Starch, CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to Polysaccharides are relatively complex Carbohydrates They are Polymers made up of many Monosaccharides joined together by Glycosidic bonds Carbohydrates (from ' Hydrates of Carbon ' or saccharides ( Greek σάκχαρον meaning " Sugar " are the most Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single sacchar: sugar are the most basic unit of Carbohydrates They consist of one sugar and In Chemistry, a glycosidic bond is a certain type of Functional group that joins a Carbohydrate (sugar molecule to another which may be another carbohydrate All plant seeds and tubers contain starch which is predominantly present as amylose and amylopectin. Amylose ( CAS # 9005-82-7 is a planar Polymer of Glucose linked mainly by α(1→4 bonds Amylopectin ( CAS # 9037-22-3 is a highly branched Polymer of Glucose found in plants Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25 percent amylose and 75 to 80 percent amylopectin.
The word is derived from Middle English sterchen, meaning to stiffen, which is appropriate since it can be used as a thickening agent when dissolved in water and heated. Etymology is the study of the History of Words &mdash when they entered a language from what source and how their form and meaning have changed over time Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of
Starch is by far the most consumed polysaccharide in the human diet. Traditional staple foods such as cereals, roots and tubers are the main source of dietary starch. Tubers are various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store Nutrients They are used by Plants to overwinter and regrow the next year
Starch (in particular cornstarch) is used in cooking for thickening foods such as sauces. Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the Starch of the Maize grain commonly known as Corn. In industry, it is used in the manufacturing of adhesives, paper, textiles and as a mold in the manufacture of sweets such as wine gums and jelly beans. Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. Wine gums (or winegums) are chewy firm sweets similar to Gumdrops except they are not Sugar -coated Jelly beans are a type of Confectionery that comes in many different (primarily Fruit) flavors It is a white powder, and depending on the source, may be tasteless and odorless. Taste (or more formally gustation) is a form of direct Chemoreception and is one of the traditional five Senses
Starch is often found in the fruit, seeds, rhizomes or tubers of plants and is the major source of energy in these food items. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored In Botany, a rhizome is a horizontal stem of a Plant that is usually found underground often sending out Roots and Shoots Tubers are various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store Nutrients They are used by Plants to overwinter and regrow the next year Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The major resources for starch production and consumption worldwide are rice, wheat, corn, and potatoes. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Cooked foods containing starches include boiled rice, various forms of bread and noodles (including pasta). Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Bread is a Staple food prepared by Baking a Dough of Flour and Water. A noodle is food made from unleavened Dough that is cooked in a boiling liquid Pasta ( Italian for "dough" is a generic term for Italian variants of Noodles.
As an additive for food processing, arrowroot and tapioca are commonly used as well. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw Ingredients into Food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by Arrowroot, or obedience plant ( Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial Herb of genus Maranta found in Rainforest Tapioca is a flavorless colorless odorless Starch Commonly used starches around the world are: arracacha, buckwheat, banana, barley, cassava, kudzu, oca, sago, sorghum, regular household potatoes, sweet potato, taro and yams. The arracacha ( Arracacia xanthorriza) is a Garden Root vegetable originally from the Andes, somewhat intermediate between the Buckwheat refers to plants in two genera of the Dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Pueraria lobata (syn P montana P thunbergiana) (sometimes known as foot a night vine, mile a minute vine, Gat Gun, Ge Gan and The oca or oka is a Perennial plant grown in the central and southern Andes for its Starchy edible Tuber, used as a Root Sago is a Starch extracted from the Pith inside stems of the sago palm Metroxylon sagu Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae The sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) is a Dicotyledonous plant which belongs to the family Convolvulaceae Taro (from Tahitian or other Polynesian languages) more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian) and gabi in The Philippines, is a Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) Edible beans, such as favas, lentils and peas, are also rich in starch. Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean is a species of The lentil or daal or pulse ( Lens culinaris) is a bushy Annual plant of the legume family grown for its lens-shaped Seeds A pea (inaccurately called a '''sweet pea''' by food distubutors is most commonly the small spherical Seed or the seed-pod of the Legume Pisum
When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken cold foods. This is referred to as a pregelatinized starch. Otherwise starch requires heat to thicken, or "gelatinize. "The actual temperature depends on the type of starch.
A modified food starch undergoes one or more chemical modifications, which allow it to function properly under high heat and/or shear frequently encountered during food processing. Modified starch is a food additive which is prepared by treating Starch or starch granules causing the starch to be partially degraded Food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, but have many other uses.
The modified starches are coded according to the International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS) :
1401 Acid-treated starch
1402 Alkaline treated starch
1403 Bleached starch
1404 Oxidized starch
1405 Starches, enzyme-treated
1410 Monostarch phosphate
1411 Distarch glycerol
1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetaphosphate
1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate
1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride
1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate
1422 Acetylated distarch adipate
1423 Acetylated distarch glycerol
1440 Hydroxypropyl starch
1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate
1443 Hydroxypropyl distarch glycerol
1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate
Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Resistant starch (RS is Starch that escapes Digestion in the Small intestine of healthy individuals
Plants use starch as a way to store excess glucose, and thus also use starch as food during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology.
Papermaking is the largest non-food application for starches globally, consuming millions of metric tons annually. Papermaking is the process of making Paper, a material which is used ubiquitously today for writing and packaging In a typical sheet of copy paper for instance, the starch content may be as high as 8%. Both chemically modified and unmodified starches are used in papermaking. In the wet part of the papermaking process, generally called the “wet-end”, starches are chemically modified to contain a cationic or positive charge bound to the starch polymer, and are utilized to associate with the anionic or negatively charged paper fibers and inorganic fillers. Starch also helps get out cleaning stains from dirty washing.
These cationic starches impart the necessary strength properties for the paper web to be formed in the papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide strength to the final paper sheet (dry strength). In the dry end of the papermaking process the paper web is rewetted with a solution of starch paste that has been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized. The starch paste solutions are applied to the paper web by means of various mechanical presses (size press). The dry end starches impart additional strength to the paper web and additionally provide water hold out or “size” for superior printing properties.
Corrugating glues are the next largest consumer of non-food starches globally. These glues are used in the production of corrugated fiberboard (sometimes called corrugated cardboard), and generally contain a mixture of chemically modified and unmodified starches that have been partially gelatinized to form an opaque paste. Glue or adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together Corrugated fiberboard is a paper-based construction material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards This paste is applied to the flute tips of the interior fluted paper to glue the fluted paper to the outside paper in the construction of cardboard boxes. This is then dried under high heat, which provides the box board strength and rigidity.
Another large non-food starch application is in the construction industry where starch is used in the gypsum wall board manufacturing process. For the musical group "Drywall" see Drywall (musical project Drywall is a common manufactured Building material Chemically modified or unmodified starches are added to the stucco containing primarily gypsum. Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the formulation and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual rigid wall board. The starches act as a glue for the cured gypsum rock with the paper covering and also provide rigidity to the board.
Clothing starch or laundry starch is a liquid that is prepared by mixing a vegetable starch in water (earlier preparations also had to be boiled), and is used in the laundering of clothes. Laundry can be items of Clothing and other Textiles that require Washing the act of washing clothing and textiles Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Starch was widely used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen the wide collars and ruffs of fine linen which surrounded the necks of the well-to-do. A ruff is an item of Clothing worn in Western Europe from the mid- Sixteenth century to the mid- Seventeenth century. During the 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen the collars and sleeves of men's shirts and the ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as the clean clothes were being ironed. A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body Originally an item of underwear worn exclusively by men it has become in American English a catch-all term for A petticoat or underskirt is an article of Clothing for Women; specifically an Undergarment to be worn under a Skirt, dress or Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool or tools (an iron) to remove Wrinkles from fabric Aside from the smooth, crisp edges it gave to clothing, it served practical purposes as well. Dirt and sweat from a person's neck and wrists would stick to the starch rather than fibers of the clothing, and would easily wash away along with the starch. Dust is a general name for minute Solid particles with Diameters less than 500 micrometers. After each laundering, the starch would be reapplied. Today the product is sold in aerosol cans for home use. Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles
Starch is also used to make some packing peanuts, and some dropped ceiling tiles. Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, are a common loose-fill packing material which is also used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping In Construction and Architecture, a dropped Ceiling, also referred to as a drop or suspended ceiling, is used as a secondary
Printing industry - in the printing industry food grade starch is used in the manufacture of anti-set-off spray powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid wet ink being set off. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press In Printing, anti-set-off spray powder is used to make an air gap between printed sheets of paper this enables the ink to dry naturally and therefore avoid the unwanted transfer In Printing, set-off is the term given to the unwanted transfer of ink from one printed sheet to another Starch is also used in the manufacture of glues for book-binding.
Oil exploration - starch is used as to adjust the viscosity of drilling fluid which is used to lubricate the drill head in (mineral) oil extraction. Drilling a very deep hole is a very costly business The hole size is kept very small as the drilled depth increases because it is to cased and cemented after wards
Body powder - Powdered corn starch is used as a substitute for talcum powder in many health and beauty products. Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with
Gummed sweets such as jelly beans and wine gums are not manufactured using a mold in the conventional sense. Jelly beans are a type of Confectionery that comes in many different (primarily Fruit) flavors Wine gums (or winegums) are chewy firm sweets similar to Gumdrops except they are not Sugar -coated A tray is filled with starch and leveled. A positive mold is then pressed into the starch leaving an impression of 1000 or so jelly beans. The mix is then poured into the impressions and then put into a stove to set. This method greatly reduces the number of molds that must be manufactured.
Starch can be modified by addition of some chemical forms to be a hard glue for paper work , some of those forms are Borax , Soda Ash , which mixed with the starch solution at 50-70C to gain a very good adhesive, Sodium Silicate can be added to reinforce this formula.
Iodine solution is used to test for Starch. Iodine (ˈaɪədaɪn ˈaɪədɪn or /ˈaɪədiːn/ from ιώδης iodes "violet" is a Chemical element that has the symbol I and Atomic A bluish-black color indicates the presence of iodine in the starch solution. It is thought that the iodine fits inside the coils of amylose. Amylose ( CAS # 9005-82-7 is a planar Polymer of Glucose linked mainly by α(1→4 bonds  A 0. 3% w/w solution is the standard concentration for a dilute starch indicator solution. In Biology, percentage solutions are often preferred to molar ones It is made by adding 4 grams of soluble starch to 1 litre of heated water; the solution is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures above 35 °C). This complex is often used in redox titrations: in presence of an oxidizing agent the solution turns blue, in the presence of reducing agent, the blue color disappears because triiodide (I3−) ions break up into three iodide ions, disassembling the complex. Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction describes all Chemical reactions in which atoms have their Oxidation number ( Oxidation state An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a Redox (reduction-oxidation reaction (see Electrochemistry In chemistry triiodide (sometimes written tri-iodide can have several meanings
Under the microscope, starch grains show a distinctive Maltese cross effect (also known as 'extinction cross' and birefringence) under polarized light. A microscope ( Greek: ( micron) = small + ( skopein) = to look or see is an instrument for viewing objects that are The Maltese cross or Amalfi cross is identified as the symbol of an order of Christian warriors known as the Knights Hospitaller or Knights of Malta Polarization ( ''Brit'' polarisation) is a property of Waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations
Starch can be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates by acids, various enzymes, or a combination of the two. Hydrolysis is a Chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins The extent of conversion is typically quantified by dextrose equivalentyy (DE), which is roughly the fraction of the glycoside bonds in starch that have been broken. Food products made in this way include: