|Ракетные войска стратегического назначения|
Raketnye voyska strategicheskogo naznacheniya
Strategic Rocket Forces
SRF emblem and flag
|Active||December 17, 1959 - present|
|Country||Russian Federation (earlier - Soviet Union)|
|Colonel General Nikolay Solovtsov|
The Strategic Rocket Forces of Russia or RVSN (Russian: Ракетные войска стратегического назначения (РВСН), transliteration: Raketnye voyska strategicheskogo naznacheniya) are an arm of service (Rod) of the Russian armed forces that controls Russia's land-based ICBMs. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Colonel General is a senior Military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet and The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC (Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции Transliteration Vooruzhyónniye Síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii The RVSN was first formed in the Military of the Soviet Union, and when the USSR collapsed in 1990-1991, it effectively changed its name from the Soviet to the Russian Strategic Rocket Forces. The Soviet Armed Forces refers to the armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from its establishment during the Russian Civil War in 1918 by the The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999
The Strategic Rocket Forces comprise the world's largest force of ICBMs, totalling 560 missiles able to deliver 1,970 nuclear warheads. Like most of the Russian military, the Strategic Rocket Forces have been limited in access to resources for new equipment since the end of the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the However, the Russian government has made a priority of ensuring that the Rocket Forces receive new missiles to phase out older, less-reliable systems, and to incorporate newer capabilities in the face of international threats to the viability of the nuclear deterrent effect provided by their missiles, in particular the development of missile defense systems in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Similar organizations in other nations include Air Force Space Command in the United States and the 2nd Artillery Corps in China. Air Force Space Command ( AFSPC) is a major command of the United States Air Force. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Complementary strategic forces within Russia are the Russian Air Force's 37th Air Army of the Supreme High Command, the bomber force, (which used to be known as Long Range Aviation) and the strategic submarines of the Russian Navy. The Russian Air Force ( Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России transliteration: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii) is the air force The Russian Navy or VMF ( Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ России- Voyenno-Morskoy Flot Rossii (VMF or literally Military Maritime
The special-purpose brigade of the RVGK [Supreme High Command Reserve] was formed in 1946, and on 18 October 1947 the brigade conducted the first launch of the remanufactured former German A-4 ballistic missile from the Kapustin Yar Range. A brigade is a Military unit Echelon: is Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve Later the brigade was given the combined-arms designation of 22nd RVGK special-purpose brigade, then 72nd RVGK Engineer Brigade, and in 1960 the 24th Guards Division of the RVSN was formed on its basis. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Strategic Rocket Forces (RVSN - Russian: Ракетные войска стратегического назначения Raketnye Vojska Strategicheskogo Naznachneiya) were created on December 17, 1959 as the main Soviet force used for attacking an enemy's offensive nuclear weapons, military facilities, and industrial infrastructure. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. They operated all Soviet ground-based intercontinental, intermediate-range, and medium-range nuclear missiles with ranges over 1,000 kilometers. A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a self-propelled explosive Projectile used as a weapon towards a target The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The Strategic Rocket Forces also conducted all Soviet space vehicle and missile launches. At the end of the Cold War the Strategic Rocket Forces, the newest Soviet armed service, were the preeminent armed service, based on the continued importance of their mission. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Their prestige had diminished somewhat, however, because of an increasing emphasis on conventional forces.
Russia's armed forces underwent major organizational changes from July 1997. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC (Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции Transliteration Vooruzhyónniye Síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii The Russian Air Force ( Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России transliteration: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii) is the air force The Russian Ground Forces (Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации tr The Russian Navy or VMF ( Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ России- Voyenno-Morskoy Flot Rossii (VMF or literally Military Maritime The Military Space Forces (VKS are the branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation responsible for military space operations The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-Desantnye Vojska" Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска = ВДВ The Russian Naval Infantry, ( Marines, Морская пехота are the amphibious force of the Russian Armed Forces. The Russian Naval Aviation ( Russian: Авиация Военно-морского флота России - Aviatsiya Voenno-morskogo Flota Rossii) (formerly The Main Agency of Missiles and Artillery of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation ( GRAU) ( Главное ракетно-артиллерийское управление The following table presents images of the rank insignia used by the Russian Federation Air Force ( VVS) The independent Russia inherited the ranks of the Soviet Union, although the insignia and Uniform was altered a little The independent Russia inherited the ranks of the Soviet Union, although the insignia and Uniform was altered a little The Military history of Russia starts with the first people to establish settlements the Rus', who built Kiev, the Mongol invasion the numerous Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917 Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar A new strategic command was formed — the Strategic Missile Troops — comprising the Strategic Rocket Forces (RVSN), the Military Space Forces, and the Space Missile Defense Forces, which previously were part of the Troops of Air Defense. In 1998 Defence Minister Sergeyev advanced a project for further reorganization of the nuclear forces, under which the Strategic Missile Troops would have been transformed into the Unified Command of the Strategic Deterrent Forces, with control over the naval and air components of the nuclear ‘triad’. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) However, this plan failed to gain support, and was not implemented.
On 11 August 2000 the Security Council met to discuss the future of the Armed Forces for the period through 2016. Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Before the meeting of the Security Council, the Defense Ministry and the General Staff had different approaches to proposals regarding the reform of the Armed Forces.
General Staff Chief Anatoly Kvashnin suggested that the Strategic Missile Forces should be dissolved or merged with either the Air force or with some other branch of the military. An air force, also known in some countries as an air army or historically an army air corps, is in the broadest sense the national military or armed service Kvashnin advocated a substantial reduction in size of nuclear forces in order to free resources for conventional capabilities, of the sort that might be usable in conflicts such as Chechnya. The Chechen Republic (ˈʧɛʧɨn rɪˈpʌblɨk Чече́нская Респу́блика Chechenskaya Respublika; Нохчийн Республика Noxçiyn Respublika Kvashnin proposed that Russia's land-based intercontinental nuclear missile force be cut from 756 missiles to 148 by the year 2016.
Defense Minister Igor Sergeev was averse to the reduction of the Strategic Missile Forces, which he had previously commanded. After Putin, Sergeev and Kvashnin met in late July 2000 a compromise was reached. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. According to the resolutions approved by the Security Council, the Strategic Missile Forces would remain an independent branch of the Armed Forces at least until 2006. The Regiments and divisions of the Strategic Missile Forces will be enlarged, though their overall number will be reduced. The ratio of financing between the strategic nuclear forces and general purpose forces will be approximately 1 to 3.
As a result of decisions by the National Security Council in August 2000, it is expected that the Strategic Missile Force will see a reduction of up to 10 missile divisions by 2006. It is intended that the space missile defence troops and the space military forces will be removed from the Strategic Missile Force in 2001 and put under the direct control of the General Staff. The Strategic Missile Force is expected to be transformed into an independent arm of service in 2002, and possibly by in 2006 to be included under the Russian Air Force. The Russian Air Force ( Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России transliteration: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii) is the air force
In 1989 the Strategic Rocket Forces had over 1,400 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), 300 launch control centers, and twenty-eight missile bases.  The Soviet Union had six types of operational ICBMs; about 50% were heavy SS-18 and SS-19 ICBMs, which carried 80% of the country's land-based ICBM warheads. In 1989 the Soviet Union was also producing new mobile, and hence survivable, ICBMs. A reported 100 road-mobile SS-25 missiles were operational, and the rail-mobile SS-24 was being deployed.
The Strategic Rocket Forces also operated SS-20 intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) and SS-4 medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBMs). Two-thirds of the road-mobile Soviet SS-20 force was based in the western Soviet Union and was aimed at Western Europe. One-third was located east of the Ural Mountains and was targeted primarily against China. Older SS-4 missiles were deployed at fixed sites in the western Soviet Union. The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty), signed in December 1987, called for the elimination of all 553 Soviet SS-20 and SS-4 missiles within three years. As of mid-1989, over 50% of SS-20 and SS-4 missiles had been eliminated.
Russia continued the reduction in strategic missile inventory required under START I, although at a pace slower than the United States would like. START (for St rategic A rms R eduction T reaty is a Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet By mid-1996 all nuclear warheads on former Soviet SRF missiles in Kazakhstan and Ukraine had been returned to Russia or destroyed, and all missiles left Belarus by the end of 1996.
The Russian SRF missile inventory not only is shrinking in response to treaty requirements but also is changing in character. The new Topol-M is the only system suited to Russian strategic requirements and acceptable under the requirements of START I, so rocket production efforts will concentrate on this model for the foreseeable future. The SS-25 Topol was fielded in SRF regiments comprising three battalions totaling nine launch vehicles. In 1996 forty such regiments were operational. Several older operational ICBM systems also remained in the field. These included an SS-17 regiment of ten silos, six SS-18 silo fields totaling 222 missiles with multiple warheads, four SS-19 silo fields totaling 250 missiles with multiple warheads, and ninety-two SS-24 missiles of which thirty-six are mounted on trains. All except the SS-24 were being phased out in favor of the SS-25 Topol.
In 1989 the 300,000 Soviet soldiers in the Strategic Rocket Forces were organized into six rocket armies comprising three to five divisions, which contained regiments of ten missile launchers each. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers A regiment is a Military unit, composed of a variable number of Battalions – commanded by a Colonel.  Each missile regiment had 400 soldiers in security, transportation, and maintenance units above ground. Officers manned launch stations and command posts underground.
In 1996 the SRF had about 100,000 troops, of which about half were conscripts. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority The SRF had the highest proportion of well-educated officers among the armed services. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority The numerical strength of its personnel is only 10% of the armed forces' total. As of 1997 the average troop strength was at 85. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar 3% of the table of organization, and officers of all ranks were doing alert duty more frequently — 130 24-hour periods a year. Although ninety-nine percent of RVSN officers have a degree in engineering, and over twenty-five percent of the personnel are contract sergeants and soldiers, among the conscript contingent, less than half of the total have a secondary (high school) education. High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution
As of mid-1997 two-thirds of the strategic forces' nuclear delivery systems were in constant combat readiness, and the readiness of the missile complexes to launch is a few tens of seconds. The organizational structure of the RSVN included four missile armies, which contain 19 divisions, 5456 launchers, and 5,535 nuclear devices at stationary silo, railroad, and road-mobile missile launch complexes.
The control of the missile troops is effected directly by the Supreme Commander in Chief through the central command headquarters of the General Staff and the main headquarters of the RVSN, using a multi-level extended network of command posts operating in alert-duty mode. In the alert-duty forces about 12,000 missile personnel perform a threefold mission: reacting to failures in the missile systems and systems of security communications, and correcting them in the minimum possible time; maintaining readiness to carry out the military mission assigned them; and in the event the armed forces are placed on the highest level of military readiness, to provide for the execution of their assigned missions.
A system to ensure nuclear security is based on a three-level system of protection of the launch installations. The installations are directly guarded by officers and warrant officers. The second line of protection is covered by armored hardware and structures. The third outer line is formed by minefields and security posts.
At the wing level there is a section called the 6th Directorate, consisting of three or four officers, and their sole function is to make sure they know where every nuclear weapon in that wing is. At the Rocket Army level there is a similar kind of organization. And at the Headquarters, Strategic Rocket Forces, there is a 6th Directorate that coordinates with the Ministry of Defense 12th Directorate, whose sole function is this accountability issue.
The composition of missiles and warheads of the Strategic Rocket Forces must be revealed as part of the START II treaty exchange. START II, the St rategic A rms R eduction T reaty, which was signed by United States President George H The latest date of exchange was January 1, 2005. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
At the beginning of 2008 the Russian strategic forces included 702 strategic delivery platforms, which can carry up to 3155 nuclear warheads. The Strategic Rocket Forces have 452 operational missile systems of four types that can carry 1677 warheads. The strategic fleet includes 14 strategic missile submarines. Their 172 missiles can carry 606 nuclear warheads. Strategic aviation bomber force consists of 78 bombers that can carry up to 872 long-range cruise missiles. The space-based tier of the early warning system included three satellites that appear operational—two on highly elliptical orbits and one on a geostationary orbit.
The Strategic Rocket Forces operate four distinct missile systems. The oldest system is the R-36M / SS-18 Satan which is capable of carrying ten warheads. The R-36 (Р-36 is a family of Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs and Space launch vehicles designed by the Soviet Union during the Cold 85 remain in service, although plans to retire the older of the two versions in service, the R-36MUTTH, will leave 40 of the less aged R-36M2 in service past 2020. The other missile capable of carrying a MIRV warhead is the UR-100NUTTH or SS-19 as it is known to NATO, with 129 in service with up to six warheads each. A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle ( MIRV) is a collection of Nuclear weapons carried on a single Intercontinental ballistic missile The North Atlantic Treaty The most numerous missile serving is the Topol or SS-25, a road-mobile missile. Despite over 300 in service, they are reaching the end of their service lives and are due for replacement. The only new missile entering service is the Topol-M, or SS-27, and can be either silo-based or road-mobile. A missile silo is an underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ICBMs. Deployment has begun with the announcement of the first operational unit, but full-scale entry into service is expected from 2006.
Organizationally, the Strategic Rocket Forces are divided into three Missile Armies, each with constituent Missile Divisions at each missile base. A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers According to Globalsecurity.org, the RSVN main command post is at Kuntsevo in the suburbs of Moscow, with the alternate command post at Kosvinksky Mountain in the Urals. GlobalSecurityorg, launched in 2000 is a Public policy organization whose mission is to be a reliable source of background information and developing News stories Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye  The commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces is Colonel General Nikolay Solovtsov, appointed on April 27, 2001 by President Vladimir Putin. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia Order of battle of the forces is as follows:
The total arsenal of the SM Forces is 536 ICBMs, of which 306 are SS-25 Sickle (Topol) missiles and 54 are SS-27 Stalin (Topol-M) missiles. The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic Yoshkar-Ola ( Mari and Йошка́р-Ола́ is a city in Russia and is the capital of the Mari El Republic. The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic Kozelsk (Козе́льск is a Town in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Zhizdra River ( Oka 's Tributary The UR-100N is an Intercontinental ballistic missile in service with Russia. Teykovo (Тейково is a town in Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyazma River some south-west of Ivanovo. The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic The UR-100N is an Intercontinental ballistic missile in service with Russia. The RT-2UTTKh «Topol-M» (РТ-2УТТХ «Тополь-М» is one of the most recent Intercontinental ballistic missiles to be deployed by Russia (see The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic Dombarovskiy is an ICBM base located near Yasny in Orenburg Oblast, Russia. The R-36 (Р-36 is a family of Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs and Space launch vehicles designed by the Soviet Union during the Cold Nizhny Tagil (Ни́жний Таги́л is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia. The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic Kartaly (Карталы́ is a town in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the valley of the Kartaly-Ayat River (left Tributary Kansk (Канск is a town on the left bank of Kan River in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic For the Barnaul meteorite of 1904 see Meteorite falls. For the bird see Barn owl. The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic History The city was founded in 1893 as the future site of the Trans-Siberian Railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river Ob, and was known as The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic Irkutsk (Ирку́тск Эрхүү Erkhüü; Эрхүү Erkhüü) is one of the largest cities in Siberia and the administrative center of The RT-2PM Topol (РТ-2ПМ is a mobile Intercontinental ballistic missile designed in the Soviet Union and in service with Russia 's Strategic Uzhur (Ужу́р is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located at around. The R-36 (Р-36 is a family of Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs and Space launch vehicles designed by the Soviet Union during the Cold