A road speed limit is the maximum speed as allowed by law for road vehicles. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Speed limits are commonly set and enforced by the legislative bodies of nations or provincial governments, such as countries within the world. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation
In addition to setting an explicit maximum speed limit, most governments also enforce speed limits that are related to driving conditions; for example, requiring drivers to adjust their speed when driving in fog or heavy rain. Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to California Civil Code 22350 is typical; it states that "No person shall drive a vehicle upon a highway at a speed greater than is reasonable. . . and in no event at a speed which endangers the safety of persons or property. " This "basic rule", or similar legal language, applies even where no maximum speed limit is in place (such as formerly in the U. S. state of Montana). See also Speed limit Speed limits in the United States are set by each state or territory. Some roads also have "minimum speed limits", where slow speeds are considered to impede traffic flow or be dangerous.
The first speed limit was the 10mph (16. 1km/h) limit introduced by the Locomotive Act of 1861 (or "Red Flag Act") in the United Kingdom (automobiles were in those days termed “light locomotives”). The Locomotive Act (also known as the Red Flag Act) is a reference to the Locomotives Act 1865 introduced by the British parliament as one of a series of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In 1865, the revised Locomotive Act reduced the speed limit to 4 mph (6 km/h) in the country and 2 mph (3 km/h) in towns. The 1865 Act required a man with a red flag or lantern to walk 60 yards (50 m) ahead of each vehicle, enforce a walking pace, and warn horse riders and horse drawn traffic of the approach of a self-propelled machine. The replacement of the "Red Flag Act" by the Locomotive Act of 1896, and the increase of the speed limit to 14 mph (23 km/h) has been commemorated each year since 1927 by the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. The London to Brighton Veteran Car Run is the longest-running motoring event in the world
Nepal, the Isle of Man and the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh are the only places in the world that do not have a general speed limit. Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U In Germany, 57% of the autobahn motorway system remains free from speed limits. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation The highest posted speed limit in the world is 160 km/h (99 mph), which was experimentally applied during 2007 on selected test stretches in Austria and the United Arab Emirates. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich
Traffic engineers observe that the majority of drivers drive in a safe and reasonable manner, as demonstrated by consistently favorable driving records. A report from the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation includes in its summary the finding that the incidence of crashes depends more on variations in speed between vehicles than on absolute speed, and that the likelihood of a crash happening is significantly higher if vehicles are traveling at speeds slower or faster than the mean speed of traffic. The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure is the British Columbia government ministry responsible for Transport Infrastructure 
Speed limits are set based on many factors, such as road features, crash records, legal statutes, administrative judgment, engineering judgment, and political dictate. Two common measures for setting speed limits are the design speed of the road and the 85th percentile of travel speeds (See Design Speed, Operating Speed, and Posted Speed Practices).
Fuel efficiency also affects the choice of speed limits. The United States at one time had attempted a maximum speed limit of 55 mph (89 km/h) to reduce fuel consumption (See National Maximum Speed Law). The National Maximum Speed Law in the United States was a provision of the 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act that prohibited speed limits higher
It is also estimated that speed limits can be used to reduce emissions and pollution, and some areas have reduced speed limits for improving the air quality (See Environmental Speed Limits). See also Speed limit Speed limits in the United States are set by each state or territory.
In the United States the design speed is officially defined as "a selected speed used to determine the various geometric design features of the roadway", according to the 2001 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials highway design manual, commonly referred to as the "Green Book. The design speed of a Road is the maximum Speed at which a Motor vehicle can be operated safely on that road in perfect conditions AASHTO, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, is a standards setting body which publishes specifications test protocols and " Previous versions of the Green Book referred to design speed as the "maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specific section of highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway govern"; however the 2001 edition removed the term "safe" in order to avoid the implication that speeds greater than the design speed were necessarily "unsafe. "
Safe operating speeds can exceed the design speed. Example reasons include:
In commonly accepted engineering practice, design speed is considered a "first guess" at an appropriate speed limit.
Traffic engineers may rely on the 85th percentile rule to establish speed limits. The speed limit should be set to the speed that separates the bottom 85% of vehicle speeds from the top 15%. The 85th percentile is slightly greater than a speed that is one standard deviation above the mean of a normal distribution. In Probability and Statistics, the standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a collection of values The normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of Continuous probability distributions applicable in many fields
The theory is that traffic laws that reflect the behavior of the majority of motorists may have better compliance than laws that arbitrarily criminalize the majority of motorists and encourage violations. The latter kinds of laws lack public support and often fail to bring about desirable changes in driving behavior. An example is the federally-mandated 55 mph (90 km/h) speed limit that was removed in part because of notoriously low compliance.
Most U. S. jurisdictions report using the 85th percentile speed as the basis for their speed limits, so the 85th-percentile speed and speed limits should be closely matched. However, a review of available speed studies demonstrates that the posted speed limit is almost always set well below the 85th-percentile speed by as much as 8 to 12 mph (see p.88) (13 to 19 km/h). Some reasons for this include:
Most public roads in most places are legally assigned a default maximum speed limit. The relevance of default speed limits to road users varies; in many places authorities always sign the maximum speed limits of their roads with a numerical value. A sign is an entity which signifies another entity A natural sign is an entity which bears a causal relation to the signified entity as thunder is a sign of storm Elsewhere, default speed limits that are relevant to road users may be indicated by a non-numeric sign, a lack of speed limit signs, the presence of street lights, or the physical arrangement of the road. If a default limit applies everywhere within one country it is known as a national speed limit. Different default speed limits usually apply to urban streets, rural highways and motorways. A signed limit overrides a default limit.
The start of a different speed limit is usually marked numerically with a speed limit sign. Speed limit signs can appear near borders and road intersections, and in some cases speed limit reminder signs appear at regular intervals. Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative In the European Union, large signposts showing the national (default) speed limits of the respective country are usually erected immediately after border crossings, with a repeater sign some 200 to 500 metres (about 650 to 1,650 ft) after the first sign. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Border controls are measures used by a Country to monitor or regulate its Borders The control of the flow of people animals and goods across a border may be controlled The same practice is followed in several U.S. states. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government
Occasionally, different units of speed measurement are used on each side of a border. For example, Northern Ireland (part of the UK) uses miles per hour (mph) for speed limits and miles for distance, whereas the Republic of Ireland uses kilometres per hour (km/h) for speed limits and kilometres for distance. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The UK and the United States are the only major nations still using the customary (imperial) units system. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The U. S. has shown no intention to convert to SI units, and reverted to imperial units in states that had both imperial and SI systems such as California and Arizona. However, Ohio, South Dakota, Maine, and Vermont (especially near the Canadian border) still have some SI distances and speeds on their exit distance and speed limit signs (such as 70 mph (110 km/h) / 110 km/h, or 3 miles / 5 km to next exit). When entering Canada, signs are posted reminding drivers that metric signage is in use. Conversely upon entering the US from Canada (at least in Vermont), drivers are shown a 100 km/h speed limit sign. All exit distance signs on Interstates in New Hampshire are marked with the distance in miles followed by the distance in kilometres shown in parentheses. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Houston, Texas has some signs in both imperial and SI units near its airports and downtown. Delaware Route 1 and Interstate 19 have exits numbered by kilometer - I-19 also has kilometer posts. Delaware Route 1 is a 10302 mile (16579 km long four-to-six lane highway going from the Maryland - Delaware State line on the eastern Atlantic shoreline Interstate 19 (I-19 is an intrastate Interstate highway located entirely within the state of Arizona.
Design of speed limit signage varies between countries. In much of Europe the red circle is most common, while in North America, and in Australia, signs are usually rectangular. Sometimes, speed limits are also painted on the road surface as a reminder.
The design of minimum speed signage also varies between countries. Most countries use blue circles based on obligatory signs. A Japanese minimum speed sign has the same design as a maximum speed sign but with a horizontal line below the number.
Informational sign at German border crossings. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Informational sign at Czech border crossings. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia,
Informational sign at Polish border crossings. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
Zonal restriction, common in residential areas
End of restricted zone
Two contradictory United States speed limit signs
A Speed Limit 30 sign in Dracut, MA, with a green sticker on the 0. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Dracut (ˈdɹeɪkət is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
The following table shows the default speed limits that apply in various countries (excepting the local 30 km/h or lower limits in many countries) in km/h (except mph which is posted in the United Kingdom and the United States with those numbers in parentheses):
|Country||Within Towns||Automobiles & Motorcycles||Trucks or Automobiles with Trailer|
|Outside built-up areas/Expressways||Motorways||Outside built-up areas/Expressways||Motorways|
|Australia||50||100-130 (Previously Unlimited) 15||100-110||90-100||90-100|
|Brazil||40-70||80-110||80-120||80 (90 for buses)||80-100|
|Bulgaria||50||90 ( 80)||130 ( 100)||90||100|
|Denmark||50||80||110-130||70 (80 for buses)||70|
|Germany||50||100||no speed limit1||60(trucks)80||80-1007|
|Greece||50||90 ( 70)||130 ( 90)||80 (School buses 60)||80 (School buses 60)|
|Peru||50||60-100||No Speed Limit||70-80||No Speed Limit|
|Turkey||50||90 ( 70)||120 ( 80)||80||90|
|United Kingdom10||48 (30 mph)||97-113 (60-70 mph)||113 (70 mph)||64-97 (40-60 mph)21||97 (60 mph)21|
|Venezuela||50||80-120||No Speed Limit||40-60||60-120|
|United States10||24-72 (15-45 mph)||89-121 (55-75 mph)||89-129 (55-80 mph)19||Restrictions only in some states, typically 5-15 mph lower. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. A Trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Latvia ( Latvija officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. The Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny doubly landlocked Alpine country in Western Europe, bordered by Switzerland Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Singapore Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 20|
*Motor routes: roads with two or more lanes (dual carriageway), a median, and a minimum speed of 60 km/h. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election
1 130 km/h is the recommended maximum speed on motorways, as indicated by a blue sign. Many sections of the German motorway network are now covered by speed limits, usually ranging from 80 to 130 km/h (140 km/h as speed limit is being tested in Lower Saxony -some politicians are against it, because 140 km/h is over the recommended maximum speed, depending on local conditions (i. Lower Saxony ( German: Niedersachsen ch is pronounced before an s --> lies in north-western Germany and is second e. , frequent traffic, terrain, etc. ). It is usual for drivers involved in crashes who were exceeding the 'recommended' speed limit to be held to be at least partly at fault, regardless of the circumstances of the crash, and insurance companies have the right to withhold payment.
² On expressway where is indicated.
³ Two and three-lane expressways: 130 km/h; since 2003 on some three-lane expressway a 150 km/h limit was introduced, but is not operative).
4 Cars with heavy trailer: 80 km/h; lorries with heavy trailer: 70 km/h.
5 Cars with heavy trailer: 100 km/h; lorries with heavy trailer: 80 km/h.
6 During winter, when conditions are often bad, all Finnish motorways have a speed limit of 100 km/h or less. Also most roads with 100 km/h speed limit in summer have 80 km/h limit during winter.
7 Additional trailer checkup (TÜV) and special speed plaque required on vehicle. TÜV s (short for T echnischer Ü berwachungs- V erein, Technical Monitoring Association in English
9 A provisional increase of the speed limit on motorways from 90 to 100 km/h was made permanent when the number of accidents decreased.
10 Signs are posted in mph, a situation unlikely to change in the near future.
11 100 km/h is default limit on all National Routes regardless of design standard when local limits do not apply; regional and minor routes have an 80 km/h limit. All limits are signposted either way.
12 Iceland does not have expressways/motorways in the traditional sense. There is only one such road, with three and four lanes and no traffic lights. It is within city limits, and the maximum speed is 80 km/h.
13 60 km/h in built-up areas between 11 pm and 5 am. Out of built-up areas 90 km/h and 100 km/h on dual carriageways, expressways accordingly 100 and 110 km/h
14 A provisional increase to 160 km/h was in place on a 12 km stretch on the A10 in May and June 2006.
15 Built up area speed limit of 50 km/h in all states and territories. Western Australia and the Northern Territory have a rural limit of 110 km/h. Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. The Northern Territory has zoned some rural highways at 130 km/h. See Speed limits in Australia for details. See also Speed limit Speed limits in Australia range from 10 km/h (5 mph) Shared Zones to 130 km/h (80 mph
16 Speed limit is 110 km/h in several provinces, 100 km/h in others.
17 Some 2 lane Federal highways are posted at 110 km/h provided they have a paved shoulder.
18 The speed limit on Malaysian federal and state roads has been reduced to 80 km/h during festive seasons, starting from the 2006 Hari Raya Aidilfitri.
19 The state of Hawaii posts a 55 mph (89 km/h) speed limit on many Interstate highways. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System)
20 Some states require vehicles towing trailers to follow the posted truck speed limit.
21 Generally in the UK, lorries over a laden weight of 7500kg are speed-limited to 56 mph (90 km/h). Some lorries or trucks between a laden weight of 3500kg and 7500kg are also speed-limited to 56 mph (90km/h)
In some countries in Europe, traffic calming is gradually becoming a regular part of urban traffic management, after a long evolution of opinions and attitudes towards car use and vulnerable road users. Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by Urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce Traffic, thereby improving safety From 1980 regulations for 30 km/h zones were enacted and have been widely applied. New urban policies have been defined with a view to encouraging a switch from car use to public transport and non-motorised modes (cycling, walking), with the additional condition of lower speeds to improve safety of vulnerable road users, for example national policies such as "Sustainable Safety" in the Netherlands or "Vision Zero" in Sweden.
On French autoroutes there is a variable speed limit: in dry weather, 130 km/h (80 mph); when raining, 110 km/h (68 mph). Autoroute is the French word for a major high-speed road restricted to motor vehicles without crossings and having limited access In 2005, a governmental report advised lowering the higher speed to 115 km/h (71 mph) in order to save fuel and reduce accident risks, but this proposal was badly received. Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Since 2002, the French government has installed a number of automatic radar guns on autoroutes, routes nationales, and other major thoroughfares. A radar gun or speed gun is a small Doppler radar used to detect the speed of objects These are in addition to radar manned by the French National Police and the Gendarmerie. The National Police ( police nationale) formerly the Sûreté Nationale, is one of two National police forces and the main civil law enforcement See Gendarmerie for similar forces in other countries In France, the National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie Nationale is the national The French authorities have credited this increase in traffic enforcement with a 50% drop in road fatalities from 2002 to 2006 (except on Motorways, where the fatalities rose by 15% between 2002 and 2006).
German autobahns are famous for having no universal motorway speed limit, although about 30% of them have posted speed limits and about 10% are equipped with motorway control systems that can show variable speed limits. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor  There is no national speed limit, either, for cars on marked "Schnellstraßen" (Express-roads) with a central reservation or a minimum of two marked lanes per direction. On such roads, as well as motorways, a recommended speed limit (Richtgeschwindigkeit) of 130 km/h (80 mph) applies. The Richtgeschwindigkeit ( German for reference speed) is a legal term in Germany describing the Advisory speed limit for roads without a mandatory While driving at higher speeds is not punishable, the increased risk induced by higher speeds (erhöhte Betriebsgefahr) may result in partial liability for damages. Moreover, the law forbids to travel at speeds that would prolong the vehicle's minimum halting distance beyond the driver's line of sight.  On all German roads, there are speed limits for trucks, buses, cars towing trailers, and small motorised vehicles (Mopeds, etc. Mopeds are a class of low-powered (typically under 50 cc displacement) motorized vehicle generally two or three wheeled ).
The introduction of a national speed limit for motorways and similar roads has been on the agenda of various political and environmentalist groups for decades, but at present, there are still no definite plans on behalf of the federal government regarding the matter.
In 1973, in the wake of the oil crisis, a federal speed limit of 100 km/h on Autobahns was imposed to help conserve fuel for fear of impending future shortages (not for environmental or safety reasons). The measure only lasted from December 1973 to March 1974; while the administration and the Bundestag were in favor of keeping the speed limit, the Bundesrat pushed to repeal the law. The Bundestag ("Federal Diet " or "Lower House of German Parliament" is the Parliament of Germany. The Bundesrat ("federal council" or "upper house of German parliament" is the representation of the 16 Federal States ( Bundesländer) of As a compromise, a recommended speed was introduced on Autobahns as well as "highways outside of built-up areas with a center divide or without a center divide and a continuous lane for overtaking in both directions". On divided roads including Expressways Motorways or Autobahns the central reservation (British English, median (North American Overtaking or passing is the act of Driving around another slower Automobile on a Road. This law is basically still in effect today. Unrestricted non-Autobahn highways, however, have since become virtually non-existent or replaced by Schnellstraßen, Autobahn-like expressways with a limit of up to 120 km/h and normally only covering a few kilometers.
The Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) repeated its recommendation of such regulation in early 2007, but the current Merkel administration sees no need for it. The cabinet of Angela Merkel is the current Government of Germany since November 22 2005, during the 16th legislature of the Bundestag Even after a 2007 party congress held by the SPD, one of Germany's governing parties, where a proposal to impose a blanket speed limit was approved, there was outspoken opposition within the administration. At present, it is generally thought that a blanket speed limit would not be significantly beneficial, regarding both environmental and climate concerns and road safety. Current estimates conclude that a speed limit would reduce Germany's overall CO2 emission by a mere fraction of a percent, and in terms of highway safety, German Autobahns are among the world's safest.
Legally, however, state and even local authorities have the power to enact speed limits. A statewide binding speed limit of 130 km/h, for example, was established in Rhineland-Palatinate over a decade ago, whereas the district of Cologne has posted a speed limit on the heavily frequented Cologne Beltway. Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz is one of the 16 federal states (German Bundesländer) of Germany. History The beltway was constructed in a clockwise fashion beginning at Leverkusen. Effective April 9, 2008, Bremen (Germany's northernmost city-state) began enforcing a general 120 kilometers per hour speed limit, citing environmental concerns. Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen However, Bremen's new limit only impacted an additional 11 kilometers of Bremen's 60 kilometers of highway ; most Bremen autobahn already had some speed restriction due to congestion and noise. 
On rural roads that are neither motorways nor roads as described above, there is a national speed limit of 100 km/h (60 mph). Lower speed limits apply to lorries, some buses, and cars towing trailers.
There is a general speed limit within city limits, which are marked by distinctive rectangular yellow signs showing the name of the city, of 50 km/h (30 mph) but residential areas usually have a lower posted speed limit of 30 km/h (20 mph). On arterial roads, the speed limit may be raised to 60 or 70 km/h (37 to 43 mph). Motorways crossing cities count as normal Autobahns and can be used for travel within larger cities in many cases.
Minimum speeds are very rarely marked in Germany. Vehicles which cannot sustain speeds of 60 km/h are not allowed on the Autobahn, however.
In 2006, 57% of the German motorways had no speed limit at all. Roughly one third of regulated roads have computer-controlled traffic guiding systems with variable electronic signs along carriageways showing the set speed limit, or, current road conditions and traffic density allowing, indicating that no speed limit is set at the moment.
Since 29-th January 1900 a governor ordinance limited a speed of vehicles inside settlements to velocity of a hand-cantering horse.
The Law No. 81/1935 Sb. and implementing regulations No. 203/1935 Sb. limited speed inside settlements to 35 km/h. Vehicles with two or more trailers have had 35 km/h limit and trucks and buses 50 km/h, but public buses could have ask for an exception.
The Law No. 56/1950 Sb. limited the speed in thick fog to 25 km/h and at level crossing to 15 km/h.
The ordinance No. 196/1953 Ú. l. specified places, where a speed need to be slow, i. e. under 15 km/h: alongprocessions, at pedestrian crossings, while the driver is entering the road, near buses or trams, near work places, while the road is greasy or while pedestrian traffic is dense.
§ 20 of the ordinance No. 141/1960 Sb. limited speed inside settlements between 5 a. m. and 11 p. m. to 50 km/h. A speed of buses and trucks over 3500 kg were limited to 80 km/h. Base on § 9 of the ordinance No. 80/1966 Sb. also motorcycles are limited to 80 km/h. Long-distance buses are freed from limit. Towed automobiles were limited to 50 km/h. The ordinance No. 42/1971 Sb. established, that at highway no speed limits are, not even for trucks.
§ 12 of the ordinance No. 100/1975 Sb. increased all of the 50 km/h limits to 60 km/h. The special limits for motorcycles, trucks and buses were repealed.
The ordinance No. 70/1979 Sb. since 1-th August 1979 for the first time limited speed outside the settlements. Cars were limited to 90 km/h (110 km/h at highways), long-distance buses at 90 km/h, motorcycles and trucks under 6000 kg to 80 km/h, trucks over 600 kg and buses to 70 km/h. The limit 60 km/h inside the settlements (only between 5:00 and 23:00) was kept.
§ 16 of the ordinance No. 99/1989 Sb. established limit 90 km/h (at highway 110 km/h) for vehicles under 3500 kg nad for buses, limit 90 km/h for motorcycles, limit 80 km/h for all of the others motor vehicles. The speed inside settlements are limited 60 km/h (80 km/h at highways) including the night. For specially signed pedestrian zones and house zones was instutited 20 km/h limit.
Ordinance No. 223/1997 Sb. since 1-st October 1997 reduced settlement limit to 50 km/h and increased highway limit to 130 km/h, including for the motorcycles.
In the Republic of Ireland the speed limit of motorways has been 120 km/h since 19 January 2005 when the conversion of speed limit signposts to km/h occurred; the prior motorway speed limit was 70-mph. Road speed limits in the Republic of Ireland apply on all public roads in the country Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Road signs in the Republic of Ireland mostly differ from the Traffic signs used elsewhere in Europe A 2006 survey of free-flowing traffic speeds found an average speed of 110 km/h, an 85th percentile speed of 123 km/h or 20% exceeding the posted speed limit .
Dual carriageways generally have a limit of 100 km/h, but under local by-laws, stretches of dual carriageway described as High Quality Dual Carriageway can also have a speed limit of 120 km/h.  Other National primary and national secondary roads have a speed limit of 100 km/h, while regional roads have a limit of 80 km/h. A national primary road (Príomhbhóithre Náisiúnta is a Road Classification in the Republic of Ireland. A National Secondary Road (Bóthar Náisiúnta den Dara Grád is a category of road in Ireland. Regional roads are also used in some parts of Ontario See County Road for more information  Again, this 80 km/h can be increased due to local by-laws.  The limit on built-up areas is generally 50 km/h, but may be increased to 60 km/h or, rarely, reduced to 30 km/h. 
Italian autostrade have a 130 km/h speed limit (80 mph), with 110 km/h (70 mph) limits on curvy roads and in rainy conditions. Autostrada (plural Autostrade) is the Italian word for Motorways Freeways but is also used in several countries including Romania A 150 km/h (95 mph) limit straighter roads with at least three lanes per direction is allowed by regulations but has not yet been implemented. When there is rain, the speed limit goes down to 110 km/h on all autostrade.
The default speed limit for Dutch motorways (snelwegen) is 120 km/h (75 mph), although many have limits of 100 km/h (62 mph). Regional roads have a limit of 80 km/h (50 mph) and 100 km/h (62 mph) on expressways (autowegen). The limit in built-up areas is 50 km/h (31 mph), but also 70 km/h (44 mph) and 30 km/h (19 mph).
Since May 2002, the Netherlands has been experimenting with 80 km/h (50 mph) zones on motorways crossing suburban areas. The first zone to be implemented was on the A13, connecting Rotterdam to the Hague, at the Rotterdam suburb of Overschie. This was generally accepted as a success, so in 2005, the experiment was expanded, with four new zones in Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht and Amsterdam. DCMR report (Dutch). The new zones have had mixed results, causing great controversy and calls for the removal of them.
Denmark has three general speed limits:
The general speed limits for driving with trailers are:
Some areas may have lower or higher speed limits. Also the general speed limits apply only for vehicles below 3,5 metric tons. Lower speed limits apply for larger vehicles.
Norway has two general speed limits, 50 km/h in dense populated areas, and 80 km/h in sparsely populated areas. On some roads the speed limit is 90 km/h. On some of the best motorways in Eastern Norway, the limit is 100 km/h. They are now working with testroads to raise the maximum speedlimit to 110 km/h.
Sweden has the official limits 50 km/h in built-up areas, 70 km/h outside and 110 km/h on motorways. There is also a test road in the south of Sweden with a speed limit of 120 km/h. Usually main roads have 90 km/h outside built-up areas, and often 110 km/h in northern Sweden. Main roads in built-up areas separated from pedestrians usually have 70 km/h. Outside schools and hospitals the limit is often 30 km/h. From about 2000 signs have been introduced showing start and end of built-up area. They mean 50 and 70 if there is no number sign. Before that all speed limits were signposted with the round speed limit sign with a number.
From about 1990 to 1995, Sweden lowered the limit in the large city provinces from 110 km/h (70 mph) to 90 km/h (55 mph), which was the lowest in Europe at the time, citing environmental reasons. The term "large city province" was defined as a province including one of the three large cities with suburbs. That meant that the west coast motorway E6 had a 90 km/h (55 mph) limit on its (then) about 250 km of motorway, but some ordinary roads in less densely populated provinces had a 110 km/h (70 mph) limit. E6 is the designation for the main north-south road in Norway, and the west coast of Sweden, running from the southern tip of Sweden, at Trelleborg This reduced limit was later removed because it was neither popular nor well obeyed.
Swiss motorways Autobahnen are limited to 120 km/h (75 mph) and semi-motorways Autostrassen are limited to 100 km/h. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor The Autostrasse literally means motorroad in English and exists in some European countries noticeably Austria, and Switzerland, and some others Other highways are limited to 80 km/h. The limit in built-up areas is 50 km/h (31 mph).
From 1930 to 1965, most roads outside urban areas, including motorways, did not have a speed limit. Fivemiletown ( Baile an Lorgan in Irish) is a Village in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation However, in December 1965, after a series of multiple crashes on motorways, mainly in fog, an experimental speed limit of 70 mph (112 km/h) was introduced for motorways and all other unrestricted roads, and made permanent in 1967 for motorways and dual carriageways with a central reservation (with the limit dropped to 60 mph (100 km/h) for other unrestricted roads). It was reduced to 50 mph (80 km/h) in response to the 1973 oil crisis, and restored to 70 mph (112 km/h) in 1974. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of The The Automobile Association have called for the limit to be increased. History On June 29, 1905 a group of motoring enthusiasts met at the Trocadero restaurant in the West End of London.
The Road Traffic Act 1930 imposed a speed limit of 20 mph on all heavy goods vehicles on all roads. Large Goods Vehicle ( LGV) or category N2 and N3, is the formal term in the European Union for goods vehicles (i This was raised to 30 mph in 1955. 
American speed limit signs usually read "SPEED LIMIT XX", such as "SPEED LIMIT 50" for 50 mph (80 km/h). A minimum speed sign reads "MINIMUM SPEED XX", such as "MINIMUM SPEED 45" for 45 mph (70 km/h). Speed limits on United States roads are usually:
Speed policy is determined by each state. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System)
Since 1977, Canadian speed limits have been in km/h - they were previously in mph. A sign reads "MAXIMUM XX", such as "MAXIMUM 80" for 80 km/h. A minimum speed sign reads "XX MINIMUM", such as "60 MINIMUM" for 60 km/h. Typical speed limits are:
Note that where more than one limit is given per road, it usually indicates a difference between provinces; however, within provinces, different roads of the same classification have different speed limits. school zone refers to an area on a Street near a School or near a crosswalk leading to a school that has a likely presence of Pedestrians School zones generally For example, in Alberta and Nova Scotia some freeways have a limit of 100 km/h, while others have a speed limit of 110 km/h (70 mph). Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's In Ontario, all freeways have a maximum speed limit of 100 km/h unless there is a lower posted limit, although they generally operate at much higher speeds with very little enforcement. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Speed limits are generally lower in Ontario and Quebec on comparable roads than in other Canadian provinces, except Prince Edward Island and perhaps British Columbia. Examples of this disparity include rural two-lane highways in Ontario which have a standard speed limit of 80 km/h, while comparable roads in other provinces have standard speed limits of 90–100 km/h. In rural western Ontario, however, some two-lane roads have speed limits of 90 km/h.
In British Columbia, a review of speed limits conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the Ministry of Transportation found that posted limits on investigated roads were unrealistically low for 1309 km and unrealistically high for 208 km. The reports recommended to increase speed limits for multi-lane limited-access highways constructed to high design standards from 110 km/h to 120 km/h.  As described in that report, the Ministry is currently using ". . . Technical Circular T-10/00 [. . . ] to assess speed limits. The practice considers the 85th percentile speed, road geometry, roadside development, and crash history. "
In most Canadian provinces, as in most other locales, speed violation fines are double (or more) in construction zones, although in Ontario and Alberta this only applies if workers are present in the construction zone.
In Ontario speeding fines double in areas identified as "Community Safety Zones" as well as "school zones". Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec
Previously, all expressways in the People's Republic of China were limited to 110 km/h (68 mph). This article is about the expressways of Mainland China. See also List of roads and streets in Hong Kong, List of roads in Macau, Highway System Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES With the passage of the PRC's first road-related law, the Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China, the speed limit was raised to 120 km/h (75 mph) from May 1, 2004; however, the updating of signs will take some time. The Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国道路交通安全法 is a Law which was passed by the National People's Congress Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
Semi-expressways and city express routes (called kuàisù gōnglù (simplified Chinese: 快速公路) in Chinese, meaning "high speed public road") generally have lower speed limits of 100 km/h (62 mph): in some cases the speed limit may be lower.
On China National Highways (which are not expressways), a common speed limit is 80 km/h (50 mph). The China National Highways ( are a series of trunk roads throughout all of Mainland China. In some localities, speed limits may drop to 40 km/h (25 mph).
Few people drive according to the speed limits, and on most roads, enforcement cameras are non-existent. Where an enforcement camera does exist, it is marked "speeding detection camera" (simplified Chinese: 超速摄像).
On some designated "fast through routes" in cities, speed limits are up to 80 km/h (50 mph). Otherwise, speed limits are 70 km/h (44 mph) on roads with two uninterrupted yellow lines and 60 km/h (37 mph) or 50 km/h (30 mph) otherwise. Signage in towns and on expressways is often present.
Minimum speed limits on expressways vary. A general minimum speed limit of 60 km/h (37 mph) is in force at all times (although traffic jams thwart it).
Many expressways in Hong Kong are limited to 80 km/h. Some expressways with heavy traffic are limited to 70 km/h, such as Island Eastern Corridor and East Kowloon Corridor. Island Eastern Corridor ( IEC;) is an Expressway along the north shore of Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong, China. East Kowloon Corridor ( is a Highway in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is part of Route 5. Tolo Highway and West Kowloon Highway have a 100 km/h limit, and North Lantau Highway limited at 110 km/h, the highest speed limit in Hong Kong. North Lantau Highway ( is part of Route 8 of Hong Kong, linking the Airport and Lantau Island with the rest of the territory
It is important to note that a speeding offence of anything under 10 km/h over the speed limit is not usually enforced - many drivers in Hong Kong travel within this range.
Speed limits in India vary by state and vehicle type. Motorcycles are limited to 50 km/h on all roads, while trucks and buses are restricted to 65 km/h. The limits on cars range from 80 km/h in Maharashtra, 50-60 km/h in New Delhi, and none at all in Uttar Pradesh. Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U Nationwide laws have been proposed to set a 100 km/h speed limit for cars and to increase to the limit of motorcycles to 65 km/h. 
It is common to see speeds of 100-120 km/h on expressways, of which there are very few in India, the most notable being the Mumbai-Pune Expressway. The Mumbai Pune Expressway ( Marathi: मुंबई-पुणे द्रुतगती महामार्ग is India's first six-lane concrete high-speed access Motorcycles are not allowed to use expressways. The speed limit on the Mumbai-Pune Expressway is 80 km/h, but on other ones the limit is 120 km/h. Bangalore's Airport expressway, opening in 2008, will have a design speed of 180 km/h. Bangalore ( officially Bengaluru ( Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. 
Speed limit enforcement has historically been lax on expressways. However, highway police now use automated instruments which capture the speed and mail the fine to the car's owner. Failure to pay may result in doubling of the fine, cancellation of the driving license, and even arrest. Police are now also using wireless PDAs to identify a driver's or vehicle's history, allowing the officer to take appropriate action. Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or " Wires quot
however the issue over speed limits remains under dispute usually due to political factors.
Indonesia employs a maximum and minimum speed limit. The general maximum speed limit on tollways and highways are 80-100 km/h. On all other roads, it is 40-60 km/h. Minimum speed limit is 20 km/h lower than the posted maximum.
However, enforcement of speed limit is rare and drivers often follow "reasonable and prudent" speed limit guidelines.
The general limit is 60 km/h except for divided national highways where the limit is 100 km/h. The expressways (高速道路 kōsokudōro, lit high-speed road) of Japan make up a large network of Freeway -standard toll roads. Urban areas are usually zoned at 40 km/h. Limits in Japan are different from most countries by:
The speed limit on most city streets and rural two-lane roads is 60-80 km/h, while the limit on expressways managed by the Korea Expressway Corporation ranges between 100 km/h and 120 km/h. Four-lane roads between cities generally have an 80 km/h limit.
Speed limits are strictly enforced by Highway Patrols and by way of various radar devices such as speed guns, safety cameras, speed cameras and other vehicle-monitoring devices.
The speed limit in Malaysia is 110 km/h on closed toll expressways. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Malaysian Expressway System (Sistem Lebuhraya Malaysia which begins with the NSE, is in the process of being substantially increased Speed limit on federal, state and municipal roads is between 50 km/h and 90 km/h depending on geographical factors along the road. The default speed limit is 90 km/h and it is reduced to 60 km/h in urban areas.
Several years ago, a proposal to increase the speed limit on Malaysian expressways to 140 km/h was made but was finally rejected in 2005 by Minister of Works, Datuk Seri S. Samy Vellu, stating that most drivers often drive 10 to 30 km/h faster than the stated speed limit on the expressways. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
Starting from the 2006 Hari Raya Aidilfitri festive season, a new lower speed limit for festive seasons of 80 km/h has been implemented on federal and state roads as a preventive measure to reduce accidents during festive seasons. Hari Raya Aidilfitri (also Hari Raya Puasa, literally " Celebration Day of Fasting " is the Malay term for the Muslim Festival
In Pakistan, on newly constructed motorways, M2 and M1, speed limit is 120 km/h. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation The M2 is a motorway in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is 367 Km long and connects Lahore with Islamabad The M1 is a motorway in Punjab and NWFP, Pakistan. It is 175 Km long with 67 km in Punjab and the remaining 108 km in NWFP Most residential areas of big cities, the speed limit is 40 km/h. Major roads of cities have 80 km/h of speed limit.
Philippine expressway speed limits are based on the US Interstate Highway standards. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) The general speed limit in the Philippines is 60 km/h as its minimum and 100 km/h is maximum, although 120 km/h is still allowed.
The speed limit of Singapore highways/expressways is 90 km/h. Singapore
The Act Governing the Punishment of Violation of Road traffic Regulations (道路交通管理處罰條例) is the basic law. The Road Traffic Security Rules (道路交通安全規則) are the basic administrative regulations. When no other limits are posted, the default speed limits are:
Speed limits on freeways are posted by signs, generally 100 km/h. The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, road through railroad, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing Limited segments are posted at 90, 80, or 70 km/h. Most segments of the National Highway No. 3 are now posted at 110 km/h, the highest speed limit in Taiwan. National Highway No 3 is the second North-South Freeway in Taiwan. A truck with a gross weight of 20 tonnes or more is limited to 90 km/h. Except on approaches to toll stations and work areas, minimum speeds are usually posted at 60 km/h.
Australian states and territories use a combination of default speed limits and speed zones. The default limits apply in the absence of a speed zone and are:
Speed limits in New Zealand range up to and including 100 km/h. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The most commonly seen are:
Some vehicles are restricted to lower overall speed limits such as trucks and vehicles with trailers (90km/h), and school buses displaying signs (80 km/h)
Signage tends to follow the European model of a number inside a red circle. Sometimes the open road limit occurs as a black forward slash inside a thin black ring (similar to the UK's National Speed Limit sign).
The letters LSZ (Limited Speed Zone) indicate that the limit is 100 km/h unless conditions (visibility, road condition, rain, many other road users) would make this unwise, in which case it is 50 km/h. This type of speed limit can no longer be set since 2003, and is progressively being replaced.
There is no minimum speed limit but vehicles traveling less than the maximum must keep to the side of the road and pull over to allow others to pass as soon as is safe.
The general speed limits in Namibia are (according to Road Authority of Namibia):
The general speed limits in terms of the South African National Road Traffic Act, 1989 and its regulations are:
The general speed limits in Tunisia are:
The speed limit in Zimbabwe was 100 MPH (140 KM/ph) , but was changed recently to 120 KMH (80 MPH)
Prior to the invention of radar, speed limits were normally enforced by clocking vehicles travelling through speed traps. A traffic enforcement camera is a system including a Camera and a Vehicle -monitoring device used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a Speed limit Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships Clocking a vehicle simply means timing how long it takes for the automobile to pass between two fixed landmarks along a roadway, from which the vehicle's average speed could easily be determined. Setting up a speed trap that could provide legally satisfactory evidence was usually time consuming, however, and early speed traps were often difficult to hide. As a result, organizations such as the Automobile Association could often keep fairly accurate records of speed trap locations. History On June 29, 1905 a group of motoring enthusiasts met at the Trocadero restaurant in the West End of London.
In the early 21st century, police used radar, laser range-finders, aircraft, and automated devices. Officers may also use a method called pacing: following a car for a certain time to establish speed using the calibrated speedometer of the patrol car.
In several countries, notably the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, an increase in automated speed enforcement has resulted in a significant increase in the number of fake number plates. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a Motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes In France, the use of automated enforcement has been credited with contributing to a substantial reduction in fatalities.  Most Western European countries now use automated enforcement on at least some roads.
Speed limit policy can affect enforcement. According to the AASHTO, "experience has . AASHTO, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, is a standards setting body which publishes specifications test protocols and . . shown that speed limits set arbitrarily below the reasonable and prudent speed perceived by the public are difficult to enforce, produce noncompliance, encourage disrespect for the law, create unnecessary antagonism toward law enforcement officers, and divert traffic to lesser routes[. ]"
Speed limit enforcement often begins at a small amount above the speed limit. For example, speeding citations for 1 unit (mph or km/h) above the limit are rare. In certain cases, such as Houston, Texas, only 1% of speeding citations are for less than 10 mph (16 km/h) above the speed limit. 
In the United States, speeding enforcement tolerance is usually up to the discretion of the arresting officer. A small tolerance is almost always allowed even where traffic signs advise "NO TOLERANCE. Most countries post signage known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of Roads to " Some states have official tolerances, such as Pennsylvania. As per state law, one cannot be cited by an officer using a radar/laser gun for traveling less than 10 mph (20 km/h) over a speed limit of less than 55 mph (89 km/h) or for traveling less than 6 mph (10 km/h) over a speed limit of 55 mph (89 km/h) or greater. 
In Taiwan, even though the Regulations on Establishing Traffic Signs and Indicating Lines (zh:道路交通標誌標線號誌設置規則) define the speed limit signs to show absolute limits, the police agencies have generally agreed a tolerance of up to 10 km/h. A notable exception was the Hsuehshan Tunnel opened on June 16, 2006 with automated speeding cameras. The Hsuehshan Tunnel ( Traditional Chinese: 雪山隧道 Hanyu Pinyin: Xuěshān Suìdào Tongyong Pinyin: Syuěshān Suèidào Wade-Giles Events 1487 - Battle of Stoke Field, the last dying breath of the Wars of the Roses. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. After the zero tolerance on speeding created controversy, effective 00:00 (UTC+8) on September 16, 2006, a tolerance of 10 km/h has been allowed as on other Taiwanese roads. Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
In Hong Kong, there is a tolerance of 10 km/h over the posted speed limit.
In the United Kingdom ACPO guidelines recommend a tolerance level of the speed limit "+10% +2 mph" (e. The Association of Chief Police Officers ( ACPO) established in 1948 is the lead organisation for developing Police policy in England Wales and Northern Ireland g. a tolerance level in a 30 mph (50 km/h) zone of 35 mph). However, each police force or safety camera partnership has the ability to use its discretion when setting the levels at which drivers will be prosecuted.
In the Netherlands drivers can get a fine for driving 4 km/h over the speed limit, after applying a 3 or 4 km/h correction factor to compensate for measuring errors. Police officers are usually not allowed to use their discretion when setting the speeding threshold during enforcement activities by photo radar.
Road safety improvements in the Australian state of Victoria are largely attributed to infrastructure improvements and speed management including tougher tolerances and enforcement. Low level speeding is targeted because of the overall population effects. This is best explained by the recent Auditor General's independent review which cites:
The relative risk of casualty crash involvement for vehicles travelling only a few km/h above the speed limit is lower than for those travelling a greater amount above the limit. However the contribution of “low level speeders” to the total number of casualty crashes is high because of the high number of motorists travelling at these speeds. Therefore, “low level speeding” represents a substantial risk across the road network. 
Victoria has some of the tightest speeding tolerances in Australia, with 3 km/h if the speed is under 100 km/h, or 3% if over 100 km/h. This is despite the fact that the Australian Design Rules only stipulate that a car's speedometer must be accurate within a 10% tolerance.
In Germany, traveling at any speed above the posted speed limit constitutes a speeding offense. A 3 km/h tolerance (4km/h when speeding over 100km/h) in favor of the offender, however, is always deducted. Fines for speeding depend on how high above the speed limit the measured speed is, and on where the offense occurred. Speeding in built-up areas invariably carries higher fines than outside city limits. While fines for minor offenses tend to be moderate, speeds in excess of 20 km/h above the limit in built-up areas and 30 km/h on other roads not only result in distinctly higher fines, but also points on the driver's license, and, again depending on the speed at which the offender was clocked, may lead to a driving ban of at least one month.
Methods for evading enforcement of speed limits have entered popular culture. Among the most familiar techniques is to purchase a radar detector to seek out police radar signals before one enters an enforcement zone. A radar detector, sometimes called a fuzz buster, is a passive electronic device used by Motorists to determine if their speed is being monitored by law enforcement Observers have pointed out a small-scale arms race ensues, as speeders buy radar detectors of greater technology and police purchase equipment that is harder to detect. The term arms race, in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremacy Such detectors are illegal in certain jurisdictions. Speeders can also alter their traffic behavior according to known police stake-out positions. 
Databases are available containing the GPS location of speed limit signs. One is the Open-Speedlimit-Database. This information can be used to build advance cruise controls, eventually leading to the driverless car. Cruise control (sometimes known as speed control or autocruise) is a system that automatically controls the rate of motion of a Motor vehicle. The driverless car concept embraces an emerging family of highly automated cognitive and control technologies ultimately aimed at a full "taxi-like" experience for car users
The kinetic energy involved in a motor vehicle collision is proportional to the square of the speed at impact. The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion A collision is an isolated event in which two or more bodies (colliding bodies exert relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time The probability of a fatality is, for typical collision speeds, empirically correlated to the fourth power of the speed difference at impact, rising much faster than kinetic energy.
To illustrate these statistics, suppose two vehicles crash into a massive, fixed object, and one vehicle’s speed is 10% greater than the other vehicle. The faster vehicle will release 21% more energy, and its occupants will experience a 46% higher probability of a fatality.
It should be noted that crashes with dramatic, sudden speed changes that terminate almost all velocity are atypical. These kinds of crashes include head on collisions or collisions with massive, fixed objects like trees or concrete bridge piers.
Although the basic relationship between vehicle speed and crash severity is unequivocal and based on the laws of physics, the probability of a crash as well as crash severity can be mitigated. Safety devices like crash attenuators, barriers, or wide medians are examples. An impact attenuator, also known as a crash cushion or crash attenuator, is a device intended to reduce the damage done to structures vehicles and motorists resulting A Jersey barrier or Jersey wall separates lanes of traffic (often opposing lanes of traffic with a goal of minimizing vehicle crossover in the case of accidents The highest degree of mitigation is found on motorways (which may be called freeways, limited access highways, also Autobahns, Interstates or other national names), which are internationally documented as being the safest roads per mile travelled despite their higher speeds, due to designing out of most conflict opportunities as well as restricted access. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System)
The 1998 Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed and Speed Management sponsored by the US Federal Highway administration found, "on freeways and other high-speed roads, speed limit increases generally lead to higher speeds and crashes. " Increasing a speed limit by 4 mph (6 km/h) would increase the average speed by 1 mph (1. 6 km/h) and increase injury accidents by 5%. The report cautions that "changing speed limits on low and moderate speed roads appears to have little or no effect on speed and thus little or no effect on crashes. " The report noted that traffic calming significantly reduced speeds and injuries in treated areas but that the decrease may be due to reduced traffic volumes. The report also suggests that "variable speed limits that adjust with traffic and environmental conditions could provide potential benefits" as most of the speed related crashes involve speed too fast for conditions.
The report noted the landmark study (D. Solomon, "Accidents on Main Rural Highways Related to Speed, Driver, and Vehicle", Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, July 1964) that observed a "U-shaped curve" of crash probability versus speed, where crash rates were lowest for travel speeds near the mean speed of traffic, and increased with greater deviations above and below the mean. Subsequent research has found that "The occurrence of a large number of crashes involving turning maneuver partly explains the increased risk for motorists traveling slower than average and confirms the importance of safety programs involving turn lanes, access control, grade separation, and other measures to reduce conflicts resulting from large differences in travel speeds. "
A 1994 study by Jeremy Jackson and Roger Blackman showed, consistent with the risk homeostasis theory, that although increased speed limits and reduced speeding fines significantly increased driving speed, there was no effect on accident frequency, with the 24 participants maintaining the same level of risk and risky behaviour. Risk homeostasis is a Risk theory developed by Gerald JS Wilde a professor emeritus of psychology at Queen's University, Kingston Ontario, Canada It also showed that an increased accident cost caused large and significant reductions in accident frequency but no change in speed choice. The abstract states that the results suggest that regulation of specific risky behaviors such as speed choice may have little influence on accident rates.
Some safety factors are not always under the full control of the driver, such as driver alertness and distractions, road conditions, weather, daylight availability, actions and alertness of other drivers, and wildlife. While these factors are not directly related to vehicle speed, the effects of these factors can be more severe with more speed. For example, a deer running across the road has no consequences to a parked vehicle but could have disastrous consequences for a vehicle traveling at 100 mph (160 km/h). This suggests that lower speeds can reduce the frequency and severity of crashes; lower speeds can give the driver more time to respond appropriately in the face of unexpected dangers, and it can reduce the severity of a crash should one happen. However, since the efficacy of speed limits in restraining driver speed is subject to debate, it is not clear how well speed limits can ameliorate these other factors.
Another view is that, while speed can play a part of the causal chain which leads to crashes, speed's role is mostly to magnify the consequences of other unsafe acts. This viewpoint is reinforced by the fact that speed is rarely the sole crash factor. In many cases, removing the other crash factors, such as a right of way violation, would have absolutely prevented the collision. While reducing the speed could have a beneficial effect on the severity and probability of the crash, it usually cannot guarantee crash prevention.
Most 'speed-related' crashes involve speed too fast for conditions such as limited visibility or reduced road traction, rather than in excess of the posted speed limit. Most speed-related crashes occur on local and collector roads with relatively low speed limits. However, most speed-related traffic citations involve speeds in excess of posted maximum speed limits. Variable speed limits (q. For a discussion of the maximum speed possible in the universe see Speed of light and Special relativity. v. ) offer some potential to reduce speed-related crashes, but due to the high cost of implementation exist primarily on motorways. Speed-related crashes can occur on high speed limit roads at low speeds, e. g. below 30 mph (50 km/h); for example, truck rollovers on exit ramps.
Recently some jurisdictions have begun experimenting with variable speed limits which change with road congestion and other factors (this is distinct from France's reduction of limits during adverse weather). One example is on Britain's M25 motorway, which circumnavigates London. To see information about the M25 motorway under construction in Ireland, see N25 road. On the most heavily-traveled 22 km section (junction 10 to 16) of the M25 variable speed limits combined with automated enforcement have been in force since 1995. Initial results indicated savings in journey times, smoother-flowing traffic, and a fall in the number of accidents, so the implementation was made permanent in 1997. Further trials on the M25 have been thus far proved inconclusive. 
In Germany, the first experiments with variable signs took place in 1965 on A8 Munich-Salzburg with signs that were operated manually. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Future plans As of 2006 a gap remains between Pirmasens and Karlsruhe with no immediate plans to close the gap Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg.  Beginning in the 1970s, more and more advanced Streckenbeeinflussungsanlagen (linear control systems) were put into service. Modern motorway control systems can work without human intervention using various types of sensors to measure traffic flow and weather conditions. By 2007, 1200 km (10 %) of German motorways will be equipped with such systems. 
In 2006, Austria began experimenting with a 160 km/h (100 mph) speed limit on a selected test stretch of Autobahn as part of their program of variable speed limit, using the slogan "flexibility with responsibility. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor "
New Zealand has had variable speed limits since 2001. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The first installation was on the Ngauranga Gorge, a steep section of dual carriageway on SH1 north of the capital, Wellington. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the The speed limit is normally 80 km/h. The downhill section is monitored by a fixed speed camera.
In The Netherlands, much of the dense motorway network is equipped with variable speed regulation systems. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The electronic signage is commonly posted every 500 metres. The system keeps track of all traffic movement and lowers the speed limit if it detects the start of traffic congestion. When activated the speed limit can be set at 90, 70, or 50 km/h according to the level of expected traffic congestion.
Variable speed limits are used on some stretches of highway in the United States, but it has not been implemented on a national basis. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the On Interstate 90 at Snoqualmie Pass, Washington, (near Seattle) variable speed limits are used to slow traffic in severe winter weather. Interstate 90 (I-90 is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3100 miles (5000 kilometers Snoqualmie Pass is a Census-designated place (CDP in Kittitas County, Washington, United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This is also done on other mountain passes in Washington.  Variable speed limit signs, in combination with variable message signs, have been in use since the 1960s on the New Jersey Turnpike, where officials can adjust the speed limit according to weather, traffic conditions, and construction. A variable- (also changeable-, electronic-, or dynamic-) message sign, often abbreviated VMS, CMS, or DMS, is The New Jersey Turnpike (or simply The Turnpike as it is known to New Jersey residents is a Toll road in New Jersey and is one of the most heavily traveled Other roadways with variable speed limits include the Pulaski Skyway in New Jersey and I-495 in Delaware. The General Pulaski Skyway is a series of Cantilever Truss Bridges in the northeast part of the U Interstate 495 (abbreviated I-495) in Delaware is a six-lane bypass of Interstate 95 around the city of Wilmington Delaware.
Speed limits and their enforcement have been opposed by some motorists since their inception. Britain's first motoring organisation, the AA, was formed to warn members about speed traps. History On June 29, 1905 a group of motoring enthusiasts met at the Trocadero restaurant in the West End of London. This article is about the Peter King album For the term related to speed limits see Speed trap. Other organizations, such as the Association of British Drivers, Safe Speed, the North American National Motorists Association, and German Auto Club ("ADAC"), have sought to ban or discredit certain speed limits as well as other measures, such as automated camera enforcement. The Association of British Drivers (ABD founded in 1992 is a British motorists' Advocacy group. Safe Speed is a British Pressure group. Safe Speed primarily campaigns against Speed cameras arguing that abiding by a speed limit does not guarantee The National Motorists Association ( NMA) is a for-profit Corporation in the United States that advocates a libertarian point of view on issues related to The ADAC ( Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club eV) is Germany 's and Europe 's largest automobile club with 15290614 members in August 2005 A traffic enforcement camera is a system including a Camera and a Vehicle -monitoring device used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a Speed limit The debate over speed limit enforcement has become a large part of the road safety and environmental policy debate in some countries.
Critics of speed limits and strict enforcement outside built-up areas point to:
In Australia for instance, Government & Police attribute speed as the main cause in 30% of crashes, even though speeding is a cause in only 20% of those cases (or 6% of total cases). This is due to an extremely wide-ranging definition of speed, in order to explain fixed speed cameras and zero-discretion traffic policing.
Prior to the (now defunct) 1974 national 55 mph (88 km/h) speed limit in the U. S. , German Autobahns had a higher fatality rate than U. S. Interstates; however, a few years later, the Autobahn rate fell below that of (then) 55 mph (88 km/h) limited U. S. Interstates. IRTAD records show the U. S. rate remains higher than that on the largely unrestricted German Autobahn network. While the fatality rate on the UK's 70 mph (112 km/h) speed-limited motorways is about half of Germany's, the 62 mph (100 km/h) limit in rule-conscious Japan corresponds to a motorway fatality rate greater than Germany's. However, simple comparisons of fatality rates between countries neglect to account for differences in traffic density, quality of medical care, and Smeed's law. Smeed's Law, named after R J Smeed who first proposed the relationship in 1949 is an empirical rule relating Traffic fatalities to traffic congestion as measured
Finally, opposition to speed limits exists purely on the philosophical level. Some question the institution of enforcing speed limits (among other motor vehicle offenses) are criminalizing a hitherto unknown percentage of the population. Prior to the enforcement of speed limits, perhaps only a small percentage of individuals would find themselves outside the law. After the creation of motor vehicle legislation, the average individual is quite likely to break the law at some point in their driving career.
In some jurisdictions some public roads have no speed limits:
Montana has had a speed limit since June 1999 (see Montana Speed Limit). For a discussion of the maximum speed possible in the universe see Speed of light and Special relativity. Montana ( is a state in the Western United States. One-third of the state in the western part contains numerous mountain ranges (approximately 77 named of the northern See also Speed limit Speed limits in the United States are set by each state or territory. Australia's Northern Territory had no blanket speed limits outside major towns until January 2007, when rural speed limits were reduced to 110 km/h or 130 km/h . For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the center of the mainland continent as well as the central northern regions