Subutai (Subetei, Subetai, Mongolian: Сүбээдэй, Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübü'ätäi; 1176–1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan (Temüjin) and Ögedei Khan. The Mongolian language (mn [[ImageMonggol kelesvg 17px]] Mongɣol kele, Cyrillic: Монгол хэл Mongol khel) is the best-known member of Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Ögedei Khan, (Өгэдэй Ögedei; also Ogotai or Oktay, 窩闊臺 c He directed more than 20 campaigns during which he conquered (or overran) more territory than any other commander in history. He gained victory by means of imaginative and sophisticated strategies and routinely coordinated movements of armies that were more than 500 km away from each other. He is most remembered for devising the battle plan that destroyed the armies of Hungary and Poland within two days of each other, by forces almost a thousand miles apart.
Subutai is regarded in history as one of Genghis Khan's and the Mongol Empire's most prominent generals in terms of ability, tactics and loyalty, helping with the military campaigns in Asia and Eastern Europe. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. He commanded many successful attacks and invasions during his time and was rarely defeated. 
Historians believe Subutai was born between the years of 1160–1170, probably just west of the upper Onon River in what is now Mongolia. He belonged to the Uriankhai tribe, a name Mongols gave to a number of tribes of "forest people". There isn't a clear ethnic delineation for the application of the name "Uriankhai". Subutai's family had been associated with the family of Genghis Khan for many generations. His brother Jelme also served as a general in the Mongol army. Subutai joined Genghis Khan while still a teenager. Within a decade he rose to become one of the senior officers, commanding one of 4 roving detachments operating ahead of the main forces. In 1212 he took Huan by storm, the first major independent exploit mentioned in the sources.
Subutai was proof that the Mongol Empire, more than any that had preceded it, was a meritocracy. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability He was the son of Qaban, who was supposedly a blacksmith, which was a highly valued position. blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i Qaban brought his son to serve Genghis Khan when Subutai was about 17 years old, and he rose to the very highest command available to one who was not directly related to the Khan. Genghis Khan called him one of his "dogs of war", a title he earned through his campaigns.
Mongol histories say that Subutai said to Genghis Khan, "I will ward off your enemies as felt cloth protects one from the wind. Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder ". 
Subutai was one of the first Mongol generals besides Genghis Khan who realized the value of engineers in siege warfare. Even in the field, he made use of siege engines, much as the Chinese troops had in earlier campaigns. A siege engine is a device that is designed to Break or circumvent City walls and other Fortifications in Siege warfare. For instance, at the Battle of Mohi, the Hungarian crossbowmen had during the night defeated a bridge crossing by the Mongols, inflicted considerable casualties, and offered particularly fierce resistance to the Mongol forces fighting to cross the river the following day. The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main Battle between the Mongols and the Kingdom Subutai ordered huge stonethrowers to clear the bank of crossbowmen and open the path for his light cavalry to attack without further such losses. This novel attack was the first use in the West of such weapons as a form of tactical artillery. While the stonethrowers were clearing the path to cross the main bridge, Subutai supervised construction of a temporary, emergency bridge downriver to outflank the Hungarians. These tactics were new to the forces he faced in Europe and the steppe, and they were unprepared to meet them.
Subutai was also well known for incorporating conquered peoples into his forces, especially engineers, who brought specialized skills. He turned the gathering of intelligence and planning in advance into a fine art. For instance, he used spies to gather information on the Russian principalities, the Poles, and the Hungarians at least a year before the attacks on each. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. He tailored his strategy to the foe he faced, altering his tactics according to the opponents, the terrain, and the weather. He emphasized the use of light cavalry in his army, and made sure that his troops were both mobile and self-sufficient. Usually he maneuvered the enemy into a position of weakness before accepting battle.
During the European campaigns, the once trim Subutai was so heavy that horses could not easily bear his weight. But he was so valued on the battlefield that Batu Khan had him carried to the field in a cart or wagon. Unlike European or Japanese armies, which valued personal valor in a commander above all else, the Mongols valued strategic ability and the skill to make tactical adjustments in the heat of battle above all else in their leaders. Whereas western commanders like Richard the Lionheart literally rode to battle at the head of his men, Subutai and Batu Khan sat on a hill, far from the engagement, where they could direct the flow of battle with flags. Richard I (8 September 1157 &ndash 6 April 1199 was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death This was one reason among many that Subutai was rarely defeated, like the Khans he advised.
It should further be noted that Subutai was 65 years old during the European campaign, an incredible age in that era for a military commander. It is also significant that the Mongols, who valued light cavalry and speed, burdened themselves with a cart carrying their commander.
Genghis Khan sent Subutai to hunt down the Merkits. The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid ( Merged means "wise ones" "adept ones" "skillful ones" "(skillful archers" Subutai defeated them along the Chu River in 1216 and again in 1219 in Wild Kipchaq territory. The Chu (or Chui or Chuy) (Чу Чүй Шу is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan. Mohammad II of Khwarizm attacked Subutai shortly afterwards along the Irghiz. Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (علاءالدين محمد ʿAlā al-Dīn Muḥammad was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220 Khwarezm were a series of States centered on the Amu Darya River delta of the Subutai held him off after a stiff battle and a piece of deception. Genghis Khan led the Mongol army westwards in late 1219 to attack Khwarizm. Subutai commanded the advance guard of the main column. With 70,000 or so armed men, the Mongol army was far stronger than anything Mohammad II could hope to field. He attempted to save himself by fleeing into central Persia. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Genghis Khan sent Subutai and Jebe with 10,000 men to hunt him down. Mohammad eluded capture, but he fell ill and died in early 1221. Subutai spent part of the winter in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Here he conceived the idea of circling the Caspian Sea to fall on the rear of the Wild Kipchaks. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. After a police action in Persia and a raid into Georgia, the Mongols cut across the Caucasus Mountains during the winter to get around the Derbent Pass. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between This article is about the terrestrial Eurasian mountain range By means of underhand diplomacy, Subutai defeated the Alans and Don Kipchaqs in detail. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people He crushed a Rus army along the Kalka (31 May 1223), but a raid into Volga Bulgar territory ended with a defeat. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan The Battle of the Kalka River (Битва на реке Калке took place on May 31 1223 between the Mongol Empire Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is an historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of Subutai received reinforcements and subsequently subjected the Wild Kipchaqs and the Kanglis. Finally, he rejoined Genghis Khan as the Mongol army was making its way back home.
Subutai played a key part in the campaign against Xia in 1226. In 1227 he conquered the Jin districts along the upper Wei River. The Wei River ( Simplified Chinese:渭河 Pinyin: Wei He Wade-Giles: Wei Ho is a River in west-central China and is the largest The Mongol operations were interrupted by the death of Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan was succeeded by his son Ögedei. Ögedei Khan, (Өгэдэй Ögedei; also Ogotai or Oktay, 窩闊臺 c In 1230-1231, Ögedei personally led the main Mongol army against the Jin (in Central China), but the attempt to break into the plains of Honan ended in failure after Subutai was defeated at Shan-ch’e-hui. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country The Mongols besieged and took Fengxiang, a secondary target. In 1231-1232 the Mongols made another attempt. This time Subutai was able to outmanoeuvre the Jin armies. The Mongols won decisive victories at Sanfeng (9 February 1232), Yangyi (24 February 1232), and T’ieh’ling (1 March 1232). Ögedei and the main Mongol army returned to Mongolia, leaving Subutai with a small force to complete the conquest of Honan. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country Subutai found it difficult to take the large cities and needed almost 2 more years to finally eliminate the Jin. He made an alliance with Song to get help to complete the job. A song is a Musical composition. Songs contain vocal parts that are performed 'sung' and generally feature Words ( Lyrics) commonly followed It did not take the Song long to fall out with the Mongols. Two Song armies seized Kaifeng and Loyang during the summer of 1234. Kaifeng ( formerly known as Bianliang ( Bianjing ( Daliang ( or simply Liang ( is a Prefecture-level city in eastern Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. The Mongols returned and drove off the Song.
Ögedei decided to send a major part of the army into the western regions to finally crush the Wild Kipchaqs and Bulgars. The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, Sübe’etei was tasked to direct the operations (under the overall command of prince Batu). He defeated Kipchaq leader Bachman on the north side of the Caspian Sea and next conquered the Volga Bulgars. Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is an historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of In late 1237, Subutai attacked Ryazan and Vladimir-Suzdal, operating with 3 columns (attacking as the Mongols usually did during the winter). History It is argued that the Ryazan Kremlin was founded in 800 by Slavic settlers as part of their drive into territory previously populated by Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество The Rus forces were defeated in 3 separate engagements and their cities were taken in quick succession. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan The Mongols spent the summer of 1238 resting along the Don River. The Don (Дон is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 Kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast Columns were sent out to subject the various tribes living in the plains around the Black Sea. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey In 1239, the Rus state of Chernigov was defeated and their cities were taken. Chernihiv, also referred to as Chernigov (Чернігів Чернигов Чарнігаў is a historic city in northern Ukraine.
The Mongols had made a treaty with Galich-Vladimir, whose prince was therefore taken by surprise when the Mongols suddenly attacked in December 1240. Kiev, Vladimir, and other cities were quickly taken. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the Vladimir (Влади́мир) is a city in Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway The Mongols were ready to enter Central Europe. Subutai operated with several separate detachments, aiming to distract on the flanks, while he dealt with the main Hungarian army in the center. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Mongols defeated European armies at Chmielnik (18 March 1241), Kornstadt (31 March 1241), Liegnitz (9 April 1241), Muhi (10 April 1241), and Hermannstadt (10 April 1241). Chmielnik is a town in Kielce County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland. Braşov (braˈʃov Brassó Kronstadt Medieval Latin: Brassovia or Corona) is a city in Romania and the capital of Braşov County Legnica (Liegnitz is a City on the Kaczawa river in Lower Silesia in south-western Poland. Muhi is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county Hungary. Sibiu (si'biw Hermannstadt Nagyszeben Сибињ/Sibinj הערמאנשטאדט ( Hermanshtadt) or סזעבען ( Szeben)) is one of the largest cities in Hungary was overrun. The Mongols set out for home in 1242, after learning that Ögedei had died, relieving Vienna and the rest of Central Europe from further assaults. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria.
The attack on Europe was planned and carried out by Subutai, who achieved his lasting fame with his victories there. Having devastated the various Russian Principalities, he sent spies as far as Poland, Hungary, and even Austria, in preparation for an attack into the heartland of Europe. Having a clear picture of the European kingdoms, he brilliantly prepared an attack nominally commanded by Batu Khan and two other princes of the blood. While Batu Khan, son of Jochi, was the overall leader, Subutai was the actual commander in the field, and as such was present in both the northern and southern campaigns against Kievan Rus'. Jochi (Зүчи Züchi; also spelled Jöchi and Juchi) (c 1180 &ndash 1227 was the eldest of the Mongol chieftain Genghis Khan Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan He also commanded the central column that moved against the Kingdom of Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 While Kadan's northern force won the Battle of Legnica and Güyük's army triumphed in Transylvania, Subutai was waiting for them on the Hungarian plain. Kadan (also Qadan) was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols Ögedei and a concubine The Battle of Legnica (Bitwa pod Legnicą also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt was Güyük ( cyrillic:Гүюг хаан c. 1206–1248 was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. Transylvania (Ardeal or ro ''Transilvania'' Erdély, see also other denominations) is a Central European region located in the eastern half of the Carpathian
King Béla IV of Hungary had summoned a council of war at Esztergom, a large and important settlement upriver from Buda and Pest. Béla IV (IV Béla (1206 &ndash 3 May 1270 King of Hungary and Croatia (1214-1270 Duke of Styria (1254-1258 Esztergom (known by alternative names) is a City in northern Hungary, about 50 km north-west of the Capital Budapest. Buda ( German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak / Czech: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Pest (ˈpɛʃt Slovak: Pešť, Croatian: Pešta, Serbian: Пешта / Pešta is the eastern mostly flat part of Budapest As Batu was advancing on Hungary from the northeast, the Hungarian leadership decided to concentrate their strength at Pest and then head north to confront the Mongol army. When news of the Hungarian battle strategy reached the Mongol commanders, they slowly withdrew to the Sajo River, drawing their enemies on. The Sajó (- Hungarian; Slovak: Slaná) is a River in Slovakia and Hungary. This was a classic Mongol strategy, ultimately perfected by Subutai. He prepared a battlefield suitable to his tactics, and waited for his enemies to blunder in. It was a strong position, because woods prevented their ranks from being clearly scouted or seen, while across the river on the plain of Mohi, the Hungarian army was widely exposed.
Only one day after the smaller Mongol army in Poland had won the Battle of Legnica, Subutai launched his attack, thus beginning the Battle of Mohi during the night of April 10, 1241. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Battle of Legnica (Bitwa pod Legnicą also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt was The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main Battle between the Mongols and the Kingdom Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama At the Mohi, a single division crossed the river in secret to advance on the Hungarian camp from the southern flank. The main body began to cross the Sajo by the bridge at Mohi, and continued to attack the following day. This was met with fierce resistance, so catapults were used to clear the opposite bank of crossbowmen, as was noted earlier. A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a Projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various When the crossing was completed, the second contingent attacked from the south.
The result was complete panic, and, to ensure that the Hungarians did not fight to the last man, the Mongols left an obvious gap in their encirclement. This was one of Subutai's classic tricks, to create a tactical situation which appeared to be favorable to the enemy, but which was anything but. The Mongols had already incurred heavier than usual casualties as the Hungarian crossbowmen had done considerable damage to the Mongol cavalry. Subutai did not want a battle where the massed crossbowmen, supported by mounted Knights, stood firm and fought to the death against his army. He far preferred to let them retreat, where he would be able to have them picked off at will. The inviting gap in the Mongol lines was an invitation to flee, which would leave the Knights and crossbowmen spread out all over the countryside, (as they were led to a swamp, which was poor footing for horses, and hard going for infantry), and easy pickings for the disciplined Mongols. As Subutai had planned, the fleeing Hungarians poured through this apparent hole in the Mongol lines, which led to a swampy area. When the Hungarian knights split up, the Mongol archers picked them off at will, and it was later noted that corpses littered the countryside over the space of a two day journey. Two archbishops and three bishops were killed at the Sajo, plus 40,000 fighting men. At one stroke, the bulk of Hungarian fighting men were totally destroyed, with relatively minimal casualities to the Mongols, reportedly less than 1,000 men. 
By late 1241, Subutai was discussing plans to invade the Holy Roman Empire, when the news came of the death of Ögedei Khan. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Ögedei Khan, (Өгэдэй Ögedei; also Ogotai or Oktay, 窩闊臺 c The Mongols withdrew, as the Princes of the blood were required to do, as was Subutai, to Mongolia. As noted previously, only the death of the Great Khan prevented the attack on the remainder of Europe.
Some historians say he was called back to the capital of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan began to fear his power—but this is contradicted by him being in continuous command of Mongol armies from the time of Genghis Khan himself, almost up to the time of Subutai's death in 1248. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire He also invaded Kievan Rus', Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary with Batu Khan. Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Batu Khan (Бат Хаан Баты́й (c 1205–1255 was a Mongol ruler and the founder of the Blue Horde.
Mongolian histories say that Subutai died by 1248 at the ripe old age of 72.
Subutai was removed from commanding the European invasions by Guyuk Khan after his ascension to the Khanate, but placed in charge of the campaign against the Song in 1246, at 70 years old. Most historians believe this transfer was not to denigrate the generalship of Subutai during the European campaigns - indeed, it was the opposite. Guyuk had no love for Batu, and wanted the best of the Mongol Generals elsewhere, and not available to Batu if the feud between the two came to open war. Subutai campaigned against the Song in 1246-1247. He then returned to Mongolia where he died in 1248.