Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) is a potential claim on the freely usable currencies of International Monetary Fund members. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic SDRs have the ISO 4217 currency code XDR. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established
SDRs are defined in terms of a basket of major currencies used in international trade and finance. At present, the currencies in the basket are the euro, the pound sterling, the Japanese yen and the United States dollar. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Before the introduction of the euro in 1999, the Deutsche mark and the French franc were included in the basket. The franc (represented by the franc sign ₣ or more commonly just F) is a former Currency of France. The amounts of each currency making up one SDR are chosen in accordance with the relative importance of the currency in international trade and finance. The determination of the currencies in the SDR basket and their amounts is made by the IMF Executive Board every five years.
The exact amounts of each currency in the basket, and their approximate relative contributions to the value of an SDR, in the past were and currently are:
|1981–1985||0. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency The franc (represented by the franc sign ₣ or more commonly just F) is a former Currency of France. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) 540 (42%)||0. 460 (19%)||34. 0 (13%)||0. 0710 (13%)||0. 740 (13%)|
|1986–1990||0. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) 452 (42%)||0. 527 (19%)||33. 4 (15%)||0. 0893 (12%)||1. 020 (12%)|
|1991–1995||0. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 572 (40%)||0. 453 (21%)||31. 8 (17%)||0. 0812 (11%)||0. 800 (11%)|
|1996–1998||0. Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) 582 (39%)||0. 446 (21%)||27. 2 (18%)||0. 1050 (11%)||0. 813 (11%)|
|1999–2000||0. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. 5820 (39%)||0. 3519 (32%)||27. 2 (18%)||0. 1050 (11%)|
|2001–2005||0. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 5770 (45%)||0. 4260 (29%)||21. 0 (15%)||0. 0984 (11%)|
|2006–2010||0. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For the film see 2010 The Year We Make Contact. For the book see 2010 Odyssey Two. 6320 (44%)||0. 4100 (34%)||18. 4 (11%)||0. 0903 (11%)|
SDRs are used as a unit of account by the IMF and several other international organizations. A few countries peg their currencies against SDRs, and it is also used to denominate some private international financial instruments. For example, the Warsaw convention, which regulates liability for international carriage of persons, luggage or goods by air uses SDRs to value the maximum liability of the carrier. The Warsaw Convention is an international convention which regulates liability for international carriage of persons luggage or goods performed by aircraft for reward
In Europe, the Euro is displacing the SDR as a basis to set values of various currencies, including Latvian lats. Euro Enlargement of the Currently there are several currencies pegged to the Euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate For common abbreviations see LAT (disambiguation The lats (plural lati, ISO 4217 currency code LVL or 428 is the This is a result of the ERM II convergence criteria which now apply to states entering the European Union. The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979 as part of the European Monetary System (EMS Convergence criteria (also known as the Maastricht criteria are the criteria for European Union member states to enter the third stage of European Economic and Monetary The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
SDRs basically were created to replace gold in large international transactions. Being that under a strict (international) gold standard, the quantity of gold worldwide is relatively fixed, and the economies of all participating IMF members as an aggregate are growing, a perceived need arose to increase the supply of the basic unit or standard proportionately. The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold Thus SDRs, or "paper gold", are credits that nations with balance of trade surpluses can 'draw' upon nations with balance of trade deficits. The balance of trade (or net exports, sometimes symbolized as NX) is the difference between the monetary value of Exports and imports in an
So-called "paper gold" is little more than an accounting transaction within a ledger of accounts, which eliminates the logistical and security problems of shipping gold back and forth across borders to settle national accounts.
Joseph Stiglitz has argued that usage by central banks of SDRs as foreign exchange reserve could be viewed as the prelude to the creation of a single world currency. Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American Economist and a professor at Columbia University. A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the entity responsible for the Monetary policy of a country or of a group of member states Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign Currency deposits held by Central banks and monetary In the Foreign exchange market and International finance, a world currency or global currency refers to a Currency in which the vast majority  It has also been suggested that having holders of US dollars convert those dollars into SDRs would allow diversification away from the dollar without accelerating the decline of the value of the dollar. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  
SDRs are the basis for the international fees of the Universal Postal Union, responsible for the world-wide postal system. The Universal Postal Union ( UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an International organization that coordinates postal policies among member Mail, or post, is a method for transmitting information and tangible objects wherein written Documents typically enclosed in Envelopes and also As a spinoff from the postal services, SDRs are also used to transfer roaming charge files between international mobile telecoms operators and charges for some radio communications. Roaming is a general term in Wireless Telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location
SDRs limit carrier liability on international flights (see Montreal Convention, Warsaw Convention), as well as ship owner liability for cargo damages and oil pollution. The Montreal Convention, formally the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage, is a treaty adopted by a Diplomatic meeting of ICAO The Warsaw Convention is an international convention which regulates liability for international carriage of persons luggage or goods performed by aircraft for reward
The value of one SDR in terms of United States dollars is determined daily by the IMF, based on the exchange rates of the currencies making up the basket, as quoted at noon at the London market. In Finance, the exchange rates (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. (If the London market is closed, New York market rates are used; if both markets are closed, European Central Bank reference rates are used. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The European Central Bank (ECB is one of the world's most important Central banks responsible for Monetary policy covering the 15 member countries of the )
The latest value of the SDR in terms of the US dollar is available from the IMF, updated daily.