A sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. The torr (symbol Torr) is a non- SI unit of Pressure defined as 1/760 of an atmosphere. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories A cuff is an extra layer of fabric at the lower edge of the Sleeve of a Garment covering the arms Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of Pressure and Vacuum. It is always used in conjunction with a means to determine at what pressure blood flow is just starting, and at what pressure it is unimpeded. Manual sphygmomanometers are used in conjunction with a stethoscope. The stethoscope (from Greek στηθοσκόπιο, of στήθος stéthos - chest and σκοπή skopé - examination) is an acoustic
The word comes from the Greek sphygmós (pulse), plus the scientific term manometer (pressure meter). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of Pressure and Vacuum. The device was invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch. Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch ( September 9, 1837, Prague - 1905 was a Austrian - Jewish Physician Scipione Riva-Rocci, an Italian physician, introduced a more easily used version in 1896. Scipione Riva-Rocci ( 7 August 1863 — 15 March 1937) was an Italian Internist and Pediatrician who was a native of Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Harvey Cushing discovered this device in 1901 and popularised it. Harvey Williams Cushing ( April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) was an American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of Brain surgery
A sphygmomanometer usually consists of an inflatable cuff, a measuring unit (the mercury manometer), a tube to connect the two, and (in models that don't inflate automatically) an inflation bulb also connected by a tube to the cuff. The inflation bulb contains a one-way valve to prevent inadvertent leak of pressure while there is an adjustable screw valve for the operator to allow the pressure in the system to drop in a controlled manner.
The cuff is normally placed around the upper right arm, at roughly the same vertical height as the heart while the subject seated with the arm supported. In Anatomy, an arm is one of the Upper limbs of an animal The term arm can also be used for analogous structures such as one of the paired upper limbs The heart is a muscular organ in all Vertebrates responsible for pumping Blood through the Blood vessels by repeated rhythmic The cuff is inflated until the artery is completely occluded. Arteries are Blood vessels that carry blood away from the Heart. Listening with a stethoscope to the brachial artery at the elbow, the examiner slowly releases the pressure in the cuff. The stethoscope (from Greek στηθοσκόπιο, of στήθος stéthos - chest and σκοπή skopé - examination) is an acoustic The brachial artery is the major Blood vessel of the upper arm The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint&mdashthe ginglymus or Hinge joint in the middle of the Arm. As the pressure in the cuffs falls, a "whooshing" or pounding sound is heard (see Korotkoff sounds) when bloodflow first starts again in the artery. Korotkoff are the sounds that medical personnel listen for when they are taking Blood pressure using a non-invasive procedure The pressure at which this sound began is noted and recorded as the systolic blood pressure. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories The cuff pressure is further released until the sound can no longer be heard and this is recorded as the diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories
By observing the mercury in the column while releasing the air pressure with a control valve, one can read on the scale the values of the blood pressure in mm Hg. The peak pressure in the arteries during the cardiac cycle is the systolic pressure, and the lowest pressure (at the resting phase of the cardiac cycle) is the diastolic pressure. Cardiac cycle is the term referring to all or any of the events related to the flow of blood that occur from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next A stethoscope is used in the auscultatory method. Systolic pressure ( first phase) is identified with the first of the continuous Korotkoff sounds. Diastolic is identified at the moment the Korotkoff sounds disappear (fifth phase).
Blood pressure meters can be divided in several types: