypt's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam. Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation Aswan (Assuan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. 
The Suez Canal was opened in 1869, having been financed by the French and Egyptian governments. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation Technically, the territory of the canal proper was sovereign Egyptian territory, and the operating company, the Universal Company of the Suez Maritime Canal (Suez Canal Company) was an Egyptian-chartered company, originally part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. The Universal Suez Ship Canal Company ( French: Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short was the French
The canal was strategically important to the British, and hence to the other European powers. To the British, the canal was the ocean link with its colonies in India, the Far East, Australia, and New Zealand. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Because the canal was strategically important, the area as a whole became strategically important. Thus, in 1875, the British government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the Egyptian share of the operating company, obtaining partial control of the canal's operations and sharing it with mostly-French private investors. Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was In 1882, during the invasion and occupation of Egypt, the United Kingdom took de facto control of the canal proper, finance and operation.
The Convention of Constantinople (1888) declared the canal a neutral zone under British protection. The Convention of Constantinople was a Treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France  In ratifying it, the Ottoman Empire agreed to permit international shipping to freely pass through the canal, in time of war and peace. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Shipping is physical process of Transporting goods and Cargo. 
The Suez Canal proved its strategic importance during the Russo-Japanese War when the Japanese entered an agreement with the British. The Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争 Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō Русско-японская война Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna;, 10 February 1904 – 5 September For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Russian Pacific Fleet, based at Port Arthur. Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally Lüshun Port ( formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town located at the extreme southern When the Russians sent reinforcements from the Baltic, the British denied them access to the canal. This forced the Russian fleet to steam around the entire continent of Africa, giving the Japanese forces time to regroup and solidify their position in the area.
The importance of the canal as a strategic center was also apparent during both World Wars; in the First World War, the British and French closed the canal to non-Allied shipping, in the Second World War, it was tenaciously defended in the North African Campaign. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from June 10, 1940
Petroleum business historian Daniel Yergin wrote:
[I]n 1948, the canal abruptly lost its traditional rationale . Daniel H Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author speaker and economic researcher . . . [C]ontrol over the canal could no longer be preserved on grounds that it was critical to the defense either of India or of an empire that was being liquidated. And yet, at exactly the same moment, the canal was gaining a new role — as the highway not of empire, but of oil . Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit . . . By 1955, petroleum accounted for half of the canal's traffic, and, in turn, two thirds of Europe's oil passed through it. 
In 1948, the British Mandate of Palestine ended, the British forces withdrew from Palestine, and Israel declared independence on the territory partitioned by UNSCOP (United Nations Special Committee on Palestine) for the Jewish state. The Palestine Mandate, was a set of protocols or articles that formed a multilateral legal and administrative agreement The Israeli Declaration of Independence (הכרזת העצמאות Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut or מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'ut) made on 14 May The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP was formed in the May 1947 in response to the British Governments announcement to terminate Mandate of Palestine. The Arab League declared its refusal to recognize the UN resolution and the two-state solution, favoring a one-state solution run by an Arab majority, and including both the Jewish and Arab territories. Soon after, the newly declared State of Israel was invaded by a coalition of Arab nations, including Egypt, resulting in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War from which Israel emerged victorious. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Failed peace talks in the aftermath of the war, combined with escalating border violence between Israel and its neighbours in the following years, helped to cement Arab-Israeli enmity.
See History of Israel, History of Egypt. The State of Israel (מדינת ישראל Medinat Yisrael) was established in 1948 after nearly two thousand The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history as a unified state of any country in the world
At the outset of the 1950s Great Britain, the predominant foreign power in the Middle East, was reassessing its position in the region. The economic potential of the Middle East, with its vast oil reserves and the Suez Canal, as well as its geo-strategic importance in the context of the Cold War, prompted Britain to consolidate and strengthen her position there. Vital to maintaining British influence in the region were the kingdoms of Egypt and Iraq. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
Britain's military strength was spread throughout the region, including the vast military complex at Suez with a garrison of some 80,000 making it one of the largest military installations in the world. The Suez base was considered an important part of Britain's strategic position in the Middle East; yet it was increasingly becoming a source of tension in Anglo-Egyptian relations. In the wake of the Second World War Egyptian domestic politics were experiencing a radical change, prompted in no small part by economic instability, inflation and unemployment. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Unrest began to manifest itself in the growth of radical political groups, such as the communist party and the Muslim Brotherhood, and an increasingly hostile attitude towards Britain and her presence in the country. The Muslim Brothers ( Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان Added to this anti-British fervour was the perceived role Britain had held in the creation of Israel. The State of Israel (מדינת ישראל Medinat Yisrael) was established in 1948 after nearly two thousand As such, the actions of the Egyptian government began to mirror those of its populace and an anti-British policy began to permeate Egypt's relations with the former.
In October 1951, the Egyptian government unilaterally abrogated the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treaty, the terms of which granted Britain lease on the Suez base for 20 years. The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed in 1936, between the United Kingdom and Egypt, officially (but seldom known as The Treaty of  Britain refused to withdraw from Suez relying upon its impinged treaty rights, as well as the sheer presence of the Suez garrison. The price of such a course of action was a steady escalation in increasingly violent hostility towards Britain and British troops in Egypt, which the Egyptian authorities did little to curb. On January 25th 1952, British attempts to disarm a troublesome auxiliary police force barracks in Ismailia resulted in the deaths of 41 Egyptians. This in turn led to anti-Western riots in Cairo resulting in heavy damage to property and the deaths of several foreigners, including 11 British citizens.  This proved to be a catalyst for the removal of the Egyptian monarchy. On July 23rd 1952 a military coup by the 'Free Officers Movement'- led by Muhammad Neguib and future Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser- overthrew King Farouk I and established an Egyptian republic. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952 also known as the July 23 Revolution, began with a military Coup d'état that took place on In Egypt, the clandestine revolutionary Free Officers Movement (Arabic حركة الضباط الأحرار was composed of young junior army officers committed to unseating Muhammad Naguib (محمد نجيب) (born 20 February, 1901 &ndash 29 August, 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President Farouk I of Egypt ( Arabic: فاروق الأول Fārūq al-Awwal) (February 11 1920 &ndash March 18 1965 was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad
Britain's desire to mend Anglo-Egyptian relations in the wake of the coup saw her strive for rapprochement with the latter throughout 1953 and 1954. Part of this process was the agreement, in 1953, to terminate British rule in The Sudan by 1956 in return for Cairo's abandoning of its claim to suzerainty over the Nile Valley region. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. In October 1954, Britain and Egypt concluded an agreement on the phased evacuation of British troops from the Suez base, the terms of which agreed to withdrawal of all troops within 20 months, maintenance of the base to be continued, and for Britain to hold the right to return for seven years. 
Despite the establishment of such an agreement with the British, Nasser's position remained tenuous. The loss of Egypt's claim to the Sudan, coupled with the continued presence of Britain at Suez for a further 2 years, led to domestic unrest including an assassination attempt against him in October 1954. The tenuous nature of Nasser's rule caused him to believe that neither his regime, nor Egypt's independence would be safe until Egypt had established itself as head of the Arab world. This would manifest itself in the challenging of British Middle Eastern interests throughout 1955.
Britain's close relationship with the two Hashemite kingdoms of Iraq and Jordan were of particular concern to Nasser. Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim In particular, Iraq's increasingly amicable relations with Britain were a threat to Nasser's desire to see Egypt as head of the Arab world. The creation of the Baghdad Pact in 1955 seemed to confirm Nasser's fears that Britain was attempting to draw the Eastern Arab World into a bloc centred upon Iraq, and sympathetic to Britain. The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad  Nasser's response was a series of challenges to British influence in the region that would culminate in the Suez Crisis.
Throughout 1955 and 1956 Nasser pursued a number of policies that would frustrate British aims throughout the Middle East, and result in increasing hostility between Britain and Egypt. Nasser ". . . played on the widespread suspicion that any Western defence pact was merely veiled colonialism and that Arab disunity and weakness—especially in the struggle with Israel—was a consequence of British machinations. " He also began to align Egypt with the kingdom of Saudi Arabia—whose rulers were hereditary enemies of the Hashemites—in an effort to frustrate British efforts to draw Syria, Jordan and The Lebanon into the orbit of the Baghdad Pact. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The House of Saud ( Arabic: آل سعود romanized Āl Suʿūd is the Royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Nasser frustrated British attempts to amalgamate Jordan into the pact by sponsoring demonstrations in Amman, leading King Hussein to dismiss the British commander of the Arab Legion Glubb Pasha in March 1956 and throwing Britain's Middle Eastern security policy into chaos. Amman (ɑˈmɑːn sometimes spelled Ammann ( Arabic عمان ʿAmmān) is the Capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, better known as Glubb Pasha (born 16 April 
Nasser struck a further, spectacular blow against Britain by negotiating an arms deal with Czechoslovakia in September 1955 thereby ending Egypt's reliance on Western arms. Under the terms of this deal, Czechoslovakia sold Egypt 200 tanks, 150 artillery pieces, 120 MiG jet fighters, 50 jet bombers, 20 transport planes, 15 helicopters, and hundreds of vehicles and thousands of modern rifles and machine guns. A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine JSC "RSK "MiG" or Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG in full (formerly Mikoyan or Mikoyan-i-Gurevich Design Bureau, Микоян A fighter aircraft is a Military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other Aircraft, as opposed to a Bomber, which is designed A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them A cargo aircraft (also known as freighters or freight aircraft) is an Fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods rather A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. Although the arms were to be delivered promptly, Egypt paid for them over the span of twelve years with shipments of cotton to Czechoslovakia. This volume of arms was unlike any the Middle East had ever seen, and it was coupled with the sale of 100 tanks, 100 MiG fighters and hundreds of other items to Syria, as well as the provision of Czechoslovakian trainers and assistance personnel. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Bulgaria later sold a few minesweepers to Egypt and Syria. Bulgaria later sold four destroyers, two submarines, and one frigate to Egypt, and two submarines and a missile boat to Syria.
This caused tensions in the United States because Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria now had a strong presence in the region. Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria were joined by the other members of the Warsaw Pact in selling arms to Egypt and Syria. The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Increasingly Nasser came to be viewed in British circles—and in particular by Prime Minister Anthony Eden—as a dictator, akin to Mussolini. Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician Anglo-Egyptian relations would continue on their downward spiral.
Britain was eager to tame the unruly Nasser and looked towards the U. S. for support. However, Washington remained unresponsive; America's closest ally in the region, Saudi Arabia, was just as fundamentally opposed to the Hashemite dominated Baghdad Pact as Egypt, and the U. S. was keen to increase its influence in the region. The failure of the Baghdad Pact aided such a goal by reducing Britain's dominance over the region. "Great Britain would have preferred to overthrow Nasser; America, however uncomfortable with the Czech arms deal, thought it wiser to propitiate him. "
The events that brought the crisis to a head occurred in the spring/summer of 1956. On May 16th Nasser officially recognised the People's Republic of China, a move that angered the U. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES S. and its Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, a keen sponsor of Taiwan. John Foster Dulles ( February 25, 1888 &ndash May 24, 1959) served as U Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia.  This move, coupled with the impression that the project was beyond Egypt's economic capabilities, caused Washington to withdraw all American financial aid for the Aswan Dam project on July 19th. Aswan (Assuan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt.  Nasser's response was the nationalisation of the Suez Canal. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation On July 26th in a speech in Alexandria, Nasser gave a riposte to Dulles. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια During his speech he deliberately pronounced the name of Ferdinand de Lesseps, constructor of the Canal, a code-word for Egyptian forces to seize control of the Canal and implement nationalisation of it. Ferdinand Marie Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI ( November 19[[ 805]]&ndash December 7[[ 894]] was the French developer of the Suez Canal, 
The weakness of Britain's position in the Middle East now became abundantly clear. The Suez Canal, vital to the British Empire, was in the hands of a hostile foreign power: worse, the withdrawal from the Suez base had made a swift reprisal impossible. Britain hoped to gain American acquiescence in forcing Nasser to back down. However, the American government, mistrustful of British motives, and mindful of the impending presidential election, rejected such a move and made implicit their objection to the use of force.
Britain was now faced with a dilemma. Direct military intervention with the French ran the risk of angering Washington and damaging Anglo-Arab relations still further. Yet to do nothing would run the risk of complete collapse of British prestige in the region. Britain, under immense domestic pressure from Conservative MPs who drew direct comparisons between the events of 1956 and those of Munich in the 1930s, was driven into a desperate secret military pact with France and Israel that aimed at regaining the Suez Canal. The Munich Agreement (Mnichovská dohoda Mníchovská dohoda Münchner Abkommen Accords de Munich was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland, which were areas along borders
In order to pressure Israel, the Arab world implemented a series of economic sanctions against it in the early 1950s. Amongst other actions, Israel's neighbours all sealed their borders and thoroughly blocked all forms of transportation and communication across them.
The Arab world closed its ports to Israeli shipping, as well as to ships originating from or destined for Israeli ports. This action made shipping to Israel almost unfeasible, since no ship stopping in Israel could visit any other port in the region before or afterwards on that trip.
All flights departing from, landing in or passing through Israel were forbidden from passing over Arab air space. Individuals who had an Israeli visa in their passport were refused entry into Arab countries. Arab governments also pursued a campaign designed to dissuade private companies from doing business with Israel, and put a great deal of pressure on other governments to participate in their embargo.
In July 1950, Egypt passed a law requiring that the captains of ships passing through Egyptian ports guarantee that their cargo was intended for local consumption at their port of immediate destination. These restrictions were designed to prevent such cargo from being shipped to Israel from neutral ports.
The Arab states, and President Nasser of Egypt in particular, created and supported the Fedayeen who conducted cross-border raids against Israelis. Palestinian fedayeen (from the Arabic fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn, فدائيون refers to Militants or Guerrillas of a nationalist The Fedayeen were trained and equipped by Egyptian Intelligence to infiltrate Israel, engage in hostile actions within it and to commit acts of sabotage and murder. The Fedayeen also operated from bases in Jordan.
Their attacks violated the 1949 Armistice Agreements prohibiting hostilities by paramilitary forces, as did the Israeli counterattacks. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan However, only Israel was formally condemned by the UN Security Council.  The escalating tension and deaths contributed to an atmosphere of hostility and a desire for retaliation in Israel against the Fedayeen and their host countries.
On August 1, a tripartite meeting was opened at 10 Downing Street between British Foreign Affairs Secretary Selwyn Lloyd, U. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd Baron Selwyn-Lloyd CH PC (28 July 1904 - 18 May 1978 known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British Conservative S. Ambassador Robert D. Murphy and French Foreign Affairs Minister Christian Pineau
Soon an alliance was formed between Eden and French Prime Minister Guy Mollet, with headquarters based in London. Robert Daniel Murphy (1894&ndash1978 was an American Diplomat. Christian Pineau (14 October 1904 - 5 April 1995 was a noted French Resistance fighter The Prime Minister of France ( Premier ministre français) in Fifth Republic is the functional Head of the government and Council of Ministers Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975 was a French Socialist politician Headquarters (HQ denotes the location where most if not all of the important functions of an organization are concentrated London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Chief of Staff was made of General Stockwell and Admiral Barjot. The United Kingdom sought cooperation with the United States throughout 1956 to deal with what it maintained was a threat of Israeli attack against Egypt, to little effect.
Between July and October 1956, unsuccessful initiatives encouraged by the United States were made to reduce the tensions that would ultimately lead to war. International conferences were organized to secure agreement on canal operations; all were ultimately fruitless.
Meanwhile, France used its secret connection with Israel, which was the only option for British-French joint intervention, even though the United States nuclear umbrella was deactivated. 
Three months after Egypt's nationalization of the canal company, a secret meeting took place at Sèvres, outside Paris. The Protocols of Sèvres ( French, Protocoles de Sèvres) was a secret agreement reached between the governments of Israel, France and Great Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Britain and France enlisted Israeli support for an alliance against Egypt. The parties agreed that Israel would invade the Sinai. Britain and France would then intervene, instructing that both the Israeli and Egyptian armies withdraw their forces to a distance of 16 km from either side of the canal. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The British and French would then argue that Egypt's control of such an important route was too tenuous, and that it needed be placed under Anglo-French management.
The interests of the parties were various. Britain was anxious lest it lose access to the remains of its empire. France was nervous about the growing influence that Nasser exerted on its North African colonies and protectorates. Both Britain and France were eager that the canal should remain open as an important conduit of oil. Israel wanted to reopen the canal to Israeli shipping, and saw the opportunity to strengthen its southern border and to weaken a dangerous and hostile state.
Prior to the operation, Britain deliberately neglected to take counsel with the Americans, trusting instead that Nasser's engagement with communist states would persuade the Americans to accept British and French actions if they were presented as a fait accompli. This proved to be a fatal miscalculation for the colonial powers.
Operation Kadesh received its name from the ancient city of Kadesh, mentioned in the book of Deuteronomy and in more distant antiquity the site of the decisive battle fought by the forces of Pharaoh Ramses II against the Hittites, located in the northern Sinai Area. } The Battle of Kadesh (also Qadesh) took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Israeli military planning for this operation in the Sinai hinged on four main military objectives; Sharm el-Sheikh, al-Arish, Abu Uwayulah, and the Gaza Strip. Sharm el Sheikh (شرم الشيخ Sharm al-Shaykh) often known simply as "Sharm" is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in Arish or el-Arīsh (العريش is the Capital and largest city (with 114900 inhabitants As of 2002) of the Egyptian governorate of Shamal The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west The Egyptian blockade of the Tiran Straits was based at Sharm el-Sheikh, and by capturing the town, Israel would have access to the Red Sea for the first time since 1953, which would allow it to restore the trade benefits of secure passage to the Indian Ocean. The Straits of Tiran ( Arabic: مضيق تيران Hebrew: מיצרי טיראן are the narrow sea passages about 13 km (8 miles wide between the Sinai Sharm el Sheikh (شرم الشيخ Sharm al-Shaykh) often known simply as "Sharm" is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in The Gaza Strip was chosen as another military objective because Israel wished to remove the training grounds for Fedayeen groups, and because Israel recognised that Egypt could use the territory as a staging ground for attacks against the advancing Israeli troops. The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west Fedayeen (فدائيون fidā'ī, plural fidā'iyūn: meaning " Freedom fighter (s" or "self-sacrificer(s"Ֆէտայի is a term Israel advocated rapid advances, for which a potential Egyptian flanking attack would present even more of a risk. In Military tactics, a flanking maneuver, also called a flank attack, is an attack on the sides of an opposing force al-Arish and Abu Uwayulah were important hubs for soldiers, equipment, and centres of command and control of the Egyptian Army in the Sinai. Arish or el-Arīsh (العريش is the Capital and largest city (with 114900 inhabitants As of 2002) of the Egyptian governorate of Shamal Capturing them would deal a deathblow to the Egyptian's strategic operation in the entire Peninsula. The capture of these four objectives were hoped to be the means by which the entire Egyptian Army would rout, and fall back into Egypt proper, which British and French forces would then be able to push up against an Israeli advance, and crush in a decisive encounter.
The Israeli chief-of-staff, Major General Moshe Dayan, first planned to take the vital Mitla Pass. Moshe Dayan, DSO (משה דיין born 20 May 1915 died 16 October 1981 was an Israeli military leader and politician The Mitla Pass (מיתלה ممر متلة is a 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south Dayan planned for the 1st Battalion, 202nd Paratroop Brigade, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Rafael Eitan, a veteran of the Israel War of Independence, and future head of the IDF; to drop at Parker's Memorial, near one of the defiles of the pass, Jebel Heitan. Rafael "Raful" Eitan (רפאל "רפול" איתן born 11 January 1929 - 23 November, 2004) was an Israeli Defile is a geographic term for a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills The rest of the brigade, under the command of Colonel Ariel Sharon would then advance to meet with the battalion, and consolidate their holdings. (אריאל
On 29 October 1956, Operation Kadesh, the conquest of the Sinai, began when the battalion dropped into the Peninsula. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However, the landing had not gone as planned, and the forces were now several miles from their target, and wasted valuable hours, and physical energy, moving into their positions opposite the Egyptian positions in the pass. The Israelis then dug in, received artillery and weapons from another airlift, and awaited the rest of the brigade.
Meanwhile, the 9th Infantry Brigade captured Ras an-Naqb, an important staging ground for that brigade's later attack against Sharm el-Sheikh. The Gulf of Aqaba ( Arabic: خليج العقبة transliterated: Khalyj al-'Aqabah in Israel known as the Gulf of Eilat ( Hebrew Sharm el Sheikh (شرم الشيخ Sharm al-Shaykh) often known simply as "Sharm" is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in Instead of attacking the town by a frontal attack, they enveloped the town, and negotiated through some of the natural chokepoints into the rear of the town, and surprised the Egyptians before they could ready themselves to defend. The Egyptians surrendered, with no Israeli casualties sustained. The 4th Infantry Brigade, under the command of Colonel Josef Harpaz, captured al-Qusaymah, which would be used as a jumping off point for the assault against Abu Uwayulah.
The portion of the 202nd under Sharon's command continued to advance to meet with the 1st Brigade. En route, Sharon assaulted Themed, and was able to storm the town through the Themed Gap, and was able to capture the settlement. On the 30th, Sharon linked up with Eytan near Nakla.
Dayan had no more plans for further advances beyond the passes, but Sharon decided to attack the Egyptian positions at Jebel Heitan. Sharon would send his lightly armed paratroopers against dug-in Egyptians supported by air and heavy artillery, as well as tanks. Although the Israelis succeeded in forcing the Egyptians to retreat, the heavy casualties sustained would surround Sharon with a lot of controversy. Most of the deaths sustained by the Israelis in the entire operation, were sustained at Jebel Heitan.
To support the invasion, large air forces had been deployed to Cyprus and Malta by the UK and France and many aircraft carriers were deployed. Operation Musketeer (Opération Mousquetaire was the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with The two airbases on Cyprus were so congested that a third field which was in dubious condition had to be brought into use for French aircraft. Even RAF Luqa on Malta was extremely crowded with RAF Bomber Command aircraft. RAF Luqa was an airbase of the Royal Air Force on the island of Malta during World War II. RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAF 's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968 The UK deployed the aircraft carriers HMS Eagle, Albion and Bulwark and France had the Arromanches and La Fayette on station. Service Her first wartime service came in 1956 when she took part in the Suez Crisis. Construction and modifications She was built on the Tyne by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson. History 1950s She was not commissioned until 1954 but once underway demonstrated the ship's and its crew's dedication to duty Design and construction This ship was intended to address the Royal Navy 's shortage of carriers being cheaper and quicker to construct History The Langley was built at Camden New Jersey. She was originally ordered as the light cruiser USS Fargo (CL-85 but by the time her In addition, HMS Ocean and Theseus acted as jumping-off points for Britain's helicopter-borne assault (the world's first). Service In 1950 with the beginning of the Korean War, Theseus was deployed to Korea, for the type of operations that had been envisaged for her when History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Meanwhile the Israel Border Police militarized the Israel-Jordan border (including the Green Line with the West Bank) which resulted in the killing of 48 Arab civilians by Israeli forces on October 29 (known as the Kafr Qasim massacre). The Israel Border Police (מִשְׁמַר הַגְּבוּל Mishmar HaGvul) is the military branch ( Gendarmerie) of the Israeli Police. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II The Kafr Qasim massacre took place in the Israeli Arab village of Kafr Qasim situated on the Green Line, at that time the De facto border between
On October 30, in the morning, United Kingdom and France sent an ultimatum to Egypt. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. They initiated Operation Musketeer on October 31, with a bombing campaign. Operation Musketeer (Opération Mousquetaire was the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. Events 445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 91 NLTse On November 3, 20 F4U-7 Corsairs from the 14. Events 644 - Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim Caliph, is killed by a Persian slave in Medina. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout F and 15. F Aéronavale taking off from the French carriers Arromanches and La Fayette, attacked the Cairo aerodrome. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Nasser responded by sinking all 40 ships present in the canal, closing it to further shipping until early 1957.
On late November 5, the 3rd Battalion of the British Parachute Regiment dropped at El Gamil Airfield, clearing the area and establishing a secure base for incoming support aircraft and reinforcements. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. El Gamil ( الجميل; also called Gamil or El Gamīl; Romanized Arabic: Ṭâbiyet el-Gamîl) is a fortress with an airfield At first light on November 6, Commandos of Nos 42 and 40 Commando Royal Marines stormed the beaches, using landing craft of World War II vintage (LCA's and LVT's). Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with The British Commandos were first formed by the British Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but non-regimental raider force employing unconventional The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy Landing craft are Boats and seagoing vehicles used to convey a Landing force ( Infantry and Vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The battlegroup standing offshore opened fire, giving covering fire for the landings and causing considerable damage to the Egyptian batteries and gun emplacements. Suppressive fire (also known as covering fire) is a term used in Military science for firing Weapons at or in the direction of enemy forces with the The town of Port Said sustained great damage and was seen to be alight. Port Said ( Arabic بورسعيد transliterated Būr Saʻīd) is a northeastern Egyptian city near the Suez
Acting in concert with British forces, 500 heavily-armed paratroopers of the French 2nd Colonial Parachute Regiment (2ème RPC), hastily redeployed from combat in Algeria, jumped over the al-Raswa bridges from Noratlas Nord 2501 transports of the ET (Escadrille de Transport) 1/61 and ET 3/61, together with some combat engineers of the Guards Independent Parachute Company. The 2nd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (2e Régiment Parachutiste d'Infanterie de Marine 2e RPIMa is an Airborne regiment in the French Army. The Nord Noratlas was a 1950s French military transport aircraft intended to replace the older types in service at the end of World War II. Despite the loss of two soldiers, the western bridge was swiftly secured by the paras, and F4U Corsairs of the Aéronavale 14. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Aviation navale ( Naval aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable and 6800 men both civilians and military personnel F and 15. F flew a series of close-air-support missions, destroying several SU-100 tank destroyers. The SU-100 was a Soviet Tank destroyer. It was used extensively during the last year of World War II and saw service for many years afterwards with F-84Fs also hit two large oil storage tanks in Port Said, which went up in flames and covered most of the city in a thick cloud of smoke for the next several days. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Egyptian resistance varied, with some positions fighting back until destroyed, while others were abandoned with little resistance.
In the afternoon, 522 additional French paras of the 1er REP (Régiment Étranger Parachutiste, 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment) were dropped near Port Fouad. The 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er Régiment Étranger de Parachutistes 1er REP was a Foreign Legion airborne unit of the French Army. Port Fouad ( بور فؤاد; Būr Fu’ād is a city in Egypt, located across the Suez Canal from Port Said. These were also constantly supported by the Corsairs of the French Aéronavale, which flew very intensive operations: for example, although the French carrier La Fayette developed catapult problems, no less than 40 combat sorties were completed. In total, 10 French soldiers were killed and 30 injured during the landing and the subsequent battles.
British commandos of No. 45 Commando assaulted by helicopter, meeting stiff resistance, with shore batteries striking several helicopters, while friendly fire from British carrier-borne aircraft caused heavy casualties to 45 Commando and HQ. Friendly fire or non-hostile fire, a term originally adopted by the United States military, refers to fire from one's own side or allied forces as Street fighting and house clearing, with strong opposition from well-entrenched Egyptian sniper positions, caused further casualties. READ DISCUSSION PAGE BEFORE MAKING ANY EDITS TO CAPTION BELOW http//en
The operation to take the canal was highly successful from a military point of view, but was a political disaster due to external forces. Along with Suez, the United States was also dealing with the near-simultaneous Hungarian revolution, and faced the public relations embarrassment of criticizing Hungary's suppression of the revolutionaries there while at the same time avoiding criticism of its two principal European allies' actions. Public relations (PR is the practice of managing the flow of Information between an Organization and its Publics Public relations - often referred Perhaps more significantly, the United States also feared a wider war after the Soviet Union and the other Warsaw Pact nations threatened to intervene on the Egyptian side and use "all types of weapons of destruction" on London, Tel Aviv, and Paris. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Tel Aviv-Yafo (תֵּל ־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ تل أبيب Tal ʾAbīb) (usually Tel Aviv) is the second-largest city in Israel Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city
Thus, the Eisenhower administration forced a cease-fire on Britain, Israel, and France which it had previously told the Allies it would not do. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The U. S. demanded that the invasion stop and sponsored resolutions in the UN Security Council calling for a cease-fire. Britain and France, as permanent members of the Council, vetoed these draft resolutions. The U. S. then appealed to the United Nations General Assembly and proposed a resolution calling for a cease-fire and a withdrawal of forces. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The General Assembly consequently held an 'emergency special session' under the terms of Uniting for Peace resolution, and adopted Assembly resolution 1001, which established the first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF), and called for "an immediate cease-fire". United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolution 377 A, the "Uniting for Peace" resolution, states that in cases where the United Nations Security The first United Nations Emergency Force ( UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution Portugal and Iceland went so far as to suggest ejecting Britain and France from NATO if they didn't withdraw from Egypt.  Britain and France withdrew from Egypt within a week.
Part of the pressure that the United States and the rest of NATO used against Britain was financial, as President Eisenhower threatened to sell the United States reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency. A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a Currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their Foreign After Saudi Arabia started an oil embargo against Britain and France, the U. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce S. refused to fill the gap, until Britain and France agreed to a rapid withdrawal. The other NATO members refused to sell oil they received from Arab nations to Britain or France.  There was also a measure of discouragement for Britain in the rebuke by the Commonwealth Prime Ministers St. Laurent of Canada and Menzies of Australia at a time when Britain was still continuing to regard the Commonwealth as an entity of importance as the residue of the British Empire and as an automatic supporter in its effort to remain a world power. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Louis Stephen St-Laurent PC CC QC ( Saint-Laurent or St-Laurent in French, baptized Louis-Étienne Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, QC (20 December 1894 - 15 May 1978 Australian politician was the twelfth person to serve For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
The British government and the pound thus both came under pressure. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency Sir Anthony Eden, the British Prime Minister at the time, was forced to resign and announced a cease fire on November 6, warning neither France nor Israel beforehand. Robert Anthony Eden 1st Earl of Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 June 1897 &ndash 14 January 1977 was a British Conservative Politician The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Troops were still in Port Said when the order came from London. Without further guarantee, the Anglo-French Task Force had to finish withdrawing by December 22, 1956, to be replaced by Danish and Colombian units of UNEF. For the computer game see Joint Task Force (computer game. A task force (TF is a temporary unit or formation established to work Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America.  The Israelis left the Sinai in March, 1957.
Before the withdrawal, Canadian Lester B. Pearson, who would later become the Prime Minister of Canada, had gone to the United Nations and suggested creating a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in the Suez to "keep the borders at peace while a political settlement is being worked out. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The first United Nations Emergency Force ( UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution " The United Nations accepted this suggestion, and after several days of tense diplomacy, a neutral force not involving the major alliances which were NATO and the Warsaw Pact was sent with the consent of Nasser, stabilizing conditions in the area. Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for his efforts. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor The United Nations Peacekeeping Force was Pearson's creation and he is considered the father of the modern concept of "peacekeeping". Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace
Eden's resignation marked, until the Falklands War, the last significant attempt Britain made to impose its military will abroad without U. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the S. support. However, Nigel Ashton argues "that British strategy in the region changed very little in the wake of Suez. " Harold Macmillan was every bit as determined as Eden had been to stop Nasser, although he was more willing to enlist American support in the future for that end. (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician Some argue that the crisis also marked the final transfer of power to the new superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. A superpower is a State with a leading position in the international system and the ability to Influence events and project power on a worldwide scale
The incident demonstrated the weakness of the NATO alliance in its lack of planning and cooperation beyond the European stage. The North Atlantic Treaty From the point of view of General de Gaulle, the Suez events demonstrated that France could not rely on allies any more. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French Britain withdrew its troops in the midst of the battle without warning its allies. In 1957, following these events, the French government launched an autonomous nuclear programme conducted in the Sahara, known as Force de frappe, as a deterrent not only against the USSR but vis-à-vis every potential threat around the globe. The force de frappe (literally Strike Force; meant for dissuasion, i By 1966 de Gaulle withdrew France from the integrated NATO military command. According to the protocol of Sèvres agreements, France secretly transmitted parts of its own atomic technology to Israel, including a detonator. Gerboise Bleue ("blue jerboa" was the name of the first French nuclear test. 
The imposed end to the crisis signalled the definitive weakening of the United Kingdom and France as Global Powers. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale Nasser's standing in the Arab world was greatly improved, with his stance helping to promote pan-Arabism and reinforce hostility against Israel and the West. Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the The crisis also arguably hastened the process of decolonization, as the remaining colonies of both Britain and France gained independence over the next several years. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction
After Suez, Aden and Iraq became the main bases for the British in the region while the French concentrated their forces at Bizerte and Beirut. Aden (ˈeɪdən Arabic: عدن) is a city in Yemen, 170 kilometers east of Bab-el-Mandeb. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Bizerte or Bizerta ( Arabic: بنزرت transliterated: Banzart Italian Biserta) is a capital city of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2
UNEF was placed in the Sinai (on Egyptian territory only) with the express purpose of maintaining the cease-fire. While effective in preventing the small-scale warfare that prevailed before 1956 and after 1967, budgetary cutbacks and changing needs had seen the force shrink to 3,378 by 1967. The Egyptian government then began to remilitarize the Sinai, and demanded that the UNEF withdraw. Militarization, or militarisation, is the process by which a Society organizes itself for Military conflict and Violence. This action, along with the blockade of the Strait of Tiran, led directly to the Six Day War. The Straits of Tiran ( Arabic: مضيق تيران Hebrew: מיצרי טיראן are the narrow sea passages about 13 km (8 miles wide between the Sinai Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt During the war, Israeli armed forces captured the east bank of the canal, which subsequently became a de facto boundary between Egypt and Israel and the canal was therefore closed until June, 1975.