There are two types of special-purpose districts in the United States: school districts and special districts. This is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc. Districts are a type of Administrative division, in some countries managed by a Local government. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. , in that they only serve one or a few special purposes and do not provide a broad array of services. They are common in the United States of America, where more than 35,000 districts play an important role in providing government services in every U.S. state. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government The U. S. Census Bureau keeps counts and data on these districts.
Special-purpose districts provide specialized services only to those persons who live within them. Special districts possess fiscal and administrative autonomy. They often are empowered to tax residents of the district, usually by a property tax but sometimes an excise or sales tax, for the services that they provide. Property tax, or millage tax, is an Ad valorem tax that an owner pays on the value of the property being taxed Excise or Excise tax (sometimes called an excise duty) is a type of Tax charged on goods produced within the country (as opposed to Customs duties A sales tax is a Consumption tax charged at the Point of purchase for certain goods and services They often cross the lines of towns, villages, and hamlets but less frequently cross city or county lines. Increasingly, however, regional special districts are being created that may serve a large portion of a state or portions of more than one state.
Districts are created by legislative action, court action, or public referendum and are governed by a board of directors, commissioners, supervisors, or the like. The board serves as a district board of directors and may be appointed by public officials, appointed by private entities, popularly elected, or elected by benefited citizens (typically property owners). Sometimes, one or more public officials will serve ex officio on the board. Also, the board of a private entity may serve as the board of a special district (however, such a board could not be given the power to set a tax). The board serves primarily as a legislative board and appoints a chief executive for day to day operations and decision making and policy implementation. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator Most districts have employees, but some districts exist solely to raise funds by issuing bonds and/or by providing tax increment financing. In Finance, a bond is a Debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and Interest Tax Increment Financing, or TIF, is a public financing method which has been used for Redevelopment and community improvement projects in the United States
Districts typically have some corporate powers. They must be able to set their own budget without line item modification by another government. The authorizing legislation may give them the power to tax, issue bonds, or set fees; and/or the authorizing legislation may establish revenues via taxes or fees on behalf of the district; and/or the authorizing legislation may require contributions by participating local governments.
Special districts are sometimes created to provide fire protection, sewer service, transit service or to manage water resources, among many other possible functions. A fire station (also called stationhouse) is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus (i Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In many states in the USA, school districts operate the public schools (as opposed to dependent school systems, which are dependent on the state or a local government for administrative and/or fiscal direction). School districts are a form of Special-purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and All special-purpose districts are founded by some level of government in accordance with state law and exist in all states.
- Fayette County Conservation District, Lexington, Kentucky
- Los Angeles Community College District, California
- Metro, Portland metropolitan area, Oregon
- Metropolitan School District of Perry Township, Indianapolis, Indiana
- Metropolitan Board of Works, London, England
- Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago
- Miami Valley Regional Transit Authority, Dayton, Ohio
- Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District, California
- Nebraska Public Power District
- Orange County Water District, California
- Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York City
- Reedy Creek Improvement District, which includes the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida
- York Rural Sanitary District, Yorkshire, England
- Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, D.C.
References Highway Districts were areas in England and Wales united for the maintenance and repair of highways A Poor Law Union was a unit used for local government in the United Kingdom from the 19th century In Canada and the United States a port authority (less commonly a port district) is a governmental or quasi-governmental Public authority A public utility district ( PUD) is a Special-purpose district or other Governmental Jurisdiction that provides public utilities (such Reclamation districts are a form of Special-purpose districts in the United States (and possibly other countries which are responsible for reclamining and/or maintaining Sanitary Districts were established in England and Wales in 1875 and in Ireland in 1878. School districts are a form of Special-purpose district which serves to operate the local public primary and secondary schools A transit district or transit authority is a Special-purpose district organized as either a corporation chartered by statute or a government agency created For vector control of induction motors see Motor controller Vector control is any method to limit or eradicate the Mammals Birds Lexington (officially Lexington-Fayette Urban County is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 68th largest in the United States. The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD is the Community college district serving Los Angeles California and some of its neighboring cities California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Metro, formerly known as Metropolitan Service District, is the regional governmental agency for the Oregon portion of the Portland metropolitan area. For the metropolitan area in Maine see Portland-South Portland-Biddeford metropolitan area. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Metropolitan School District of Perry Township serves Perry Township, Marion County, Indiana, United States, a southern part of the The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW was the principal instrument of London -wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889 London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC is a sanitary district a type of Special-purpose district, chartered in northern Illinois. The Greater Dayton Regional Transit Authority, formerly known as the Miami Valley RTA is a public transit service that generally serves the greater Dayton area Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States. It is the County seat and largest city of Montgomery County. The Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District (MROSD is a Special-purpose district that manages over 50000 acres (200 km² of Open California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey ( PANYNJ) is a bi-state Port district, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through The City of New York The Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID is the immediate governing jurisdiction for the land on the Walt Disney World Resort. Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited and largest recreational resort in the world containing four Theme parks two Water parks twenty-three themed hotels Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the York was a Rural sanitary district in Yorkshire, England until 1894 Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority ( WMATA) is a tri-jurisdictional Government agency authorized by Congress, that operates transit Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium A business improvement district ( BID) is a Public-private partnership in which businesses in a defined area elect to pay an additional tax in order to fund improvements A Municipal Authority is a special governmental unit in Pennsylvania. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or Off-budget enterprises ( OBE s or Special districts) are a type of Government in the United States, the UK and the Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems The acronyms Qango and Quango, variously spelt out as QUAsi Non-Governmental Organization, QUasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organization, and A homeowners' association (abbrev HOA) may be A legal entity created by a real estate developer for the purpose of developing managing and selling a community
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