The Suez Canal ( transliteration: Qanāt al-Suways), is a large man-made canal in Egypt, west of the Sinai Peninsula. Different approaches and methods for the Romanization of Arabic exist This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء It is 163 km (101 miles) long and 300 m (984 ft) wide at its narrowest point, and runs between Port Said (Būr Sa'īd) on the Mediterranean Sea, and Suez (al-Suways) on the Red Sea. Port Said ( Arabic بورسعيد transliterated Būr Saʻīd) is a northeastern Egyptian city near the Suez Suez (السويس) is a Seaport town (population ca 497000 in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia.
The canal allows two-way water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation of Africa. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways Water transportation is the intentional movement of Water over large distances Before its opening in 1869, goods were sometimes offloaded from ships and carried over land between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.
The canal comprises seven parts, north and south of the Great Bitter Lake, linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Gulf of Suez on the Red Sea. The Great Bitter Lake ( Arabic: البحيرة المرة الكبرى transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra is a salt water lake between the north and south The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia.
Perhaps as early as the 12th Dynasty, Pharaoh Senusret III (1878 BC–1839 BC) may have had a west-east river dug through the Wadi Tumilat, joining the River Nile with the Red Sea (which in ancient times reached north to the Bitter Lakes. The Eleventh (all of Egypt Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title Middle Kingdom. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods Khakhaure Senusret III (also written as Senwosret III or Sesostris III) was a Pharaoh of Egypt. The 19th century BC was the century which lasted from 1900 BC to 1801 BC The 19th century BC was the century which lasted from 1900 BC to 1801 BC The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. The Great Bitter Lake ( Arabic: البحيرة المرة الكبرى transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra is a salt water lake between the north and south  This allowed direct naval trade with Punt, and, indirectly, linked the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. See also Puntland The Land of Punt, also called "Pwenet" by the Ancient Egyptians at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the 'land of
The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut depict sea-going vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt. See also Puntland The Land of Punt, also called "Pwenet" by the Ancient Egyptians at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the 'land of Hatshepsut (or Hatchepsut, hætˈʃɛpsʊt meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies, was the fifth Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of This has given rise to the theory that, at the time, a navigable link existed between the Red Sea and the Nile. 
The waterway fell into disrepair, and according to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus, about 600 BC, Necho II undertook re-excavation but did not complete it. The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Necho II (sometimes Nekau) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 BC - 595 BC and the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal Herodotus was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking.  With Necho's death, work was discontinued. 
The canal was finally completed by Darius I of Persia, who conquered Egypt. Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed According to Herodotus, the completed canal was wide enough that two triremes could pass each other with oars extended, and required four days to traverse. Trireme ( τριήρης sing τριήρεις pl triremis sing Darius commemorated his achievement with a number of granite stelae that he set up on the Nile bank, including one near Kabret, 130 miles (209 km) from Pie. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela The Darius Inscriptions read:
|“||Saith King Darius: I am a Persian. Darius the Great 's Suez Inscriptions were texts written in Old Persian, Median, Assyrian and Egyptian on five monuments Setting out from Persia, I conquered Egypt. I ordered this canal dug from the river called the Nile that flows in Egypt, to the sea that begins in Persia. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. When the canal had been dug as I ordered, ships went from Egypt through this canal to Persia, even as I intended. ||”|
The canal left the Nile at Bubastis. Bubastis ( Greek:, Herod ii 59 137 or, Strabo xvii p 805 Diodorus xvi An inscription on a pillar at the canal's Red Sea end at Pithom records that in 270/69 it was again reopened, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Pithom (פתם also called Per-Atum or Heroöpolis or Heroonopolis ( Greek: or, Strabo xvi Ptolemy II Philadelphus ( Greek:, Ptolemaĩos Philádelphos, 309 BC&ndash246 BC was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BC to 246 BC  Over the next 1000 years it was successively modified, destroyed and rebuilt, until finally it was put out of commission in the eighth century by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Al-Mansur Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712&ndash775 Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور was the second
At the end of the 18th century while in Egypt, Napoleon Bonaparte contemplated the construction of a canal to join the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. But his project was abandoned after the preliminary survey erroneously concluded that the Red Sea was 10 metres higher than the Mediterranean, making a giant locks-based canal much too expensive and very long to construct. The Napoleonic survey commission's error came from fragmented readings mostly done during wartime, which resulted in imprecise calculations.
In 1854 and 1856 Ferdinand de Lesseps obtained a concession from Said Pasha, the viceroy of Egypt, to create a company to construct a maritime canal open to ships of all nations, according to plans created by Austrian engineer Alois Negrelli. Ferdinand Marie Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI ( November 19[[ 805]]&ndash December 7[[ 894]] was the French developer of the Suez Canal, Sa'id of Egypt (1822 - 1863 ( Arabic: محمد سعيد باشا was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863 officially owing fealty A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. Luigi Negrelli ( January 23, 1799 - October 1, 1858) was an Engineer and Railroad pioneer in Austria, Italy The company was to operate the canal by leasing the relevant land, for 99 years from its opening, for navigation. De Lesseps had used his friendly relationship with Said, which he had developed while he was a French diplomat during the 1830s. The Suez Canal Company (Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez) came into being on 15 December 1858. The Universal Suez Ship Canal Company ( French: Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, or simply Compagnie de Suez for short was the French Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
The excavation took nearly 11 years using forced labour of Egyptian workers. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will Some sources estimate that over 30,000 people were forced to work on the canal. 
The British recognised the canal as an important trade route and perceived the French project as a direct menace to their geopolitical and financial interests. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The British Empire was the major global naval force and its power had increased during the American Civil War years 1861-65. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South So the British government officially condemned the forced work and sent armed bedouins to start a revolt among workers. The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously Involuntary labour on the project ceased, the viceroy soon condemned the slavery, and the project stopped. 
Angered by the British opportunism, de Lesseps sent a letter to the British government remarking on the British lack of remorse only a few years earlier when Egyptian forced workers died in similar conditions while building the British railroad in Egypt.
At first, international opinion was skeptical and the Suez Canal Company shares did not sell well overseas. Britain, the United States, Austria and Russia did not buy any shares. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending All French shares were quickly sold in France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A contemporary British skeptic claimed:
|“||"One thing is sure. . . our local merchant community doesn't pay practical attention at all to this grand work, and it is legitimate to doubt that the canal's receipts. . . could ever be sufficient to recover its maintenance fee. It will never become a large ships accessible way in any case. " (reported by German historian Uwe A. Oster)||”|
The canal finally opened to shipping on 17 November 1869. Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Although numerous technical, political (due to the British rivalry), and financial problems had been overcome, the final cost was more than double the original estimate. Cost overrun is defined as excess of actual Cost over Budget. 
The canal had an immediate and dramatic effect on world trade. Combined with the American transcontinental railroad completed six months earlier, it allowed the entire world to be circled in record time. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869 It played an important role in increasing European penetration and colonization of Africa. External debts forced Said Pasha's successor, Isma'il Pasha, to sell his country's share in the canal for £4,000,000 to the United Kingdom in 1875, but France still remained the majority shareholder. Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (إسماعيل باشا ( December 31, 1830 &ndash March 2, 1895) was Wāli The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located However the Prime minister Benjamin Disraeli was accused by William Gladstone of undermining Britain's constitutional system , due to his lack of reference or consent from Parliament when purchasing the shares with funding from the Rothschilds. The Rothschild family (often referred to simply as the Rothschilds) is an international Banking and Finance Dynasty of German .
The Convention of Constantinople in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British; British troops had moved in to protect it during a civil war in Egypt in 1882. The Convention of Constantinople was a Treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Spain, France Under the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, the UK insisted on retaining control over the canal. The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed in 1936, between the United Kingdom and Egypt, officially (but seldom known as The Treaty of But in 1951, Egypt repudiated the treaty, and in 1954 the UK agreed to pull out its troops. The withdrawal was completed in July 1956.
After the United Kingdom and the United States withdrew their pledge to support the construction of the Aswan Dam due to Egyptian overtures towards the Soviet Union, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalised the canal in 1956, intending to finance the dam project using revenue from the canal, while at the same time closing the Gulf of Aqaba to all Israeli shipping by closure of the Straits of Tiran. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Aswan (Assuan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President The Gulf of Aqaba ( Arabic: خليج العقبة transliterated: Khalyj al-'Aqabah in Israel known as the Gulf of Eilat ( Hebrew The Straits of Tiran ( Arabic: مضيق تيران Hebrew: מיצרי טיראן are the narrow sea passages about 13 km (8 miles wide between the Sinai This provoked the Suez Crisis, in which the UK, France and Israel colluded to invade Egypt. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The intention was for Israel to invade on the ground, and for the Anglo-French partnership to give air and other support, later to intervene to resolve the crisis and hence assume control of the canal. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
To stop the war from spreading and to save the British from what he thought was a disastrous action, Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, proposed the creation of the very first United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure access to the canal for all and an Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security On 4 November 1956, a majority of nations at the United Nations voted for Pearson's peacekeeping resolution, which mandated the UN peacekeepers to stay in the Sinai Peninsula unless both Egypt and Israel agreed to their withdrawal. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء The US backed up this proposal by putting immense financial pressure on the British government which only then agreed to withdraw its troops. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Pearson was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor
As a result of damage and ships intentionally sunk under orders from Nasser the canal was closed until April 1957, when it was cleared with UN assistance. A UN force (UNEF) was established to maintain the neutrality of the canal and the Sinai Peninsula. The first United Nations Emergency Force ( UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء
In May 1967 President Nasser ordered the UN peacekeeping forces out of the Sinai Peninsula, including the Suez Canal area. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Despite Israeli objections in the United Nations, the peacekeepers were withdrawn and the Egyptian army took up positions on the Israeli border, and again closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Straits of Tiran ( Arabic: مضيق تيران Hebrew: מיצרי טיראן are the narrow sea passages about 13 km (8 miles wide between the Sinai The canal itself had been closed to Israeli shipping since 1949, except for a short period in 1951-1952.
These actions were the key factors in the Israeli decision to launch a pre-emptive all-out attack on Egypt in June 1967, and to capture the Sinai Peninsula to the Suez Canal. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء After the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, also called the Six Day War, the canal was closed by an Egyptian blockade until 5 June 1975. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. As a result, fourteen cargo ships known as "The Yellow Fleet" remained trapped in the canal for over eight years. The Yellow Fleet was the name given to a group of fourteen ships trapped in the Suez Canal (in the Great Bitter Lake section from 1967 to 1975 In 1973, during the Yom Kippur War, the canal was the scene of a major crossing by the Egyptian army into Israeli-occupied Sinai, which was followed by an Israeli counteroffensive which ended in a cease-fire. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום The Crossing (العبور is a term used in Egypt to refer to the west to east crossing of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian army at the start of the Yom Kippur Many pieces of sun-bleached wreckage from this conflict can still be seen along the edge of the canal.
The UNEF mandate expired in 1979. The first United Nations Emergency Force ( UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with resolution Despite the efforts of the US, Israel, Egypt, and others to obtain an extension of the UN role in observing the peace between Israel and Egypt, as called for under the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty of 1979, the mandate could not be extended because of the veto by the USSR in the security council, at the request of Syria. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Accordingly, negotiations for a new observer force in the Sinai produced the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), stationed in Sinai in 1981 in coordination with a phased Israeli withdrawal. The Multinational Force and Observers (MFO is an international Peacekeeping force overseeing the terms of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. It is there under agreements between the US, Israel, Egypt, and other nations. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. (Multinational Force and Observers).
On 25 March, 2008, US Navy security teams, aboard a civilian cargo ship, Global Patriot, which was under short term charter from the US Navy, shot at a small Egyptian boat causing one fatality. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. 
The canal has no locks because the terrain through which it passes is flat, and the minor difference in sea level at the ends is easily coped with through the length of the canal. Construction Bainbridge was built at Quincy Massachusetts. Commissioned in October 1962 she shook down off the East Coast and in the Caribbean A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways.
The canal allows the passage of ships of up to some 150,000 tons displacement, with cargo. In Fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a Fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its It permits ships of up to 16 m (53 ft) draft to pass, and improvements are planned to increase this to 22 m (72 ft) by 2010 to allow passage of fully-laden supertankers. The draft (or draught) of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the Waterline and the bottom of the hull ( Keel) with the thickness History The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry Presently, supertankers can offload part of their cargo onto a canal-owned boat and reload at the other end of the canal. Tankers exceeding Suezmax, the largest allowable size for passing through the canal, have to travel around the Cape of Good Hope instead. Suezmax is a Naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of transiting the Suez Canal fully loaded and is almost exclusively used in reference to The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک
There is one shipping lane with several passing areas. On a typical day, three convoys transit the canal, two southbound and one northbound. The first southbound convoy enters the canal in the early morning hours and proceeds to the Great Bitter Lake, where the ships anchor out of the fairway and await the passage of the northbound convoy. The Great Bitter Lake ( Arabic: البحيرة المرة الكبرى transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra is a salt water lake between the north and south The northbound convoy passes the second southbound convoy, which moors to the canal bank in a by-pass, in the vicinity of El Qantara. Al Qantarah El Sharqiyya (3085° N 3231° E is a northeastern Egyptian city on the eastern side of the Suez Canal located in the Egyptian governorate The passage takes between 11 and 16 hours at a speed of around 8 knots (15 km/h). The low speed helps prevent erosion of the canal banks by ships' wakes.
Egypt's Suez Canal Authority (SCA) reported that in 2003 17,224 ships passed through the canal. Suez Canal Authority (SCA is a state owned authority which owns and maintains the Suez Canal. The canal averages about 8% of the world shipping traffic.
By 1955 approximately two-thirds of Europe's oil passed through the canal. About 7. 5% of world sea trade is carried via the canal today. Receipts from the canal July 2005 to May 2006 totaled $3. 246 billion. In 2007, 18,193 vessels passed through the canal. 
On 30 December 2007 it was announced that Egypt will increase Suez Canal transit fees by an average of 7. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 1% in 2008.
From north to south connections are:
A railway on the west bank runs parallel to the canal for its entire length.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 created the first salt-water passage between the Mediterranean and Red seas. The Red Sea is about 1. 2 m higher than the eastern Mediterranean , so the canal serves as a tidal strait that pours Red Sea water into the Mediterranean. A strait is a narrow navigable Channel of water that connects two larger navigable bodies of water The Bitter Lakes, which are hypersaline natural lakes that form part of the canal, blocked the migration of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean for many decades, but as the salinity of the lakes gradually equalised with that of the Red Sea, the barrier to migration was removed, and plants and animals from the Red Sea have begun to colonise the eastern Mediterranean. The Great Bitter Lake ( Arabic: البحيرة المرة الكبرى transliterated: al-Buhayrah al-Murra al-Kubra is a salt water lake between the north and south The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, the direction of flow is generally from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor eastern Mediterranean. Accordingly, most Red Sea species invade the Mediterranean biota, and only few do the opposite; this migratory phenomenon is known as the Lessepsian migration (after Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French engineer of the canal) or Erythrean invasion. Lessepsian migration (also called Erythrean invasion) is the ongoing migration of marine species across the Suez Canal, usually from the Red Sea to the The construction of the Aswan High Dam across the River Nile in the 1960s reduced the inflow of freshwater and nutrient-rich silt from the Nile into the eastern Mediterranean, making conditions there even more like the Red Sea, and worsening the impact of the invasive species. Aswan (Assuan is a city on the first cataract of the Nile in Egypt. The Nile (النيل, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing River Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions
Invasive species originated from the Red Sea and introduced into the Mediterranean by the construction of the canal have become a major component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, and have serious impacts on the Mediterranean ecology, endangering many local and endemic Mediterranean species. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Up to this day, about 300 species native to the Red Sea have already been identified in the Mediterranean Sea, and there are probably others yet unidentified. In recent years, the Egyptian government's announcement of its intentions to deepen and widen the canal, have raised concerns from marine biologists, fearing that such an act will only worsen the invasion of Red Sea species into the Mediterranean, facilitating the crossing of the canal for yet additional species. Marine biology is the scientific study of living Organisms in the Ocean or other marine or Brackish bodies of water
Construction of the Suez Canal was preceded by cutting a small fresh-water canal from the Nile delta along Wadi Tumilat to the future canal, with a southern branch to Suez and a northern branch to Port Said. Completed in 1863, these brought fresh water to a previously arid area, initially for the canal construction, but then allowing the growth of agriculture and settlements along the canal. 
During the Suez Crisis:
A popular film Suez was made in 1938 and starred Tyrone Power as de Lesseps and Loretta Young as a love interest. Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell 1st Earl Wavell GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (5 May 1883 – 24 May Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (21 June 1884 &ndash 23 March 1981 nicknamed Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis KG OM GCB GCMG CSI DSO Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson 1st Baron Wilson, GCB, GBE, DSO ( 5 September 1881 &ndash 31 December General Sir Bernard Charles Tolver Paget GCB, DSO, MC (15 September 1887 &ndash 16 February 1961 was a British officer who served There is also John Crocker (jazz musician. General Sir John Tredinnick Crocker GCB, KBE, DSO General Brian Hubert Robertson 1st Baron Robertson of Oakridge, GCB, GBE, KCMG, KCVO, DSO, MC (22 July 1896&ndash29 General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, GCB, GBE, DSO (24 June 1901 – 17 June 1974 was a senior officer in the British Army during The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, GCB, GBE, DSO (24 June 1901 – 17 June 1974 was a senior officer in the British Army during Tyrone Edmund Power Jr (May 5 1914 – November 15 1958 usually credited simply as Tyrone Power and known sometimes as " Ty Power " was an Loretta Young ( January 6, 1913 &ndash August 12, 2000) was an American actress An epic, it is very loosely based on history.
The Suez Canal makes an appearance in the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia, where it marks the end of T. E. Lawrence's march across the Sinai Peninsula to report to his superiors in Cairo. Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 Epic film based on the life of T The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt.
The Suez Canal is also a playable map in the game Battlefield 2142. Battlefield 2142 is a First-person shooter computer game developed by Digital Illusions CE and is the fourth game in the ''Battlefield''