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India is one of the most diverse nations in terms of religion. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Politics of India takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary multi-party representative democratic Republic modelled The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. The Fundamental Rights in India enshrined in the Part III of the Constitution of India guarantee civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the Executive branch of the Government of India after the President The Prime Minister of India is head of the Council of Ministers, appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive Cabinet ministers Manmohan Singh - Prime Minister and also in-charge of the Ministries/ Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is the federal and supreme Legislative body of India. The Rajya Sabha (meaning the "Council of States" is the Upper house of the Parliament of India. The Vice-President of India is the second-highest ranking government official in the Executive branch of the Government of India after the President The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the upper house of Parliament of India. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. The term Chief Justice of India refers to the highest judge in the Supreme Court of India. India 's judicial system is made up of the Supreme Court of India at the apex of the hierarchy for the entire country and twenty-one High Courts at the The District Courts of India are presided over by a Judge. They administer justice in India at a district level Elections in India are more than a process of voting someone to rule the nation The Election Commission of India is an autonomous quasi-judiciary constitutional body of India. The Chief Election Commissioner heads the Election Commission of India, a body constitutionally empowered to conduct free and fair elections to the national and state legislatures India has a Multi-party system with a predominance of small regional parties India has a Multi-party system with a predominance of small regional parties India has a Multi-party system with a predominance of small regional parties BamfronttripuraJPG|thumb|right| West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura]] The Left Front ( Bengali: বাম ফ্রন্ট The National Democratic Alliance ( NDA) is a coalition of political parties in India. United Progressive Alliance ( UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties heading the Government of India. India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of the States and territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of The Vidhan Sabha also known as Legislative Assembly is the lower house of state legislature in India. The Vidhan Parishad also known as Legislative Council forms a part of the state legislatures of India. The Panchayat is a South Asian Political system. ‘Panchayat’ literally means assembly ( yat) of five ( panch) wise and respected elders chosen Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Even though Hindus form close to 80 percent of the population, the Indian Muslims form the third largest Muslim population in the world, along with large Sikh and Christian populations. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. It is home to the holiest shrines of four world religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century
Modern India came into existence in 1947 as a secular nation, two of the large sections of India, were partitioned into a new Islamic nation, Pakistan (East Pakistan later became Bangladesh). Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially In Pakistan, the Hindu population declined from 24% to about 1. 5%, in Bangladesh the Hindus declined from 39% to 10%. The Muslims in India have increased from 10. 3% to 13. 4% . The Indian constitution's preamble states that India is a secular state. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. A secular state is a State or Country that is officially neutral in matters of Religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs Freedom of religion is a fundamental right guaranteed by the constitution. A fundamental right is a Right that has its origin in a country's Constitution or that is necessarily implied from the terms of that constitution Every citizen of India has a right to practice and promote their religions peacefully. However there have been many incidence of religious intolerance which resulted in riots, although the issues which caused these riots have been investigated and dealt with. Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other
India has a Hindu President Mrs. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Pratibha Patil, Muslim Vice President Mr. Pratibha Devisingh Patil (प्रतिभा देवीसिंह पाटिल (born December 19, 1934) is the current President of India, the M. Hamid Ansari and a Sikh Prime Minister Dr. Mohammad Hamid Ansari (born April 1, 1934) is the current Vice President of India. Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Manmohan Singh. Manmohan Singh (ਮਨਮੋਹਨ ਸਿੰਘ (born 26 September 1932 is the 17th The powerful leader of the Congress Partry Sonia Gandhi is a Christian, while the leader of the opposition is L.K. Advani, a Hindu. Sonia Gandhi, born Edvige Antonia Albina Maino on 9 December 1946 is an Indian politician the President of the Indian National Congress and A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Lal Krishna Advani (लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi लाल किशनचंद A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical India had a prominent former Defence Minister George Fernandes, a Christian (though not practicing) and a Hindu minister controlling foreign affairs. George Fernandes (born June 3 1930 is a trade unionist agriculturist political activist journalist and currently a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth India's IAF Chief Fali H. The Indian Air Force (Devanāgarī भारतीय वायु सेना IAST Bhartiya Vāyu Senā is the air arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the Major is a Parsi.
India has been generally stated to have religious tolerance and people of different faiths can equally practice their religion publicly.
The plural nature of the society in India was encapsulated in an inscription of Asoka:
King Kharvela (born in the family of Rajarshi Vasu) declares himself in his inscription (approx 2nd cent. Kharavela (ଖାରେବଳ ( IAST: Khāravela Devanagari: खारवेल Oriya: ଖାରେବଳ (?209 – after 170 BCE was the greatest BCE) :
Translation: I am worshipper of all sects, restorer of all shrines.
Kharvela's self-description must be contrasted with other rulers around the world, who took pride in calling themselves "but-shikan" or "defender of the (only true) faith"
India, with its traditional tolerance, has served as a refuge for groups that have encountered persecution elsewhere.
Incidents of religious intolerance, conflicts and riots have occurred at several points in time.
According to Rudolf C Heredia, religious conversion has remained a critical issue even before the creation of the modern state. Whereas Nehru wanted to establish a "a secular state in a religious society" Gandhi opposed the Christian missionaries calling them as the remnants of colonial Western culture. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू ʤəʋäɦəɾläl nɛɦɾu (14 November 1889 27 May 1964 was a major political leader of the Congress Party Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January He claimed that by converting into Christianity, Hindus have changed their nationality. 
Recent wave of anti-conversion laws in various Indian states passed by some states is actually seen as gradual and continuous institutionalization of Hindutva.  Christian missionaries are accused of using inducements such as schooling, money, and even motorcycles and bicycles to lure poor people to the faith, and have also launched movements to reconvert many tribal Christians back to Hinduism.
Most of the Anti Conversion laws are brief and leave a lot of ambiguity, which can be mis-used for inflicting persecution. Legal experts believe that both conversion activities and willful trespass by missionaries upon the sacred spaces of other faiths can be prosecuted under Section 295A of the Indian Penal Code, and as such there is no need for anti-conversion laws by individual states and they should be repealed. A consolidation of various Anti-Conversion or "Freedom of Religion" Laws has been done by the All Indian Christian Council. The All India Christian Council (AICC is a nation-wide alliance of Christian denominations mission agencies institutions federations and Christian lay leaders 
In the past, several Indian states passed anti-conversion bills primarily to preventing people from converting to Christianity. Arunachal Pradesh passed a bill in 1978. Arunachal Pradesh (अरुणाचल प्रदेश   Aruṇācal Pradeś is the easternmost state of India In 2003, Gujarat State, after religious riots in 2002 (see 2002 Gujarat violence), passed an anti-conversion bill in 2003. Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. The 2002 Gujarat violence describes a series of communal Riots between the communities of Hindus and Muslims that took place in the Indian
In July, 2006, Madhya Pradesh government passed legislation requiring people who desire to convert to a different religion to provide the government with one-month's notice, or face fines and penalties. 
In August, 2006, the Chhattisgarh State Assembly passed similar legislation requiring anyone who desires to convert to another religion to give 30 days' notice to, and seek permission from, the district magistrate. 
In February, 2007, Himachal Pradesh became the first Congress Party ruled state to adopt legislation banning illegal religious conversions. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. 
There were widespread riots during the Partition of India in 1947, with attacks on Muslim minorities by Hindu and Sikh mobs. The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire which led to the creation on August 14, 1947 and August 15, Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 1992, the Babri Mosque was demolished by the Sangh Parivar family of organizations on the basis of their controversial assertion that a Hindu temple belonging to a Hindu god existed at the site before the erection of the Mosque. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Babri Mosque (بابری مسجد बाबरी मस्जिद or Mosque of Babur was a Mosque constructed by order of the first Mughal The Sangh Parivar (संघ परिवार Translation: Family of Associations refers to the family of organisations built around the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh The demolition was followed by anti-Muslim riots in Mumbai allegedly perpetrated by the nativist Shiv Sena party. Although numerous riots have occurred in the City of Mumbai, India (Bombay since Independence, the Bombay Riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai Shiv Sena ( Devanāgarī: शिव सेना Śīv Senā, meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shivaji Bhosle) is a Political party
The Sangh Parivar family of organisations, has allegedly been involved in encouraging negative stereotyping of Muslims, and in the 2002 Gujarat violence they were allegedly responsible for encouraging attacks against Muslims. The Sangh Parivar (संघ परिवार Translation: Family of Associations refers to the family of organisations built around the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh A stereotype (from Greek: stereo + týpos = "solid impression" is a generalized perception of first impressions behaviors presumed by a group The 2002 Gujarat violence describes a series of communal Riots between the communities of Hindus and Muslims that took place in the Indian . Subsequent riots led to the death of 754 Muslims. Another major incident was at Naroda Patia, where a Hindu mob, massacred more than 100 Muslims. In another incident at Best Bakery, in the city of Baroda, a family of 12 was massacred and burnt.  The Gujarat riots officially led to the death of 1044 people, 754 Muslims and 290 Hindus. Human Rights Watch puts the death toll at higher figures, with 2000 deaths, mostly Muslim, but with attacks against Hindus by Muslim mobs as well. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. 
Recently Hindu mobs have attacked Muslim villages after claims were made that cows had been slaughtered for the festivities of eid. In 2005, this caused the destruction of 40 homes and 3 deaths. A police investigation revealed that no cow had been slaughtered in the village. 
Hindu extremist attacks against Christians, especially in the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa, have occurred in recent years in response to missionary activity by evangelical Christians. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society or otherwise claimed to violate Gujarat (ગુજરાત Gujǎrāt, pronounced) is a state in western India. Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP) ( Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश pronounced, Translation: Middle Province) often Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal.  According to a report by the Center for Religious Freedom the attacks include the murder of missionaries and priests, the sexual assault of nuns, the ransacking of churches, convents and other Christian institutions. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth  Graham Staines, an Australian missionary, and his 2 children were burnt to death by a mob led by Dara Singh who had previously been involved in the cow protection movement and had earlier targeted Muslim cattle traders. Graham Stuart Staines (1941-January 1999 was an Australian Missionary who was burnt to death along with his two sons Philip (aged 9 and Timothy (aged 7 while sleeping For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Dara Singh alias Ravinder Kumar Pal (born October 2 1962 was the leader of the religious militants that murdered Australian Missionary and social worker He and his associates in the crime were active sympathisers of Hindu nationalist groups. The 2007 Orissa Violence again witnessed violence against Indian Christians. The All India Christian Council claimed that the attacks on Christians were not spontaneous but preplanned by the Vishwa Hindu Parishad and other Hindutva groups in retaliation to the conversion of Hindus to Christianity. The All India Christian Council (AICC is a nation-wide alliance of Christian denominations mission agencies institutions federations and Christian lay leaders Viśva Hindū Pariṣad ( Devanāgarī: विश्व हिन्दु परिषद World Hindu Council widely For Veer Savarkar's book see Hindutva (book. Hindutva (Devanagari हिन्दुत्व "Hinduness" a word coined by Vinayak  According to careful estimates, at least 70 churches and 600 houses were attacked and torched by Hindu extremists.  Human rights groups consider the violence as the failure of the state government that did not address the problem before it became violent. The authorities failed to react quickly enough to save human lives and property.