- For other uses, see Stream of consciousness (psychology)
In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique that seeks to portray an individual's point of view by giving the written equivalent of the character's thought processes, either in a loose interior monologue, or in connection to his or her sensory reactions to external occurrences. Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of Thoughts in the conscious Mind. Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. A literary technique or literary device is an identifiable Rule of thumb, convention or Structure that is employed in Literature Internal monologue, also known as inner voice, internal speech, or stream of consciousness is Thinking in Words It also refers Stream-of-consciousness writing is strongly associated with the modernist movement. Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history The introduction of the term to describe literature, transferred from psychology, is attributed to May Sinclair. May Sinclair was the Pseudonym of Mary Amelia St Clair (1863 - 1946 was a popular British writer who wrote about two dozen novels short stories and poetry
Stream-of-consciousness writing is usually regarded as a special form of interior monologue and is characterized by associative (and at times--dissociative) leaps in syntax and punctuation that can make the prose difficult to follow, tracing a character's fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings. Internal monologue, also known as inner voice, internal speech, or stream of consciousness is Thinking in Words It also refers Stream of consciousness and interior monologue are distinguished from dramatic monologue, where the speaker is addressing an audience or a third person, and is used chiefly in poetry or drama. A dramatic monologue is a type of Poem, favoured by many poets in the Victorian period in which a character in Fiction or in History delivers Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. In stream of consciousness, the speaker's thought processes are more often depicted as overheard in the mind (or addressed to oneself) and is primarily a fictional device. Fiction is the telling of stories which are not real More specifically fiction is an imaginative form of Narrative, one of the four basic Rhetorical modes. The term was first introduced to the field of literary studies from that of psychology by philosopher and psychologist William James, brother of the influential writer Henry James. For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation William James (January 11 1842 – August 26 1910 was a pioneering Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James
Several notable works employing stream of consciousness are:
- Édouard Dujardin's Les Lauriers sont coupés (1888)
- Knut Hamsun's Hunger (1890)
- Arthur Schnitzler's Leutnant Gustl (1901)
- Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time (1913-27)
- T. S. Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915)
- Dorothy Richardson's Pilgrimage (1915-28)
- James Joyce's
- Virginia Woolf's
- Hermann Hesse's Steppenwolf (1927)
- William Faulkner's
- Lewis Grassic Gibbon's Sunset Song (1932)
- William Styron's Lie Down in Darkness (1951)
- Samuel Beckett's 'trilogy' :
- Sam Selvon's The Lonely Londonders (1956)
- Jack Kerouac's
- Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow (1973)
- Everything is Illuminated - Johnathan Safran Foer (2002)
- William Burroughs's Naked Lunch (1959)
- Jerzy Andrzejewski's Gates to Paradise (1960)
- J. D. Salinger's Seymour: An Introduction (1963)
- Julio Cortázar's Rayuela (Hopscotch) (1963)
- Hubert Selby Jr.'s
- Oğuz Atay's Tutunamayanlar (The Disconnected) (1972)
- Robert Anton Wilson & Robert Shea's Illuminatus! (1975)
- Samuel R. Delany's Dhalgren (1975)
- Nadine Gordimer's July's People (1981)
- Bahram Bayzai's Death of Yazdgerd (1982)
- Patrick McCabe's The Butcher Boy (1992)
- Will Christopher Baer's Phineas Poe trilogy (2005))
- Clarice Lispector's whole work. Édouard Dujardin (1861–1949 was a French writer one of the early pioneers of the literary technique stream of consciousness, exemplified in his 1888 novel Knut Hamsun, born Knud Pedersen ( August 4, 1859 - February 19, 1952) was a Norwegian author. Arthur Schnitzler ( May 15, 1862 - October 21, 1931) was an Austrian writer, Dramatist and doctor Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (maʁsɛl pʁust (10 July 1871 &ndash 18 November 1922 was a French Novelist Essayist and Critic In Search of Lost Time or Remembrance of Things Past (À la recherche du temps perdu is a semi-autobiographical Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock is the 1915 poem that marked the start of T Dorothy Miller Richardson ( 17 May 1873 - 17 June 1957) was the first writer to publish an English-language novel using what was to become known James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical Novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 Molly Bloom's soliloquy is presented in the eighteenth and final chapter of James Joyce 's Novel Ulysses. Finnegans Wake is a fictional work by James Joyce, published in 1939 (Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941 was an English Novelist and Essayist, regarded as one of the foremost Mrs Dalloway (published on 14 May, 1925) is a Novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway in To the Lighthouse ( 5 May 1927) is a novel by Virginia Woolf. The Waves, first published in 1931 is Virginia Woolf 's most experimental Novel. Hermann Hesse (ˈhɛʀman ˈhɛsə ( 2 July, 1877 — 9 August, 1962) was a German - Swiss poet novelist and painter Der Steppenwolf is the tenth Novel by German - Swiss author Hermann Hesse. William Faulkner (born William Cuthbert Falkner) ( September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American Author The Sound and the Fury is one of the most celebrated novels of the Twentieth century, written by American author William Faulkner, which makes use As I Lay Dying is a Novel written by the American author William Faulkner. Lewis Grassic Gibbon was the Pseudonym of James Leslie Mitchell ( 13 February 1901 &ndash 7 February 1935) a Sunset Song is a 1932 novel by the Scottish writer Lewis Grassic Gibbon. William Clark Styron Jr ( June 11 1925 &ndash November 1 2006) was an American Novelist and Essayist. Lie Down in Darkness is a 1951 novel by American Novelist William Styron. Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989 was an Irish Writer, Dramatist and poet Molloy is a novel by Samuel Beckett. The English translation is by Beckett and Patrick Bowles. Malone Dies is a novel by Samuel Beckett. It was first published in 1951 in French, as Malone Meurt, and later translated into English Samuel Selvon (1923&ndash1994 was a Trinidad -born writer Selvon was educated at Naparima College, San Fernando before moving to London, Jack Kerouac ( March 12 1922 &ndash October 21 1969) was an American Novelist, Writer, Poet, and On the Road is a novel by American writer Jack Kerouac, written in April 1951 and published by Viking Press in 1957. This article refers to the short novel by Jack Kerouac For the Smashing Pumpkins song see Tristessa (song Tristessa Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr (born May 8 1937 is an American writer based in New York City, noted for his dense and complex works of Fiction. Gravity's Rainbow is an epic postmodern novel written by Thomas Pynchon and first published on February 28 1973. William Seward Burroughs II ( – ˈbʌroʊz was an American Novelist, Essayist, Social critic, painter and Spoken word Naked Lunch (sometimes referred to as The Naked Lunch) is a novel by William S Jerzy Andrzejewski ( August 19, 1909, Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire - April 19, 1983, Warsaw The Gates of Paradise is a novel by Polish writer Jerzy Andrzejewski. Jerome David "J D" Salinger (born January 1 1919 (ˈsælɨndʒɚ is an American author best known for his 1951 Novel The Catcher in the Rye Raise High the Roof Beam Carpenters and Seymour An Introduction was a 1963 book by J Julio Cortázar, born Jules Florencio Cortázar ( August 26, 1914 &ndash February 12, 1984) was an Argentine Author Hopscotch (Rayuela is a Novel by Argentine author Julio Cortázar. Hubert Selby Jr ( July 23, 1928 – April 26, 2004) was a 20th century American writer Last Exit to Brooklyn is a 1964 Novel by American author Hubert Selby Jr Requiem for a Dream is an Academy Award -nominated 2000 Film adaptation of the 1978 novel of the same name. Oğuz Atay (1934-1977 was a Pioneer of the modern Novel in Turkey Tutunamayanlar (in Eng The Disconnected) is the first novel of Oguz Atay, one of the most prominent Turkish authors Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (born Robert Edward Wilson, January 18, 1932 &ndash January 11, 2007) was an American Robert Joseph Shea ( February 14, 1933 - March 10, 1994) was a magazine editor columnist and novelist The Illuminatus! Trilogy is a series of three novels written by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson purportedly between 1969 and 1971 Samuel Ray Delany Jr (born April 1, 1942, New York City) is an award-winning American Science fiction Dhalgren is a Science fiction Novel by Samuel R Delany. The story begins with this cryptic passage to wound the Nadine Gordimer (born 20 November 1923 is a South African Writer, Political activist and Nobel laureate. July's People is a 1981 novel by 1991 Nobel laureate Nadine Gordimer. Bahrām Bayzai (also spelt Bahrām Beizai, Bahrām Beyzaie,, born 26 December, 1938 in Tehran) is an Iranian Patrick McCabe or Pat McCabe may refer to Patrick McCabe (novelist, Irish novelist Patrick McCabe member of the Irish Republican Army The Butcher Boy is a 1992 Novel by Patrick McCabe. It was shortlisted for the 1992 Booker Prize and won the 1992 Irish Times Will Christopher Baer is an American author of Noir fiction often delving into Sex, Violence, mystery and Erotica. Phineas Poe is a Novella collection by Will Christopher Baer. Kiss Me Judas (1998 is the first published Novel by American Author Will Christopher Baer. Penny Dreadful (also called penny number) was a term applied to nineteenth century British Fiction publications usually lurid serial stories appearing in parts Clarice Lispector ( December 10 1920 - December 9 1977) was a Brazilian writer
The technique has been parodied, for example, by David Lodge in the final chapter of The British Museum Is Falling Down. David John Lodge CBE, (born January 28, 1935 at Brockley London, England) is a British author The British Museum Is Falling Down ( 1965) is a Comic novel by British author David Lodge about a 25 year-old poverty-stricken
The technique is not specifically confined to literary sources, and has been used loosely to describe either separately or in combination with other media. For instance, Travis Trent sings unwritten stream of consciousness lyrics on five of the six songs on the album Stories: His, Mine, Others.
- British comedian Ross Noble's performances take the form of a stream of consciousness with partial interaction with the audience, with the effect of him going off in tangents during the whole show. Ross Markham Noble (born 5 June 1976) is an English Stand-up comedian, raised in Cramlington, Northumberland.
Cinema and sketch comedy
- Terrence Malick is notable for using a stream of consciousness voice over for one or several of his characters in all of his four films to date. Terrence "Terry" Malick (born November 30, 1943, Ottawa, Illinois) is an Academy Award nominated American His characters usually express thoughts of existentialism and are deeply rooted in philosophical matters. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence
- The movie The Weather Man with Nicolas Cage presents a scene where the main character narrates his line of thought when going off to buy tartar sauce. The Weather Man is a 2005 American Comedy-drama Film, directed by Gore Verbinski and starring Nicolas Cage Nicolas Cage (born Nicholas Kim Coppola; January 7, 1964) is an Academy Award -winning American actor Tartar sauce or tartare sauce is a thick white Sauce made from Mayonnaise and finely chopped Pickled cucumber, Capers Onions The use of stream of consciousness in this scene has the purpose of explaining why the character forgot to buy the tartar sauce.
- The movie Adaptation., written by Charlie Kaufman, starts with an internal monologue from the main character, who is also called Charlie Kaufman. Adaptation is a 2002 Comedy-drama Satire film directed by Spike Jonze and written by Charlie Kaufman. Charles Stuart Kaufman (born September 20, 1958) is an American Playwright, Film producer, theater and Film director A monologue is an extended uninterrupted speech or poem by a single person The monologue shows he suffers from a writer's block, and is by association filled with random thoughts of failure. Writer's block is a Phenomenon involving temporary loss of ability to begin or continue writing usually due to lack of inspiration or Creativity. 
- Terry Gilliam made cut-out animations as a Python for the show Monty Python's Flying Circus, which linked together sketches using stream of consciousness. Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member Monty Python (sometimes known as The Pythons) is the collective name of the six creators of Monty Python's Flying Circus, a British Television Monty Python’s Flying Circus (also known as Flying Circus or during the final series just Monty Python) is a BBC Sketch comedy
- The NBC sitcom Scrubs is presented with the protagonist's thoughts heard by the viewer as a stream-of-consciousness voiceover playing the role of narration; it often goes off on seemingly random tangents—much as any person's thoughts tend to wander if not focused on something specific. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Scrubs is an Emmy and Peabody Award -winning American Comedy-drama that premiered on October 2 2001 on NBC. Jonathan Michael " John " Dorian MD, better known as J The term voice-over refers to a production technique where a non-diagetic voice is broadcast live or pre-recorded in Radio, Television, Film, A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of The viewer also frequently sees the protagonist's imagination at work.
- The ABC sitcom, Wonder Years is also presented with the protagonist's thoughts heard by the viewer as a stream-of-consciousness voiceover playing the role of narration. The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. The term voice-over refers to a production technique where a non-diagetic voice is broadcast live or pre-recorded in Radio, Television, Film, A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of
- Stand-up comedians Dennis Miller and Richard Lewis perform fast-paced monologues containing pop culture references which are often described as stream-of-consciousness. Stand-up comedy is a style of comedy where the performer speaks directly to the audience with the absence of the theatrical " Fourth wall " Dennis Miller (born November 3, 1953) is an American Stand-up comedian, political/sports commentator, and television/radio personality Richard Lewis may be Richard Lewis (Welsh Martyr (1808&ndash1831 R A monologue is an extended uninterrupted speech or poem by a single person Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance —
World Wide Web
One example of a website that uses the technique is Cognitec/3rd Force, which is the progressive work of an anonymous author known only as "HC. " The site began in the mid 1990s as a series of bizarre and sardonic original passages which was "spoofed" to look like prominent web portals of the early Dot com boom. The " dot-com bubble " (or sometimes the " IT bubble " was a speculative bubble covering roughly 1995–2001 (with a climax on March 10 For example, the now defunct "Pathfinder" site (now simply the Time Inc. portal ) was parodied as "Crapfinder," the "New York Times" became the "New Times York. "
Because of the site's extensive use of the literary method, transitory and seemingly-unrelated themes became connected through hyperlinks. In computing a hyperlink is a Reference or Navigation element in a Document to another Section of the same document or to another These seemed to further reflect the free-flowing thought process of the strangely prolific author. It was later revealed that much of the content consisted of excerpts from the metafictional novel MFU (ISBN 188640402X) . Metafiction is a literary term for a type of Fiction that systematically and self-consciously addresses the devices of fiction including the relationship between fiction and The novel's desultory narrative structure and breadth of material was sufficient for creating years worth of related material in the form of multiple parodies, faux news reports, and essays, as well as providing prospective readers of the novel an opportunity to "sample" the book. Most of the novel was subsequently released as either readable or searchable on-line .
Many online forums have sections for so-called "Off-Topic" discussions. Threads in these forums tend to loosely follow stream-of-consciousness simply by virtue of the fact that multiple people express their own thought processes without hesitation of retribution. This perspective is, of course, controversial since traditional stream-of-consciousness is the result of one person's writing alone.
A relatively new website, http://chainofthoughts.com conforms to the stream of consciousness style of writing using tag clouds to shift readers through various seemingly unrelated pages. A tag cloud or word cloud (or weighted list in visual design is a visual depiction of user-generated tags, or simply the word content of a site used typically Following the Virginia Tech massacre the website was used as a place of semi-anonymous mourning and was highlighted on the BBC website. The Virginia Tech massacre was a School shooting consisting of two separate attacks approximately two hours apart on April 16 2007 that took place on the campus of A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages 
- At least two of the songs on Van Morrison's acclaimed album "Astral Weeks" were said to be stream of consciousness by the composer. George Ivan Morrison OBE (generally known as Van Morrison) (born 31 August 1945 is a Grammy Award -winning Northern Irish Singer, Astral Weeks is a Folk-rock and R & B Album by Northern Irish musician Van Morrison, released in November 1968 on "'Madame George' just came right out. " Madame George " is a ten-minute song by Northern Irish Singer-songwriter Van Morrison. The song is just a stream of consciousness thing, as is 'Cyprus Avenue'. " Cyprus Avenue " is a song written by Northern Irish Singer-songwriter Van Morrison and included on his 1968 album Astral Weeks Both these songs just came right out. I didn't even think about what I was writing. "
- R.E.M.'s song "It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine)" features rapid-fire lyrics that are described as stream of consciousness. REM is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by Michael Stipe ( lead vocals) Peter Buck ( Guitar " It's the End of the World as We Know It (And I Feel Fine " is a song by the rock band R
- Bob Dylan's songs "Like a Rolling Stone", "Desolation Row" & "Subterranean Homesick Blues", the latter of which was said by R. Bob Dylan (born Robert Zimmerman, May 24 1941 in Duluth, Minnesota) is an American singer-songwriter author poet and painter who has been a major " Like a Rolling Stone " is a song by American songwriter Bob Dylan. " Desolation Row " is the closing track of Bob Dylan 's sixth studio album Highway 61 Revisited. " Subterranean Homesick Blues " is a Song by Bob Dylan, originally released on the album Bringing It All Back Home in March 1965 E. M. to have influenced their song above.
- Singer Cedric Bixler-Zavala from the Mars Volta and At the Drive-In often writes in a highly abstract style, which could be considered stream of consciousness. Cedric Bixler Zavala (born November 4, 1974 in Redwood City, California) is the lead singer and lyricist of The Mars Volta, and The Mars Volta is the name of a partnership between guitarist Omar Rodríguez-López and singer Cedric Bixler-Zavala founded in 2001 At the Drive-In was an influential American Post-hardcore band from El Paso, Texas, that was active from 1993 to 2001
- Bruce Springsteen's first two albums, "Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J." and "The Wild, the Innocent & the E Street Shuffle" feature the stream of consciousness technique in a majority of the lyrics, such as Springsteen's first single, 'Blinded by the Light'. Greetings from Asbury Park NJ was the first album recorded by Bruce Springsteen & the E Street Band, released in 1973 (see 1973 in music The Wild the Innocent & the E Street Shuffle is the second Album by Bruce Springsteen and the as-yet-unnamed E Street Band, it is described by " Blinded by the Light " is a song written and originally recorded by New Jersey based singer/songwriter Bruce Springsteen.
- Dream Theater has an instrumental song titled "Stream of Consciousness" in which the song flows openly based on a single chord progression. Dream Theater is an American Progressive metal band formed in 1985 under the name " Majesty " by John Myung, John Petrucci The song is believed to be written as an example of stream of consciousness.
- Spock's Beard a progressive rock band, has a song titled "Stream of Unconsciousness" The name is most likely a parody of the Dream Theater song. Spock's Beard is a Progressive rock band formed in 1992 in Los Angeles by brothers Neal and Alan Morse.
- Many songs on the album The Holy Bible by Manic Street Preachers are written in this style. The Holy Bible was the third studio album by the Welsh rock band Manic Street Preachers. Manic Street Preachers (often known colloquially as the " Manics " or " MSP " are a Welsh rock band consisting of James
- Thom Yorke of Radiohead frequently writes songs in this style, for instance "A Wolf at the Door" from their 2003 album Hail to the Thief. John Anthony Frusciante (pronounced) (born March 5 1970 is an American Guitarist, singer songwriter and record producer Niandra Lades and Usually Just a T-Shirt is the debut solo album by John Frusciante released on March 8 1994 on American Recordings. Thomas Edward Yorke (born 7 October 1968 is a Grammy -winning English Musician, best known as the lead singer and principal songwriter of the Radiohead Hail to the Thief (subtitled The Gloaming) is the sixth studio album by English Alternative rock band Radiohead, released on 9 June 2003
- Karl Hyde of the UK electronic band Underworld is know to frequently use the method. Underworld is an English electronic group and principal name under which duo Karl Hyde and Rick Smith have recorded together since 1980  It is especially apparent in the songs "Pearl's Girl", "Born Slippy .NUXX", and "Cowgirl". " Pearl's Girl " is the title of several 1996 single releases and a song by Underworld, from their album Second Toughest in the Infants " Born Slippy NUXX " is a 1996 single by the band Underworld. " Cowgirl " is a song recorded by Underworld, originally released as a single in 1994.
Rap has many examples, such as:
- Hip Hop group Das EFX is especially known for employing this technique in their lyrics, constantly shifting from one subject to another while rapping. William Martin Joel (born May 9 1949 is an American Pianist and Singer-songwriter. " We Didn't Start the Fire " is a song by Billy Joel that makes reference to a catalog of headline events during his lifetime from March 1949 to 1989 when the Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Das EFX is an American hip-hop group It consists of emceess Skoob (also known as Books, born William "Willie" Hines
- Rapper Eminem has also used the technique in his song Rain Man, parodying the character in the film Rain Man on his album, Encore. Rain Man is a 1988 dramatic film written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass and directed by Barry Levinson.
- Hip hop artist Ghostface Killah is well known for his stream of consciousness rapping, a style largely his own that utilizes complicated and constantly shifting subject matter to illustrate his mindset and viewpoint. Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with Dennis Coles, better known by his Stage name Ghostface Killah, is an American rapper and member of the Wu-Tang Clan.
- Kool Keith is known for his complicated and Stream Of Consciousness rap flow. Keith Matthew Thornton, better known by his Stage name Kool Keith, is an American rapper.
- Yorke, Ritchie (1975). Into The Music, London:Charisma Books , ISBN 0-85947-013-X
See also Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of Thoughts in the conscious Mind.
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