A spring is a point where groundwater flows out of the ground, and is thus where the aquifer surface meets the ground surface. Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations An aquifer is an underground layer of Water -bearing Permeable rock or unconsolidated materials ( Gravel, Sand, Silt, or Clay
Dependent upon the constancy of the water source (rainfall or snowmelt that infiltrates the earth), a spring may be ephemeral (intermittent) or perennial (continuous). Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to In Hydrology, snowmelt is Surface runoff produced from melting Snow. Ephemeral things (from Greek εφήμερος - ephemeros, literally "lasting only one day" are transitory existing only briefly A perennial stream or perennial river is a Stream or River (channel that has continuous flow in parts of its bed all year round during years of normal
Water issuing from an artesian spring rises to a higher elevation than the top of the confined aquifer from which it issues. When water issues from the ground it may form into a pool or flow downhill, in surface streams. Sometimes a spring is termed a seep.
Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition a highly ordered atomic structure and specific In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere This may give the water flavor and even carbon dioxide bubbles, depending upon the nature of the geology through which it passes. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit This is why spring water is often bottled and sold as mineral water, although the term is often the subject of deceptive advertising. In many places mineral water is often colloquially used to mean Carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water as opposed to tap water Deception (also called beguilement or subterfuge) is the act of convincing another to believe Information that is not true or not the whole truth as in Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Springs that contain significant amounts of minerals are sometimes called 'mineral springs'. Springs that contain large amounts of dissolved sodium salts, mostly sodium carbonate, are called 'soda springs'. Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), is a Sodium Salt of Carbonic acid. Many resorts have developed around mineral springs known as spa towns. See also Mineral spa A spa town, or simply spa, is a town frequented mainly for health reasons to "take the waters"
Water emanating from karst topography is another type of spring, often called a resurgence as much of the water may come from one or more sinkholes at a higher altitude. Karst topography is a landscape shaped by the dissolution of a layer or layers of soluble Bedrock, usually Carbonate rock such as Limestone A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or Cenote, is a natural depression Karst springs generally are not subjected to as great a degree of ground filtering as spring water which may have continuously passed through soils or a porous aquifer.
Springs are often classified by the volume of the water they discharge. The largest springs are called "first-magnitude," defined as springs that discharge water at a rate of at least 2800 L/s. The scale for spring flow is as follows:
|Magnitude||Flow (ft³/s, gal/min, pint/min)||Flow (L/s)|
|1st Magnitude||> 100 ft³/s||2800 L/s|
|2nd Magnitude||10 to 100 ft³/s||280 to 2800 L/s|
|3rd Magnitude||1 to 10 ft³/s||28 to 280 L/s|
|4th Magnitude||100 US gal/min to 1 ft³/s (448 US gal/min)||6. 3 to 28 L/s|
|5th Magnitude||10 to 100 gal/min||0. 63 to 6. 3 L/s|
|6th Magnitude||1 to 10 gal/min||63 to 630 mL/s|
|7th Magnitude||1 pint to 1 gal/min||8 to 63 mL/s|
|8th Magnitude||Less than 1 pint/min||8 mL/s|
|0 Magnitude||no flow (sites of past/historic flow)|