Francisco Franco became the undisputed dictator of Spain when he defeated the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The Second Spanish Republic was the system of government in Spain between April 14 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Franco declared an official end of hostilities on 1 April 1939, and reworked the name of the republic into the “Spanish State,” a new moniker attempting to distinguish the new regime from both the monarchy and the republic. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Spanish State ( Estado Español) was the formal name given to Spain from 1939 to 1978 by the régime of Francisco Franco He ruled Spain until he died on November 20, 1975. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The Nationalist senior generals held an informal meeting in September 1936, where they elected Francisco Franco as leader of the Nationalists, with the rank of Generalísimo (sometimes written in English as Generalissimo, after the Fascist Italian fashion). Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini He was originally supposed to be only commander-in-chief, but after the death of General Emilio Mola (the initial leader of the movement) became head of state as well with nearly unlimited and absolute powers. Emilio Mola Vidal ( June 9, 1887 &ndash June 3, 1937) was a Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39
This provisional government ruled over the territories controlled by the Nationalists during the Civil War. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Its main political action during the war was the consolidation of the heterogeneous political forces that joined the rebellion into a single party, the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. During and after the war, the Nationalist government repressed Republican militants and sympathizers, as retaliation for the repression of clergy and Nationalist militants on the opposite side. Killings were widespread on both sides during the whole war.
The retaliation continued right after the war, in part to punish war crimes committed under the Republican government, under a trial called Causa General. Franco's government executed, jailed, or subjected to forced labor thousands of Republicans; thousands chose to go into exile, mostly in France and Mexico. Of those who fled to metropolitan France, many joined the French resistance. The French Resistance is the collective name used for the French Resistance movements which fought against the Nazi German One of those who exiled themselves in metropolitan France was Lluís Companys, President of the Catalan Government; he was subsequently arrested and extradited to Spain in September 1940 by the Pétain regime, then executed after a military trial. Lluís Companys i Jover ( June 21 1882 &ndash October 14 1940) was a Spanish Catalan Politician Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944
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Unlike other prominent rebels like José Antonio Primo de Rivera (who was executed by the Republicans during the course of the war) Franco lacked any consistent political ideology other than fierce anti-communism. The History of Spain spans the period from Prehistoric Iberia, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spain's current position The Prehistory of the Iberian peninsula begins with the arrival of the first Hominins c Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 408, the history of Medieval Spain The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * swēbaz based on the Proto-Germanic root * swē- meaning "one's own" The Kingdom of Galicia (410-1833 was a kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula for two distinct periods Spania (Provincia Spaniae was a province of the Byzantine Empire from 552 until 624 in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period The Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700 when this country was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty (also associated to The Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the French Bourbon dynasty, after the decay Spain in the mid-nineteenth century was a country in turmoil Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814 a massively destructive " war of independence " ensued The First Spanish Republic started with the Abdication as King of Spain on February 10 1873, of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo The Restoration was the name given to the period that began in December 29 1874 after the First Spanish Republic ended with the restoration of The Second Spanish Republic was the system of government in Spain between April 14 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of The Spanish transition to democracy was the era when Spain moved from the Dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. For all intents and purposes the history of Modern Spain began with the death of Franco on the 20 November, 1975, the accession of King Juan The Economic history of Spain covers the development of the Spanish economy over the course of its history The military history of Spain includes the history of battles fought in the territory of modern Spain, as well as her former and current overseas possessions and territories José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia 3rd Marquis of Estella ( April 24 1903, Madrid November 20 1936, Alicante He initially sought support from what he designated as National syndicalism (nacionalsindicalismo) and the Roman Catholic Church (nacionalcatolicismo). National syndicalism is a variant of Syndicalism typically associated with the Labor movement in Italy which would later become a basis of Benito Mussolini National Catholicism ( nacionalcatolicismo) was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the dictatorial regime with which Francisco Franco The Falange, a fringe fascist inspired party during the Republic, soon transformed itself into the frame of reference in the Movimiento Nacional. This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement was the name given to the Fascist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which purported In April 1937, the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista ("Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive", FET y de las JONS) was created from a merger of the Carlist traditionalists with the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista, which itself was issued of a merger of José Antonio Primo de Rivera's Falange Española with the national-syndicalist Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (JONS). The Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista ( FET y de las JONS, Spanish for "Traditionalist Spanish Falange and Carlism is a traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon family on The Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista ( FET y de las JONS, Spanish for "Traditionalist Spanish Falange and José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia 3rd Marquis of Estella ( April 24 1903, Madrid November 20 1936, Alicante The Falange Española Tradicionalista de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista ( FET y de las JONS, Spanish for "Traditionalist Spanish Falange and Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista ( JONS; Spanish for "Unions of the National-Syndicalist Offensive" was national syndicalist movement
After Franco's victory in 1939, the FET-JONS became the sole legal party in Spain, and then, in 1949, asserted itself as the main component of the Movimiento Nacional. A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of Party system Government in which a single Political party The FET-JONS were however relatively heterogeneous, and not an ideological monolith like the Italian National Fascist Party, the German NSDAP or even the ruling block under Antonio Salazar of Portugal. The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu dɨ oli'vɐiɾɐ sɐlɐ'zaɾ Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula.
Although Franco's regime has often been characterized as fascist and it indeed had the consistent support of fascists in Spain and abroad, his lack of overt belligerency during World War II and—after the war ended—his departure from fascist rhetorics by the 1950s to an alignment with the United States during the Cold War, both facts suggest that he was merely a reactionary who initially sought shelter in fascism because he lacked a genuine core ideology with which to confront Communism, Socialism or Anarchism, three ideologies that were widespread in Spain and vigorously supported from abroad. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Reactionary (also reactionist) is a derogatory term usually used by the Left wing in regards to movements which oppose radical change in society and seeks a return An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i His regime has also been described as a proponent of Clerical Fascism. Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of Fascism with Theology or religious tradition Also Integralism may define it well. Integralism is a perspective according to which Society is an Organic unity. Some features in Francoism contrast it with totalitarian regimes, in particular the lack of will to create a "new man", even though the Movimiento Nacional did engrain the whole of the population in its various organizations. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private The emphasis was on order and stability, rather than a definite political vision like fascism.
In 1940, the "Vertical Trade Union" was created; it was inspired by the ideas of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, who thought that class struggle would be ended by grouping together workers and owners according to corporative principles. The Spanish Trade Union Organisation ( Spanish: Organización Sindical Española) commonly known as Vertical Syndicate ( Sindicato Vertical) José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia 3rd Marquis of Estella ( April 24 1903, Madrid November 20 1936, Alicante Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Corporate Statism is an approach to state organization the likes of which Othmar Spann, Benito Mussolini and others are credited with developing It was the only legal trade union, and was under government control. Other trade unions were forbidden and strongly repressed along political parties outside the Movimiento Nacional.
All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many were plainly forbidden on various, many times spurious, grounds (political or moral). Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor In accordance with Franco's nationalist principles, only Spanish was recognized as an official language of the country, although millions of the country's citizens also had other native languages, such as Catalan, Basque or Galician. Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain The use of these languages was discouraged, and most public uses were forbidden. This cultural policy was initially very strict, but relaxed with time, most notably after 1960. Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Spanish language over the other Languages of Still, even after 1960, all government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were drawn up exclusively in Spanish and any written in other languages were deemed null and void.
Although a self-proclaimed monarchist, Franco had no particular desire for a king, due to his strained relations with the legitimate heir of the Crown, Don Juan de Borbón. The Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona ( Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg) English: ( Therefore, he left the throne vacant, with himself as de facto regent. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor In 1947 Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, through the Ley de Sucesión en la Jefatura del Estado act, but did not designate a monarch. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Instead, he set the basis for his succession. This gesture was largely done to appease monarchist factions within the Movimiento. He wore the uniform of a captain general (a rank traditionally reserved for the King), resided in the royal Pardo Palace, appropriated the kingly privilege of walking beneath a canopy, and his portrait appeared on most Spanish coins. A baldachin, or baldaquin (Italian baldacchino or baldachino) is a canopy of state over an Altar or Indeed, although his formal titles were Jefe del Estado (Head of State) and Generalísimo de los Ejércitos Españoles (Generalissimo of the Spanish Armed Forces), he was referred to as Caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios, (by the grace of God, the Leader of Spain). Generalissimo or Generalissimus is a military rank of the highest degree superior to a Field Marshal or Grand Admiral. By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right but a common introductory part Por la Gracia de Dios is a technical, legal formulation which states sovereign dignity in absolute monarchies, and had only been used by monarchs before Franco used it himself. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything
In September 1939, World War II broke out in Europe. While officially Non-belligerent during the Second World War, General Franco's Spanish State gave considerable material economic, and military World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including After the collapse of France in June 1940, Spain adopted a pro-Axis non-belligerency stance (for example, he offered Spanish naval facilities to German ships). Adolf Hitler met Franco in Hendaye, France (October 23, 1940), to discuss the Spanish entry in the war joining the Axis. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Hendaye ( Basque Hendaia) is the most southwesterly town in France. Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Franco's demands (food, military equipment, Gibraltar, French North Africa, etc. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world ) proved too much and no agreement was reached. Contributing to the disagreement was an ongoing dispute over German mining rights in Spain. Some historians argue that Franco made demands that he knew Hitler would not accede to in order to stay out of the war. Other historians argue that he simply had nothing to offer the Germans. Franco did send volunteer troops to fight communism joining the Axis armies on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union. The Eastern Front of World War II (die Ostfront 1941-1945, der Rußlandfeldzug 1941-1945 (Russian campaign or der Ostfeldzug 1941-1945 (Eastern Campaign The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The unit name was the División Azul, or Blue Division, after the Falange's party color, whose members were known as 'blueshirts'. The Blue Division (División Azul Blaue Division or 250 Infanterie-Division in the German Army, was a unit of Spanish volunteers This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. At the same time, Spanish diplomats in the Axis countries actively protected Jews and Spain itself became a safe haven for Jewish refugees, as Franco refused to implement anti-Semitic laws, as demanded by the Axis. Franco returned to complete neutrality in 1943, when the tide of the war had turned decisively against Germany.
After the war, the Allies used Spain's ties to the Axis powers to keep it from joining the United Nations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Franco's government was seen, especially by Soviet countries but also by the Western allies, to be a remnant of the central European fascist regimes. Under these circumstances, a UN resolution condemning Franco's government followed. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The resolution encouraged countries to remove their ambassadors in Spain, and established the basis for measures against Spain if the government remained authoritarian. Only Portugal and a few Latin-American countries, like Juan Perón's Argentina, refused to comply with this advice. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Juan Domingo Perón (October 8 1895 &ndash July 1 1974 was an Argentine Colonel and Politician, elected three times as President of Argentina For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
The consequence of all of this was the establishment of an embargo against the Francoist regime in 1946 — including the closure of the French border — with very little success, as it boosted support for the regime. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce The isolation was represented by Franco's regime as a modern version of the Black Legend, with the most fanatical partisans claiming it was a machination of Jews and Freemasons against Catholic Spain. The Black Legend ( La Leyenda Negra) is a term coined by Julián Juderías in his 1914 book La leyenda negra y la verdad histórica ( The Black Legend PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ This helped to rally massive popular support for the regime such as the massive 1946 demonstration held in Madrid.
In 1947, the president of Argentina, Juan Perón, ignored the UN embargo and sent his wife Eva Duarte de Perón with much needed food supplies. María Eva Duarte de Perón' ( May 7 1919 &ndash July 26 1952) was the second wife of President Juan Domingo Perón The Spaniards, and Franco himself, heartily welcomed Evita.
After World War II, the Spanish economy was still in disarray. Rationing cards were still used as late as 1952. War and economic isolation prompted the regime to move towards autarky, a movement warmly welcomed by Falangists. An autarky is an economy that is self-sufficient and does not take part in International trade, or severely limits trade with the outside world The tenets of the economy were: reduction of imports, self-sufficiency, state-controlled production and commercialization of first order goods, state-funded industry and construction of infrastructure - heavily damaged during the Civil War- through the use of precarious means.
The increased tensions between the U. S. and the USSR in the 1950s, led the American government to search for new allies in Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Franco was a proclaimed anti-Communist, which made him a potential ally in the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
Spain's international ostracism was finally broken in 1953 when Spain and the United States signed the Pact of Madrid in a series of agreements under which Spain received economic assistance in the form of grants and loans in return for hosting American military bases (such as Naval Station Rota, opened in 1955). The Pact of Madrid, signed in 1953 by Spain and the United States, ended a period of virtual isolation for Spain although the other victorious allies of US Naval Station Rota ( NAVSTA Rota) ( ICAO: LERT in Rota Spain, located in the small fishing village and tourism center of Rota and near the Spanish The same year, the Spanish government signed the Concordat with the Vatican. The Concordat of 1953 was the last classic Concordat of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic
In 1955 Spanish wealth approached the pre-Civil War levels of 1935, leaving behind the disasters of the war and the struggle of isolation. Spain was admitted to the UN in 1955 and to the World Bank in 1958. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Other Western European countries, including Italy, were from that point eager to restore good contacts with Francoist Spain. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Spain's gradual readmission to the international fold was given visible form with the visit of U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower in December 1959. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general 
The Spanish Miracle (Desarrollo) was the name given to the Spanish economic boom between 1959 and 1973. The Spanish miracle (el milagro español was the name given to a broadly based economic boom in Spain between 1959 and 1973. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. It is seen by some as the most remarkable positive legacy of the regime. During this period, Spain largely surpassed the per capita income that differentiates developed from underdeveloped countries and induced the development of a dominant middle class which was instrumental to the future establishment of democracy. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. The Spanish transition to democracy was the era when Spain moved from the Dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state.
The boom was bolstered by economic reforms promoted by the so-called "technocrats", appointed by Franco, who put in place neo-liberal development policies from the International Monetary Fund. Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The technocrats were a new breed of economists who replaced the old, prone to isolationism, Falangist guard. This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party.
The implementation of these policies took the form of development plans (planes de Desarrollo) and it was largely a success: Spain enjoyed the second highest growth rate in the world, just after Japan, and became the ninth largest economy in the world, just after Canada. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The peseta ( ISO 4217 code ESP standard abbreviation Pta Pts or Ptas Spain joined the industrialized world, leaving behind the poverty and endemic underdevelopment it had experienced since the loss of the Spanish Empire in the 19th century. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries
Although the economic growth produced noticeable improvements in Spanish living standards and the development of a middle class, Spain remained less economically advanced relative to the rest of Western Europe (with the exception of Portugal, Greece and Ireland). Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world At the heyday of the Miracle, 1974, Spanish income per capita peaked at 79 percent of the Western European average, only to be reached again 25 years later, in 1999. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
The 14 years of recovery led to an increase in (often unplanned) building on the periphery of the main Spanish cities to accommodate the new class of industrial workers brought by rural exodus, similar to the French banlieue. Rural exodus (or rural flight) is a term used to describe the migratory patterns that normally occur in a region following the mechanisation of Agriculture. Banlieue-erevanjpg|thumb|Banlieue of Erevan; Armenia]][[Image Etalement urbain banlieue paris - 03
The icon of the Desarrollo was the SEAT 600, the first car for many Spanish working class families, produced by the Spanish factory SEAT or Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo. The SEAT 600 ( Seiscientos, also nicknamed pelotilla (little ball seílla or seíta (both stand for little SEAT was a Spanish car SEAT SA ( English pronunciation:, "say-at" Spanish pronunciation:) is a Spanish automobile
The 1973 oil crisis severely affected Spain, and brought the economic growth to a halt. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of This caused a new wave of strikes (nominally illegal at the time).
Franco's declining health gave more power to Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, but he was assassinated by ETA in 1973. Luis Carrero Blanco 1st Duke of Carrero-Blanco ( March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria &ndash December 20, 1973, eu '''Euskadi Ta Askatasuna''' or ETA ( Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom" ˈɛːta is an illegal armed Basque nationalist Separatist Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Carlos Arias Navarro took over as President of the Spanish Government, and tried to introduce some reforms to the decaying regime, but he struggled between the two factions of the regime, the búnker (far-right) and the aperturists who promoted transition to Democracy. Carlos Arias Navarro ( Madrid, December 11, 1908 &ndash November 27, 1989) was one of the best known Spanish politicians The Prime Minister of Spain, (officially the President of the Government, Spanish: Presidente del Gobierno) is the Spanish Head of government The term búnker refers to a far-right faction during the Spanish transition to democracy.
But there was no way back to the old regime: Spain was not the same as in post-Civil War times and the model for the now wealthy Spaniards was the prosperous Western Europe, not the impoverished post-war Falangist Spain. Wealthy West Germany became a role model with which Spaniards identified themselves, as West Germans increasingly went on vacations to the Spanish beaches. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( Besides this, a considerable number of Spanish men had worked in Western Europe in the previous years as cheap labour forces, thereby encountering the economic growth and wealth of western Europeans. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe '
The size of the Spanish army and police was significantly smaller than pre-war times and the important Roman Catholic clergy were at the time deeply transformed, and sometimes deeply worried, by the reforms of the Vatican Council II. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twentieth century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1974 Franco fell ill, and Juan Carlos took over as Head of State. Early life Juan Carlos was born in Rome, where his grandfather Alfonso XIII of Spain lived in exile after the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic Franco soon recovered, but one year later fell ill once again, and after a long illness, Franco died on November 20, 1975, at the age of 82—the same date as the death of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia 3rd Marquis of Estella ( April 24 1903, Madrid November 20 1936, Alicante This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. It is suspected that the doctors were ordered to keep him barely alive by artificial means until this symbolic date of the far-right. The historian Ricardo de la Cierva says that on the 19th around 6 p. m. he was told that Franco had already died.
After Franco's death, the interim government decided to bury him at Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos, a colossal memorial to all the casualties of the Spanish Civil War, although it was conceived by Franco and has a distinctly nationalist tone. The Valle de los Caídos (in English Valley of the Fallen) is a monumental memorial in the municipality of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, erected at Cuelgamuros Valley The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of
In Spain and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial. In Germany a squadron named after Werner Mölders has been renamed, because as a pilot he led the escorting units in the bombing of Guernica. Werner Mölders ( March 18, 1913 – November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace. The bombing of Guernica ( April 26, 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica, causing widespread destruction and As recently as 2006, the BBC reported that Maciej Giertych, a MEP of the far-right League of Polish Families, had expressed admiration for Franco's stature who allegedly "guaranteed the maintenance of traditional values in Europe. Maciej Marian Giertych (born March 24 1936 in Warsaw) is a Polish social conservative politician of the League of Polish Families The League of Polish Families ( Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR is a right-wing political party in Poland. "
This, however, is not the most shared opinion. Several statues of Franco and other public Francoist symbols have been removed, with the last statue in Madrid coming down in 2005.  Additionally, the Permanent Commission of the European Parliament "firmly" condemned in a resolution unanimously adopted in March 2006 the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain under the Francoist regime from 1939 to 1975. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled  The resolution was at the initiative of the MEP Leo Brincat and of the historian Luis María de Puig, and is the first international official condemnation of the repression enacted by Franco's regime.  The resolution also urged to provide public access to historians (professional and amateurs) to the various archives of the Francoist regime, including those of the Fundación Francisco Franco which, as well as other Francoist archives, remain as of 2006 inaccessible to the public. An archive refers to a collection of historical records and also refers to the location in which these records are kept  Furthermore, it urged the Spanish authorities to set up an underground exhibition in the Valle de los Caidos monument, in order to explain the "terrible" conditions in which it was built.  Finally, it proposes the construction of monuments to commemorate Franco's victims in Madrid and other important cities. 
In Spain, a commission to repair the dignity and restitute the memory of the victims of Francoism (Comisión para reparar la dignidad y restituir la memoria de las víctimas del franquismo) was approved in the summer of 2004, and is directed by the vice-president María Teresa Fernández de la Vega. María Teresa Fernández de la Vega Sanz, Doctor of Law (born June 15, 1949) is a Spanish Socialist Workers' Party politician 
Recently the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARHM) initiated a systematic search for mass graves of people executed during Franco's regime, which has been supported since the PSOE's victory during the 2004 elections by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero's government. Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory ( Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica or ARMH in Spanish) is a Spanish The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, commonly abbreviated by its Spanish initials PSOE ( P artido S ocialista O brero E spañol is Legislative elections were held in Spain on March 14, 2004. At stake were all 350 seats in the lower house of the Cortes Generales, the José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960 better known by his maternal surname Zapatero (literally "shoemaker" in Spanish is the current A Ley de la memoria histórica de España (Law on the Historical Memory of Spain) has been discussed in the Spanish Parliament and is supposed to be passed by early 2008. Among other things, the draft law is supposed to enforce an official recognition of the crimes committed against civilians during the Francoist rule and organize under state supervision the search for mass graves.