Spiritualism is a religion that began in the United States and flourished from the 1840s to the 1920s—especially, though by no means exclusively—in English-language countries. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events and trends Technology First use of General anesthesia in an operation by Crawford Long. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  By 1897, it is said to have had more than eight million followers in the United States and Europe, mostly drawn from the middle and upper classes. The religion's distinguishing feature is the belief that the spirits of the dead can be contacted by "mediums," and can therefore provide living people with information about the afterlife. The English word " spirit " comes from the Latin " spiritus " (breath Mediumship is a practice in religious beliefs such as Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Louisiana Voodoo, and AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between 
Developing for a half century without canonical texts or formal organization, the religion attained a cohesion by way of widely distributed periodicals, tours by trance lecturers, camp meetings, and the missionary activities of accomplished mediums. Many of the most prominent Spiritualists were women, and most adherents supported radical causes like abolition and women's suffrage. By the late 1880s the credibility of the movement had weakened, due to widely publicized accusations of fraud, and formal organization began to appear.  Spiritualism still exists today, primarily through the form of the Spiritualist Church in America. The Spiritualist Church arose from the Spiritualist movement which began in the 1840s in America
Spiritualists believe in communicating with the spirits of discarnate humans. They also believe that spirits themselves are capable of growth and perfection, progressing through successively higher spheres or planes. The afterlife is therefore not a static place, but one in which spirits continue to evolve. AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between The two beliefs: that contact with spirits is possible, and that spirits may lie on a higher plane, lead to a third belief, that spirits are capable of providing useful knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about the nature of God and the afterlife. Thus many members will speak of their spirit guides — specific spirits, often contacted, who are relied upon for worldly and spiritual guidance. 
As spiritualism emerged in a Christian environment it has features in common with Christianity, ranging from an essentially Christian moral system to liturgical practices such as Sunday services and the singing of hymns. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions Nevertheless, on significant points Christianity and Spiritualism are quite different. Spiritualists do not believe that the acts of this life lead to the assignment of each soul into an eternity of either Heaven or Hell; rather, they view the afterlife as containing many hierarchically arrayed "spheres," through which each spirit can successfully progress. Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering Spiritualists also differ from Christians in that the Judeo-Christian Bible is not the primary source from which they derive knowledge of God and the afterlife: for them, their own personal contacts with spirits provide that source. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin 
Animist faiths, with a tradition of shamanism and spirit contact, are obviously similar to Spiritualism, and in the first decades of the movement many mediums claimed contact with Native American spirit guides, in an apparent acknowledgment of these similarities. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. " Spirit guide " is a term used by the Western tradition of Spiritualist Churches Mediums, and Psychics to describe an entity that remains a disincarnate Unlike animists, however, spiritualists tend to speak only of the spirits of dead humans, and do not espouse a belief in spirits of trees, springs, or other natural features.
Within Islam, certain traditions, most notably Sufism, consider communication with spirits of the dead to be possible. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف  Additionally, the concept of Tawassul recognises the existence of good spirits on a higher plane of existence closer to God, and thus able to intercede on behalf of humanity. Tawassul (توسل is an Islamic religious practice in which a Muslim seeks nearness to Allah.
Hinduism, though an extremely heterogeneous belief system, shares a belief with spiritualism in the continued existence of the soul after death. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. But Hindus differ in that they typically believe in reincarnation, and normally hold that all features of a person's personality are extinguished at death. Spiritualists, however, maintain that the spirit retains the personality it possessed during its (single) human existence.
Spiritism, the branch of Spiritualism developed by Allan Kardec and found in mostly Latin countries, has always emphasised reincarnation. Spiritism is a Christian philosophical Doctrine, established in France in the mid-nineteenth century Allan Kardec was a pseudonym of the French teacher and educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail ( Lyon, October 3, 1804 – Paris According to Arthur Conan Doyle, most British Spiritualists of the early 20th century were indifferent to the doctrine of reincarnation, very few supported it, while a significant minority were vehemently opposed, since it had never been mentioned by spirits contacted in séances. Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Thus, according to Doyle, it is the empirical bent of Anglophone Spiritualism—its effort to develop religious views from actual observation of phenomena—that kept spiritualists of this period from embracing reincarnation. 
Spiritualism also differs from occult movements, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn or the contemporary Wiccan covens, in that spirits are not contacted in order to obtain magical powers (with the single exception of obtaining power for healing). The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or more commonly the Golden Dawn) was a magical order of the late 19th and early 20th centuries practicing a form of For example, Madame Blavatsky (1831-1891) of the Theosophical Society only practiced mediumship in order to contact powerful spirits capable of conferring esoteric knowledge. Elena Petrovna Gan (Елена Петровна Ган also Hélène, Yekaterinoslav, Ukraine, Russian Empire — May 8 1891 London) better Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy. Blavatsky apparently did not believe that these spirits were deceased humans, and in fact held beliefs in reincarnation that were quite different from the views of most spiritualists. 
Spiritualism first appeared in the 1840s in the "Burned-over District" of upstate New York, where earlier religious movements such as Millerism (Seventh-Day Adventism) and Mormonism had emerged during the Second Great Awakening. " Burned-over district " was a name popularized by historian Whitney Cross in his 1950 book The Burned-over District the social and intellectual history of Upstate New York is the region of New York State north of the core of the New York metropolitan area. Mormonism is a term used to describe the religious, ideological and cultural elements of certain branches of the Latter Day Saint movement The Second Great Awakening  (1790–1840s was the second great religious revival in United States history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival
This region of New York State was an environment in which many thought that direct communication with God or angels was possible, and that God would not behave harshly—for example, that God would not condemn unbaptised infants to an eternity in Hell. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering 
In this environment, the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) and the teachings of Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) provided an example for those seeking direct personal knowledge of the afterlife. (born Emanuel Swedberg; February 8 1688–March 29 1772 was a Swedish Scientist, Philosopher, Christian mystic, and Theologian Year 1772 ( MDCCLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Franz Anton Mesmer (born Friedrich Anton Mesmer; May 23, 1734 &ndash March 5, 1815) was a German physician and astrologist who Year 1734 ( MDCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between Swedenborg, who claimed to communicate with spirits while fully awake, described in his voluminous writings the structure of the spirit world. Two features of his view particularly resonated with the early spiritualists: first, that there is not a single hell and a single heaven, but rather a series of higher and lower heavens and hells; second, that spirits are intermediates between God and humans, so that the Divine sometimes uses them as a means of communication. Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond  Although Swedenborg warned against seeking out spirit contact, his works seem to have inspired in others the desire to do so.
Mesmer did not contribute religious beliefs, but he brought a technique, later known as hypnotism, that it was claimed could induce trances and cause subjects to report contact with supernatural beings. Hypnosis is often thought to be a wakeful state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility with diminished peripheral awareness There was a great deal of professional showmanship inherent to demonstrations of Mesmerism, and the practitioners who lectured in mid-19th-century North America sought to entertain their audiences as well as to demonstrate methods for personal contact with the Divine. The term's most common usage today refers to a person's sexual attractiveness or raw Charisma. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar 
Perhaps the best known of those who combined Swedenborg and Mesmer in a peculiarly North American synthesis was Andrew Jackson Davis, who called his system the Harmonial Philosophy. Andrew Jackson Davis ( 11 August 1826 – January 13, 1910) American Spiritualist, was born at Blooming Grove New Davis was a practicing Mesmerist, faith healer and clairvoyant from Poughkeepsie, New York. The term's most common usage today refers to a person's sexual attractiveness or raw Charisma. Faith healing is the attempt to use Religious or spiritual means such as Prayer, mental practices spiritual insights or other techniques to prevent Clairvoyance (from 17th century French with clair meaning "clear" and voyance meaning "visibility" is the apparent ability to gain Poughkeepsie (pəˈkɪpsiː is a City in New York, USA and serves as the County seat of Dutchess County, located in the Hudson His 1847 book, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations, and a Voice to Mankind, dictated to a friend while in a trance state, eventually became the nearest thing to a canonical work in a Spiritualist movement whose extreme individualism precluded the development of a single coherent worldview. Year 1847 ( MDCCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common 
Spiritualists often set March 31, 1848, as the beginning of their movement. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap On that date, Kate and Margaret Fox, of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had made contact with the spirit of a murdered peddler. The Fox sisters were three women from New York who played an important role in the creation of Spiritualism the religious movement. Arcadia is a Town in Wayne County, New York, United States. The population was 14889 at the 2000 census What made this an extraordinary event was that the spirit communicated through rapping noises, audible to onlookers. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation. 
Amy and Isaac Post, Hicksite Quakers from Rochester, New York, had long been acquainted with the Fox family, and took the two girls into their home in the late spring of 1848. Amy and Isaac Post, were radical Hicksite Quakers from Rochester New York, involved in the struggles for Abolitionism and Women's rights. Elias Hicks ( March 19, 1748 - February 27, 1830) was an itinerant Quaker preacher from Long Island, New York Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York State, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. Immediately convinced of the genuineness of the sisters' communications, they became early converts and introduced the young mediums to their circle of radical Quaker friends.
It therefore came about that many of the early participants in Spiritualism were radical Quakers and others involved in the reforming movement of the mid-nineteenth century. Reform Movement redirects here For specific organizations by that name see Reform Movement (disambiguation A reform movement is a kind These reformers were uncomfortable with established churches, because they did little to fight slavery and even less to advance the cause of women's rights. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another 
Women were particularly attracted to the movement, because it gave them important roles as mediums and trance lecturers. Mediumship is a practice in religious beliefs such as Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Louisiana Voodoo, and Trance denotes a variety of processes techniques modalities and states of mind awareness and consciousness Lecturer is a term of Academic rank. In the United Kingdom lecturer is the name given to University Teachers in their first permanent In fact, Spiritualism provided one of the first forums in which U. S. women could address mixed public audiences. 
The most popular trance lecturer prior to the U.S. Civil War was Cora L. V. Scott (1840–1923). Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Cora Lodencia Veronica Scott (1840–1923 was one of the best-known mediums of the Spiritualism movement of the last half of the 19th century Young and beautiful, her appearance on stage fascinated men. Her audiences were struck by the contrast between her physical girlishness and the eloquence with which she spoke of spiritual matters, and found in that contrast support for the notion that spirits were speaking through her. Cora married four times, and on each occasion adopted her husband's last name. During her period of greatest activity, she was known as Cora Hatch. 
Another famous woman spiritualist was Achsa W. Sprague, who was born November 17, 1827, in Plymouth Notch, Vermont. Achsa W Sprague was one of the best-known Spiritualists during the 1850s in the United States Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Plymouth Notch is a small unincorporated village in the town of Plymouth, Windsor County, Vermont, United States. At the age of 20, she became ill with rheumatic fever and credited her eventual recovery to intercession by spirits. Rheumatic fever is an Autoimmune inflammatory Disease which may develop two to three weeks after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as An extremely popular trance lecturer, she traveled about the United States until her death in 1861. Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Sprague was an abolitionist and an advocate of women's rights. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies 
Yet another prominent spiritualist and trance medium prior to the Civil War was Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825–1875), an African-American "Free Man of Color," who also played a part in the Abolition movement. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Paschal Beverly Randolph ( October 8, 1825 July 29, 1875) was an American Medical doctor, Occultist and Writer Year 1825 ( MDCCCXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1875 ( MDCCCLXXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies  Nevertheless, many abolitionists and reformers held themselves aloof from the movement; among the skeptics was the eloquent ex-slave, Frederick Douglass. Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 14 1818 February 20 1895 was an American abolitionist, editor, Orator 
In the years following the sensation that greeted the Fox sisters, demonstrations of mediumship (séances and automatic writing, for example) proved to be a profitable venture, and soon became popular forms of entertainment and spiritual catharsis. A séance (ˈsay-ons is an attempt to communicate with spirits The word " séance " comes from the French word for "seat" "session" Automatic writing is the process or product of writing material that does not come from the conscious thoughts of the writer The Foxes were to earn a living this way and others would follow their lead.  Showmanship became an increasingly important part of Spiritualism, and the visible, audible, and tangible evidence of spirits escalated as mediums competed for paying audiences. Fraud was certainly widespread, as independent investigating commissions repeatedly established, most notably the 1887 report of the Seybert Commission. Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Seybert Commission was a group of faculty at the University of Pennsylvania who in 1884-1887 investigated a number of respected spiritualist mediums  In a few cases, fraud practiced under the guise of Spiritualism was prosecuted in the courts. 
Prominent investigators who exposed cases of fraud came from a variety of backgrounds, including professional researchers such as Frank Podmore of the Society for Psychical Research or Harry Price of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research, and professional conjurers such as John Nevil Maskelyne. Frank Podmore ( 5 February 1856 - 14 August 1910) was an English author founding member of the Fabian Society, and writer The Society for Psychical Research ( SPR) is a Non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and was later imitated in other countries Harry Price ( January 17, 1881 – March 29, 1948) was a British psychic researcher and author The National Laboratory of Psychical Research was established in 1925 by Harry Price, at the location of 13 Roland Gardens London, S John Nevil Maskelyne ( December 22, 1839 - May 18, 1917) was an English stage magician and inventor of the Maskelyne exposed the Davenport Brothers by appearing in the audience during their shows and explaining how the trick was done. Ira Erastus Davenport (1839 &ndash 1911 and William Henry Davenport (1841 &ndash 1877 known as the Davenport Brothers, were American magicians During the 1920s, professional magician Harry Houdini undertook a well-publicised crusade against fraudulent mediums. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Throughout his endeavors, Houdini remained adamant that he did not oppose Spiritualism itself, but rather the practice of deliberate fraud and trickery for monetary gain. 
Despite widespread fraud, the appeal of Spiritualism was strong. Prominent in the ranks of its adherents were those grieving the death of a loved one. One well known case is that of Mary Todd Lincoln who, grieving the loss of her son, organised séances in the White House which were attended by her husband, President Abraham Lincoln. Mary Ann Todd Lincoln ( December 13, 1818 &ndash July 16, 1882) was the wife of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal  The surge of interest in Spiritualism during and after the American Civil War and World War I was a direct response to the massive casualties. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All  In addition, the movement appealed to reformers, who fortuitously found that the spirits favored such causes du jour as equal rights.  Finally, the movement appealed to some who had a materialist orientation and rejected organized religion. The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. The influential socialist and atheist Robert Owen embraced religion following his experiences in Spiritualist circles. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Atheism Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 Nov 1858 born in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of Socialism Many scientific men who investigated the phenomenon also became converts; these included the chemist William Crookes (1832–1919) and the evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913). Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Sir William Crookes, OM, FRS (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919 was an English Chemist and Physicist. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Alfred Russel Wallace OM, FRS (8 January 1823 &ndash 7 November 1913 was an British naturalist, Explorer, Geographer Year 1823 ( MDCCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Other prominent adherents included the journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849-1912), and the physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930). William Thomas Stead ( 5 July 1849 - 15 April 1912) was an English Journalist. Year 1849 ( MDCCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the Year 1859 ( MDCCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
The movement quickly spread throughout the world; though only in the United Kingdom did it become as widespread as in the United States. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  In Britain, by 1853, invitations to tea among the prosperous and fashionable often included table-turning, a type of séance in which spirits would communicate with people seated around a table by tilting and rotating the table. Year 1853 ( MDCCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Table Turning or "Table Tipping" (see Ouija board is a type of Séance in which participants sit around a table place their hands on it and wait for rotations A particularly important convert was the French pedagogist Allan Kardec (1804-1869), who made the first attempt to systematise the movement's practices and ideas into a consistent philosophical system. Allan Kardec was a pseudonym of the French teacher and educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail ( Lyon, October 3, 1804 – Paris Year 1804 ( MDCCCIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Kardec's books, written in the last 15 years of his life, became the textual basis of Spiritism, which became widespread in Latin countries. Spiritism is a Christian philosophical Doctrine, established in France in the mid-nineteenth century In Brazil, Kardec's ideas are embraced by many followers today. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld  In Puerto Rico, Kardec's books were widely read by the upper classes, and eventually gave birth to a movement known as Mesa Blanca (White Table). Espiritismo ( Spanish for "Spiritism" is the Latin American and Caribbean belief that good and evil Spirits can affect
Spiritualism was mainly a middle- and upper-class movement, and especially popular with women. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Is a concept in Sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a Social hierarchy. U. S. spiritualists would meet in private homes for séances, at lecture halls for trance lectures, at state or national conventions, and at summer camps attended by thousands. Among the most significant of the camp meetings were Camp Etna, in Etna, Maine; Onset Bay Grove, in Onset, Massachusetts; Lily Dale, in western New York State; Camp Chesterfield, in Indiana; the Wonewoc Spiritualist Camp, in Wonewoc, Wisconsin; and Lake Pleasant, in Montague, Massachusetts. Etna is a town in Penobscot County, Maine, United States. The population was 1012 at the 2000 census Onset is a Census-designated place (CDP in the town of Wareham in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. Lily Dale is a Spiritualist community of the Modern Spiritualist movement located in Chautauqua County, New York, USA. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Lake Pleasant is a village in Montague, Massachusetts, United States, and the site of an early and prominent American Spiritualist campground Montague is a town in Franklin County, Massachusetts, United States. In founding camp meetings, the spiritualists appropriated a form developed by U. The camp meeting as a Christian gathering originated in the United States of America. S. Protestant denominations in the early nineteenth century. Spiritualist camp meetings were located most densely in New England and California, but were also established across the upper Midwest. Cassadaga, Florida, is the most notable spiritualist camp meeting in the southern states. Cassadaga (a Seneca Indian word meaning "Water beneath the rocks") is a small Unincorporated community located just north of Orlando Florida 
The movement was extremely individualistic, with each person relying on her own experiences and reading to discern the nature of the afterlife. AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between Organisation was therefore slow to appear, and when it did it was resisted by mediums and trance lecturers. Most members were content to attend Christian churches, and particularly Universalist churches harbored many Spiritualists. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Universalist Church of America was a Christian Universalist religious denomination in the United States (plus affiliated Churches in other parts of the world
As the movement began to fade, partly through the bad publicity of fraud accusations and partly through the appeal of religious movements such as Christian Science, the Spiritualist Church was organised. Christian Science is believed by its supporters to be a system of spiritually scientific truths which are summed up in the two commandments having one God one Mind one Life Truth The Spiritualist Church arose from the Spiritualist movement which began in the 1840s in America This church can claim to be the main vestige of the movement left today in the United States. 
William Stainton Moses (1839-1892) was an Anglican clergyman who, in the period from 1872 to 1883, filled 24 notebooks with automatic writing, much of which was said to describe conditions in the spirit world. The Reverend William Stainton Moses (born Donnington, near Lincoln, England, in 1839 died 1892 was an English Clergyman and Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Automatic writing is the process or product of writing material that does not come from the conscious thoughts of the writer
London-born Emma Hardinge Britten (1823-1899) moved to the United States in 1855 and was active in spiritualist circles as a trance lecturer and organiser. Emma Hardinge Britten (1823-1899 is known for her work as an advocate for the early Modern Spiritualist Movement. She is best known as a chronicler of the movement's spread, especially in her 1884 Nineteenth Century Miracles: Spirits and their Work in Every Country of the Earth.
Eusapia Palladino (1854-1918) was an Italian Spiritualist medium from the slums of Naples who made a career touring Italy, France, Germany, Britain, the United States, Russia and Poland. Eusapia Palladino (alternate spelling Paladino; Minervino Murge, Bari Province, 1854 – 1918 was a famous Spiritualist medium Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Mediumship is a practice in religious beliefs such as Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Louisiana Voodoo, and Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Her stratagems were unmasked on several occasions, though some investigators credited her mediumistic abilities.
One believer was the Polish psychologist Julian Ochorowicz, who in 1893 brought her from St. Petersburg, Russia, to Warsaw, Poland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Julian Leopold Ochorowicz (" Yool -yahn Oh-hor- oh -veech" outside Poland also known as Julien Ochorowitz; Radzymin, February 23 Year 1893 ( MDCCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland He introduced her to the novelist Bolesław Prus, who participated in her séances and incorporated Spiritualist elements into his historical novel Pharaoh. Bolesław Prus (pronounced [bɔ'lεswaf 'prus]; Hrubieszów, August 20 1847 &ndash May 19 1912 Warsaw) whose actual name was A séance (ˈsay-ons is an attempt to communicate with spirits The word " séance " comes from the French word for "seat" "session" An historical novel is a Novel in which the story is set among historical events or more generally in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the Author Pharaoh (Faraon is the fourth and last major Novel by the Polish writer Bolesław Prus. 
After the 1920s, Spiritualism evolved in three different directions. The Spiritualist Church arose from the Spiritualist movement which began in the 1840s in America The Spiritualists' National Union ( SNU) is a Spiritualist organisation founded in the United Kingdom in 1901 and is one Survivalism refers to the belief in the survival of the Conscious self after the Death of the physical body. The Spiritualist Association of Great Britain was established in 1872. The first of these continued the tradition of individual practitioners, organised in circles centered on a medium and clients, without any hierarchy or dogma. Already by the late 19th century spiritualism had become increasingly syncretic, a natural development in a movement without central authority or dogma. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought  Today, among these unorganised circles, spiritualism is not readily distinguishable from the similarly syncretic New Age movement. New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature These spiritualists are quite heterogeneous in their beliefs regarding issues such as reincarnation or the existence of God. Some appropriate New Age and Neo-Pagan beliefs, whilst others call themselves 'Christian Spiritualists', continuing with the tradition of cautiously incorporating spiritualist experiences into their Christian faith. New Age ( New Age Movement and New Age Spirituality) is a Social Collective Phenomenon and a Spiritual Nature Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical
The second direction taken has been to adopt formal organisation, patterned after Christian denominations, with established creeds and liturgies, and training requirements for mediums.  In the United States the Spiritualist churches are primarily affiliated with the National Spiritualist Association of Churches, and in the U. See also Spiritualism (religious movement National Spiritualist Association of Churches One of the oldest and largest of the Spiritualist churches in the USA is the National K. with the Spiritualists' National Union, founded in 1901. The Spiritualists' National Union ( SNU) is a Spiritualist organisation founded in the United Kingdom in 1901 and is one Formal education in spiritualist practice emerged in 1920, continuing today with the Arthur Findlay College at Stansted Hall. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Arthur Findlay MBE JP (1883- July 1964 Accountant Stockbroker and Essex Magistrate Diversity of belief among organised spiritualists has led to a few schisms, the most notable occurring in the U. K. in 1957 between those who held the movement to be a religion sui generis (of its own with unique characteristics), and a minority who held it to be a denomination within Christianity. The practice of organised Spiritualism today resembles that of any other religion, having discarded most showmanship, particularly those elements resembling the conjurer's art. There is thus a much greater emphasis on "mental" mediumship and an almost complete avoidance of the miraculous "materializing" mediumship that so fascinated early believers such as Arthur Conan Doyle. Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the 
The third direction taken has been a continuation of its empirical orientation to religious phenomena. Already as early as 1882, with the founding of the Society for Psychical Research, secular organisations emerged to investigate spiritualist claims. Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Society for Psychical Research ( SPR) is a Non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and was later imitated in other countries Today many persons with this empirical approach avoid the label of "spiritualism," preferring the term "survivalism. Survivalism refers to the belief in the survival of the Conscious self after the Death of the physical body. " Survivalists eschew religion, and base their belief in the afterlife on phenomena susceptible to at least rudimentary scientific investigation, such as mediumship, near-death experiences, out-of-body experiences, electronic voice phenomena, and reincarnation research. An out-of-body experience ( OBE or sometimes OOBE) is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of one's body and in some cases perceiving Electronic voice phenomena (EVP are sections of static noise on the Radio or electronic Recording that some listeners believe sound like voices Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes the discourse of people who claim to have had Past lives. Many Survivalists see themselves as the intellectual heirs of the spiritualist movement.