In zoology, as in other branches of biology, subspecies is the taxonomic rank immediately subordinate to a species. Zoology (from Greek ζῷον, zoon, "animal" + λόγος, " Logos " "knowledge" is the branch of Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Taxonomic rank ( rank, category, taxonomic category is an abstract term used in the Scientific classification, or Taxonomy, of organisms In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. A subspecies is a taxonomic group which is less distinct than the primary stock or species from which it originates. A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common Ancestor. The characteristics attributed to subspecies are generally derived from changes that have taken place or evolved as a result of geographical distribution or isolation from the primary species or nominate form (see below), also called nominate subspecies. In layman's terms, a subspecies may also be described as a diversification of the primary species since a subspecies always has the nominate form or primary species as its common ancestor, i. e. it always originates from a common ancestral stock. A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common Ancestor.
In zoology, the scientific name of a subspecies is the binomen followed immediately by a subspecific name, e. g. Homo sapiens sapiens. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (4th edition, 2000) does not attempt to codify any "infrasubspecific entities" (e. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in Zoology that have one fundamental aim to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming g. human "races" or pet breeds). Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus In biology a race is any inbreeding group including taxonomic subgroups such as Subspecies, taxonomically subordinate to a Species and superordinate to a subrace A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals See Breed (song for the song by Nirvana. See Breed (video game for the video game by Brat Designs
If there is a need for a subspecific taxon in animal nomenclature, a trinomen may be described for a subspecies. A taxon (plural taxa) or taxonomic unit, is a name designating an organism or a group of Organisms In Biological nomenclature according to In zoology, a trinomen, or trinominal name refers to the name of a Subspecies. Many other "typical specimens" may be described, but these should not be considered as being absolute, unconditional or categorical. These forms have no official status, though they may be useful in describing altitudinal or geographical clines.
A subspecies indicated by the repetition of the specific name is known as the nominate subspecies. Thus Motacilla alba alba is the nominate subspecies of White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). The White Wagtail ( Motacilla alba) is a small Passerine Bird in the Wagtail family Motacillidae which also includes the Pipits In scientific papers, subspecies is commonly abbreviated subsp. or ssp. — for example, White Wagtail ssp. yarrellii, which is the same as the Pied Wagtail. The White Wagtail ( Motacilla alba) is a small Passerine Bird in the Wagtail family Motacillidae which also includes the Pipits
Maybe the best known examples are:
Members of one subspecies differ morphologically or by different DNA sequences from members of other subspecies of the species. The term morphology in Biology refers to the outward appearance ( Shape, Structure, Colour, Pattern) of an Organism Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Subspecies are defined in relation to species. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. It is not possible to understand the concept of a subspecies without first grasping what a species is. In the context of many large living organisms like trees, flowers, birds, fish and humans, a species can be defined as a distinct and recognisable group that satisfies two conditions:
Note the key qualifier above: to be regarded as different groups rather than as a single varied group, the difference must be distinct, not simply a matter of continuously varying degree. If, for example, the population in question is a type of frog and the distinction between two groups is that individuals living upstream are generally white, while those found in the lowlands are black, then they are classified as different groups if the frogs in the intermediate area tend to be either black or white, but a single, varied group if the intermediate population becomes gradually darker as one moves downstream. This article is about the block cipher algorithm For the ultrafast laser pulse measurement technique see Frequency-resolved optical gating.
This is not an arbitrary condition. A gradual change, called a cline, is clear evidence of substantial gene flow between two populations. A sharp boundary between black and white, or a relatively small and stable hybrid zone, on the other hand, shows that the two populations do not interbreed to any great extent and are indeed separate species. Their classification as separate species or as subspecies, however, depends on why they do not interbreed.
If the two groups do not interbreed because of something intrinsic to their genetic make-up (perhaps black frogs do not find white frogs sexually attractive, or they breed at different times of year) then they are different species.
If, on the other hand, the two groups would interbreed freely provided only that some external barrier was removed (perhaps there is a waterfall too high for frogs to scale, or the populations are far distant from one another) then they are subspecies. Other factors include differences in mating behavior or time and ecological preferences such as soil content.
Note that the distinction between a species and a subspecies depends only on the likelihood that in the absence of external barriers the two populations would merge back into a single, genetically unified population. It has nothing to do with 'how different' the two groups appear to be to the human observer.
As knowledge of a particular group increases, its categorisation may need to be re-assessed. The Rock Pipit was formerly classed as a subspecies of Water Pipit, but is now recognised to be a full species. The Rock Pipit, Anthus petrosus, is a small Passerine Bird which breeds on rocky coasts of western Europe northwards from Brittany The Water Pipit, Anthus spinoletta, is a small Passerine bird which breeds in the mountains of southern Europe and southern temperate Asia across For an example of a subspecies, see Pied Wagtail. The White Wagtail ( Motacilla alba) is a small Passerine Bird in the Wagtail family Motacillidae which also includes the Pipits
Cryptic species are morphologically similar, but have differences in DNA or other factors. In Biology, a cryptic species complex is a group of Species which satisfy the biological definition of species that is they are reproductively isolated from each
A monotypic species has no races, or rather one race comprising the whole species. Monotypic species can occur in several ways:
A polytypic species has two or more races or subspecies. These are separate groups that are clearly distinct from one another and do not generally interbreed (although there may be a relatively narrow hybridization zone), but which would interbreed freely if given the chance to do so. Note that groups which would not interbreed freely, even if brought together such that they had the opportunity to do so, are not races: they are separate species.