Spaceflight is the use of space technology to fly a spacecraft into and through outer space. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star Space technology is Technology that is related to entering space, maintaining and using systems during Spaceflight and returning people and things A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies.
Spaceflight is used in space exploration, and also in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications. History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik Space tourism is the recent Phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space pioneered by Russia A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial Satellite stationed in space for the purposes of Telecommunications. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites and other earth observation satellites. A space observatory is any instrument in Outer space which is used for observation of distant planets galaxies and other outer space objects A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or Communications satellite deployed for Earth observation satellites are Satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from Orbit, similar to Reconnaissance satellites but intended
A spaceflight typically begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth. A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the A rocket launch is the first phase of the flight of a Rocket. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft -- both when unpropelled and when under propulsion -- is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics. Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of Celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of Rockets and other Spacecraft Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, and others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact.
The realistic proposal of space travel goes back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky. This is a timeline of known Spaceflights, both manned and unmanned sorted chronologically by launch date His most famous work, "Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами" (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices), was published in 1903, but this theoretical work was not widely influential outside of Russia.
Spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddard's publication in 1919 of his paper 'A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes'; where his application of the de Laval nozzle to liquid fuel rockets gave sufficient power that interplanetary travel became possible. Robert Hutchings Goddard, PhD ( October 5, 1882 &ndash August 10 1945 U Robert Hutchings Goddard, PhD ( October 5, 1882 &ndash August 10 1945 U A de Laval Nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle making an hourglass-shape A liquid rocket is a Rocket with an engine that uses Propellants in Liquid form This paper was highly influential on Hermann Oberth and Wernher Von Braun, later key players in spaceflight. Hermann Julius Oberth ( June 25, 1894 &ndash December 28, 1989) was a Austro-Hungarian -born German ( Transylvanian Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23 1912 &ndash June 16 1977 a German rocket physicist and astronautics engineer became one of the leading figures in
The first rocket to reach space was a prototype of the German V-2 Rocket, on a test flight on October 3, 1942. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, which became the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Sputnik 1 ( "Спутник-1", "Satellite-1" ПС-1 ( PS-1, i This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 The first human spaceflight was Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, aboard which Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made one orbit around the Earth. A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers Vostok 1 (Восток-1 meaning Orient -1 or East-1 was the first Human spaceflight. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An astronaut or cosmonaut (космона́вт) is a person trained
Rockets remain the only currently practical means of reaching space. Other technologies such as scramjets still fall far short of orbital speed. A scramjet ( s upersonic c ombustion ramjet) is a variation of a Ramjet with the distinction being that some or all of the combustion process
The most commonly used definition of outer space is everything beyond the Kármán line, which is 100 kilometers (62 mi) above the Earth's surface. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. (The United States sometimes defines outer space as everything beyond 50 miles (80 km) in altitude. )
In order for a projectile to reach outer space from the surface, it needs a minimum delta-v. A projectile is any object propelled through space by the exertion of a force which ceases after launch In Astrodynamics, the term delta-v, literally "change in velocity" (see symbol delta) has a specific meaning it is a Scalar which takes This velocity is much lower than escape velocity. In Physics, escape velocity is the speed where the Kinetic energy of an object is equal to the magnitude of its Gravitational potential energy
It is possible, indeed routine, for a spacecraft to leave a celestial body without reaching the surface escape velocity of a body by propelling itself after take-off. However, it is more fuel-efficient for a craft to burn its fuel close to the ground as possible, keeping escape velocity a consideration. 
On a sub-orbital spaceflight the spacecraft reaches space, but does not achieve orbit. A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which the Spacecraft reaches space, but its Trajectory intersects A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which the Spacecraft reaches space, but its Trajectory intersects Instead, its trajectory brings it back to the surface of the Earth. Suborbital flights can last many hours. Pioneer 1 was NASA's first space probe intended to reach the Moon. On 1958-10-11, Pioneer 1 became the first spacecraft launched by NASA, the newly formed space agency of the United States A space probe is a scientific Space exploration mission in which a Robotic spacecraft leaves the Gravity well of Earth and approaches the A partial failure caused it to instead follow a suborbital trajectory to an altitude of 113,854 kilometers (70,746 mi) before reentering the Earth's atmosphere 43 hours after launch.
On May 17, 2004, Civilian Space eXploration Team launched the GoFast Rocket on a suborbital flight, the first amateur spaceflight. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The Civilian Space eXploration Team, known as CSXT is a team of about 30 civilians interested in private Spaceflight. On June 21, 2004, SpaceShipOne was used for the first privately-funded human spaceflight. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " SpaceShipOne is a Spaceplane that completed the first privately funded Human spaceflight on June 21, 2004. Private spaceflight is flight above Earth Altitude conducted by and paid for by an entity other than a government A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers
A minimal orbital spaceflight requires much higher velocities than a minimal sub-orbital flight, and so it is technologically much more challenging to achieve. An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which a Spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which a Spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least To achieve orbital spaceflight, the tangential velocity around the Earth is as important as altitude. In order to perform a stable and lasting flight in space, the spacecraft must reach the minimal orbital speed required for a closed orbit. The orbital speed of a body generally a Planet, a Natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a Multiple star, is the speed at which it In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star
Achieving a closed orbit is not essential to interplanetary voyages, for which spacecraft need to reach escape velocity. Direct ascent was a proposed method for a mission to the Moon. In Physics, escape velocity is the speed where the Kinetic energy of an object is equal to the magnitude of its Gravitational potential energy Early Russian space vehicles successfully achieved very high altitudes without going into orbit. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending In its early Apollo mission planning NASA considered using a direct ascent to the moon, but abandoned that idea later due to weight considerations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program Direct ascent was a proposed method for a mission to the Moon. Many robotic space probes to the outer planets use direct ascent -- they do not orbit the earth before departing.
However, plans for future human spaceflight often include final vehicle assembly in Earth orbit, such as the America's Project Orion and Russia's Kliper/Parom tandom. Orion is a Spacecraft design currently under development by the United States space agency NASA. Kliper ( Клипер, English: Clipper) is a Russian-proposed next generation manned Spacecraft that was almost selected as the successor The Parom ( ferry in Russian) is a space tug that has been proposed by RKK Energia.
Many ways other than rockets to reach space have been proposed. Non-rocket spacelaunch (NRS is the idea of reaching outer space specifically from the Earth's surface predominately without the use of conventional chemical rockets which today Ideas such as the Space Elevator, while elegant are currently infeasible; whereas electromagnetic launchers such as launch loops have no known show stoppers. A space elevator is a proposed structure designed to transport Material from a celestial body 's Surface into space. A launch loop or Lofstrom loop is a design for a belt based Maglev Orbital launch system that would be around 2000 km long and maintained at Other ideas include rocket assisted jet planes such as Skylon or the trickier scramjets. A scramjet ( s upersonic c ombustion ramjet) is a variation of a Ramjet with the distinction being that some or all of the combustion process Gun launch has been proposed for cargo.
A launch pad is a fixed structure designed to dispatch airborne vehicles. A launch pad is the area and facilities where rockets or spacecrafts liftoff It generally consists of a launch tower and flame trench. It is surrounded by equipment used to erect, fuel, and maintain launch vehicles. A spaceport, by way of contrast, is designed to facilitate winged launch vehicles and uses a long runway. A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching Spacecraft, by analogy with Seaport for Ships or Airport for Aircraft Both spaceport and launch pads are situated well away from human habitation for noise and safety reasons.
A launch is often restricted to certain launch windows. Launch window is a term used in Aerospace to describe a time period in which a particular Rocket must be launched These windows depend upon the position of celestial bodies and orbits relative to the launch site. The biggest influence is often the rotation of the Earth itself. Once launched, orbits are normally located within relatively constant flat planes at a fixed angle to the axis of the Earth, and the Earth rotates within this orbit.
Vehicles in orbit have large amounts of kinetic energy. This energy must be discarded if the vehicle is to land safely without vaporizing in the atmosphere. Typically this process requires special methods to protect against aerodynamic heating. Aerodynamic heating is the heating of a solid body produced by the passage of fluid (such as air over a body such as a Meteor, Missile, or Airplane. The theory behind reentry is due to Harry Julian Allen. Harry Julian Allen ( 1 April 1910 - 29 January 1977) also known as Harvey Allen, was an Aeronautical engineer and Based on this theory, reentry vehicles present blunt shapes to the atmosphere for reentry. Blunt shapes mean that less than 1% of the kinetic energy ends up as heat that reaches the vehicle and the heat energy instead ends up in the atmosphere.
The Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo capsules all landed in the sea. Splashdown is the method of landing a spacecraft by Parachute in a body of water These capsules were designed to land at relatively slow speeds. Russian capsules for Soyuz make use of braking rockets as were designed to touch down on land. The Space Shuttle glides into a touchdown at high speed.
After a successful landing the spacecraft, its occupants, and cargo can be recovered. In some cases, recovery has occurred before landing: while a spacecraft is still descending on its parachute, it can be snagged by a specially designed aircraft. This was the technique used to recover the film canisters from the Corona spy satellites. Corona was a US military Reconnaissance satellite system operated by the CIA Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the
All current spaceflight except NASA's Space Shuttle and the SpaceX Falcon 1 use multi-stage expendable launch systems to reach space. An expendable launch system is a Launch system that uses an expendable launch vehicle (ELV to carry a payload into Space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Space Exploration Technologies Corporation ( SpaceX) is an American space-transportation Startup company founded by PayPal co-founder Elon The Falcon 1 is a partially reusable Launch system designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
The first reusable spacecraft, the X-15, was air-launched on a suborbital trajectory on July 19, 1963. A reusable launch system (or reusable launch vehicle, RLV is a Launch system which is capable of launching a Launch vehicle into space more than once Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 During the Shuttle era, six orbiters were built, all of which have flown in the atmosphere and five of which have flown in space. The Enterprise was used only for approach and landing tests, launching from the back of a Boeing 747 and gliding to deadstick landings at Edwards AFB, California. The Space Shuttle Enterprise ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101 was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope The first Space Shuttle to fly into space was the Columbia, followed by the Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service Space Shuttle Discovery ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Space Shuttle Endeavour ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of The Endeavour was built to replace the Challenger when it was lost in January 1986. STS-51-L was the twenty-fifth flight of the American Space Shuttle program, which marked the first time a civilian had flown aboard the Space Shuttle The Columbia broke up during reentry in February 2003. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas
The first (and so far only) automatic partially reusable spacecraft was the Buran (Snowstorm), launched by the USSR on November 15, 1988, although it made only one flight. The Buran spacecraft ( Буран "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard") GRAU index 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) This spaceplane was designed for a crew and strongly resembled the U. A spaceplane is a Rocket plane designed to pass the Edge of space. S. Space Shuttle, although its drop-off boosters used liquid propellants and its main engines were located at the base of what would be the external tank in the American Shuttle. Lack of funding, complicated by the dissolution of the USSR, prevented any further flights of Buran.
Per the Vision for Space Exploration, the Space Shuttle is due to be retired in 2010 due mainly to its old age and high cost of the program reaching over a billion dollars per flight. The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by U The Shuttle's human transport role is to be replaced by the partially reusable Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) no later than 2014. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (or CEV) was the conceptual component of the Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft The Shuttle's heavy cargo transport role is to be replaced by expendable rockets such as the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) or a Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicle. The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle ( EELV) program is a United States government, primarily a Department of Defense –sponsored effort begun in the The Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV, is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space
Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne was a reusable suborbital spaceplane that carried pilots Mike Melvill and Brian Binnie on consecutive flights in 2004 to win the Ansari X Prize. Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled) formerly the Rutan Aircraft Factory, is a company currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located SpaceShipOne is a Spaceplane that completed the first privately funded Human spaceflight on June 21, 2004. A spaceplane is a Rocket plane designed to pass the Edge of space. Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 11, 1940) is one of the Test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental Spaceplane William Brian Binnie (born 1953 is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental Spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites. The Ansari X PRIZE was a Space competition in which the X PRIZE Foundation offered a US$ 10000000 Prize for the first non-government The Spaceship Company will build its successor SpaceShipTwo. The Spaceship Company is a spacecraft manufacturing company formed by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson in mid- 2005, jointly owned by Virgin Group Scaled Composites' Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2 is a Suborbital Spaceplane for carrying future Space tourists that is currently under development by A fleet of SpaceShipTwos operated by Virgin Galactic should begin reusable private spaceflight carrying paying passengers in 2008 . Virgin Galactic is a company within Sir Richard Branson 's Virgin Group which plans to provide Sub-orbital spaceflights to the paying public Private spaceflight is flight above Earth Altitude conducted by and paid for by an entity other than a government
All launch vehicles contain a huge amount of energy that is needed for some part of it to reach orbit. Space accidents, either during operations or training for Spaceflights have killed 22 Astronauts (five percent of all people who have been in space two percent There is therefore some risk that this energy can be released prematurely and suddenly, with significant effects. When a Delta II rocket exploded 13 seconds after launch on January 17, 1997, there were reports of store windows 10 miles (16 km) away being broken by the blast. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar 
In addition, once in space, while space is a fairly predictable environment, there are risks of accidental depressurisation, and the potential for failure of equipment that is often very newly developed.
Space weather is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space. Space weather is the concept of changing environmental conditions in Outer space. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. It is distinct from the concept of weather within a planetary atmosphere, and deals with phenomena involving ambient plasma, magnetic fields, radiation and other matter in space (generally close to Earth but also in interplanetary, and occasionally interstellar space). The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. Interstellar Space was the one of the final studio albums recorded by the saxophonist John Coltrane before his death in 1967 originally-released posthumously "Space weather describes the conditions in space that affect Earth and its technological systems. Our space weather is a consequence of the behavior of the sun, the nature of Earth's magnetic field, and our location in the solar system. " 
Space weather exerts a profound influence in several areas related to space exploration and development. Changing geomagnetic conditions can induce changes in atmospheric density causing the rapid degradation of spacecraft altitude in Low Earth orbit. A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km Geomagnetic storms due to increased solar activity can potentially blind sensors aboard spacecraft, or interfere with on-board electronics. An understanding of space environmental conditions is also important in designing shielding and life support systems for manned spacecraft.
Rockets as a class are not inherently grossly polluting. However, some rockets use toxic propellants, and most vehicles use propellants that are not carbon neutral. Being carbon neutral, or carbon neutrality, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered Many solid rockets have chlorine in the form of perchlorate or other chemicals, and this can cause temporary local holes in the ozone layer. Perchlorates are the salts derived from Perchloric acid ( H[[chlorine Cl]] O4) Re-entering spacecraft generate nitrates which also can temporarily impact the ozone layer. Most rockets are made of metals that can have an environmental impact during their construction.
In addition to the atmospheric effects there are effects on the near-Earth space environment. There is the possibility that orbit could become inaccessible for generations due to exponentially increasing space debris caused by spalling of satellites and vehicles (Kessler syndrome). Space debris or orbital debris, also called space junk and space waste are the objects in Orbit around Earth created by humans that no Spall are flakes of a material that are broken off a larger solid body and can be produced by a variety of mechanisms including as a result of Projectile impact Corrosion The Kessler Syndrome is a scenario proposed by NASA consultant Donald J Many launched vehicles today are therefore designed to be re-entered after use.
Spacecraft are vehicles capable of controlling their trajectory through space. A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight.
The first 'true spacecraft' is sometimes said to be Apollo Lunar Module, since this was the only manned vehicle to have been designed for, and operated only in space; and is notable for its non aerodynamic shape.
The first human spaceflight was Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, on which cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin of the USSR made one orbit around the Earth. A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers Vostok 1 (Восток-1 meaning Orient -1 or East-1 was the first Human spaceflight. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An astronaut or cosmonaut (космона́вт) is a person trained The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 In official Soviet documents, there is no mention of the fact that Gagarin parachuted the final seven miles.  The international rules for aviation records stated that "The pilot remains in his craft from launch to landing". This rule, if applied, would have "disqualified" Gagarins space-flight. Currently the only spacecraft regularly used for human spaceflight are Russian Soyuz spacecraft and the U. Design A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back A Spheroid Orbital module, which provides accommodation for the crew during S. Space Shuttle fleet. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Each of those space programs have used other spacecraft in the past. Recently, the Shenzhou spacecraft has been used twice for human spaceflight, as has SpaceshipOne. History Development began in 1992 under the name of Project 921-1. SpaceShipOne is a Spaceplane that completed the first privately funded Human spaceflight on June 21, 2004.
Long term zero gravity exposure causes multiple health issues; most significantly bone loss, some of which is permanent, but also significant deconditioning of muscular and cardiovascular tissues. Weightlessness is a phenomenon experienced by people during Free-fall. Deconditioning is adaptation of an organism to less demanding environment or alternatively the decrease of physiological adaptation to normal conditions
Short term zero gravity causes space adaptation syndrome, a self-limiting nausea due to lack of gravity causing derangement of the vestibular system. Space adaptation syndrome (SAS or space sickness, is a condition experienced by around half of Space travelers during adaptation to Microgravity. The vestibular system, which is a contributor to our balance system and our sense of spatial orientation is the sensory system that provides the dominant input about movement and
Once above the atmosphere, radiation due to the Van Allen belts, solar radiation and cosmic radiation issues occur and increase. The Van Allen radiation belt is a Torus of energetic Charged particles ( plasma) around Earth, held in place by Earth's Magnetic For the 1962 Bruce Conner film see Cosmic Ray (film Cosmic rays are energetic particles originating from space that impinge on
In human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space. In Human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers NASA often uses the phrase Environmental Control and Life Support System or the acronym ECLSS when describing these systems for its human spaceflight missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers  The life support system may supply: air, water and food. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an It must also maintain the correct body temperature, an acceptable pressure on the body and deal with the body's waste products. Shielding against harmful external influences such as radiation and micro-meteorites may also be necessary. Components of the life support system are life-critical, and are designed and constructed using safety engineering techniques. A life-critical system or safety-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in Death or serious injury to people or Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to Systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering
Interplanetary travel is travel between planets within a single planetary system. A space probe is a scientific Space exploration mission in which a Robotic spacecraft leaves the Gravity well of Earth and approaches the Travel is the change in location of people on a trip through the means of Transport from one location to another A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is In practice, the use of the term is confined to travel between the planets of the Solar System. The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity.
Five spacecraft are currently leaving the Solar System on escape trajectories. Interstellar space travel is unmanned or manned Travel between Stars The concept of interstellar travel in Starships is a staple in Science fiction The Solar System consists of the Sun and those celestial objects bound to it by Gravity. The one farthest from the Sun is Voyager 1, which is more than 100 AU distant and is moving at 3. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, The astronomical unit ( AU or au or au or sometimes ua) is a unit of Length based on the distance from the Earth to the 6 AU per year.  In comparison Proxima Centauri, the closest star other than the Sun, is 267,000 AU distant. Proxima Centauri ( Latin la ''proximus proxima proximum'' meaning 'next to' or 'nearest to' is a Red dwarf Star approximately 4 It will take Voyager 1 over 74,000 years to reach this distance. Vehicle designs using nuclear pulse propulsion might be able to reach the nearest star in a few decades however.
Intergalactic travel involves spaceflight between galaxies, and is considered much more technologically demanding than even interstellar travel and, by modern engineering terms, is considered pure science fiction. Intergalactic travel is travel between galaxies, and is considered much more technologically demanding than even Interstellar travel.
Astrodynamics is the study of spacecraft trajectories, particularly as they relate to gravitational and propulsion effects. Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of Celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of Rockets and other Spacecraft Astrodynamics allows for a spacecraft to arrive at its destination at the correct time without excessive propellant use.
Spacecraft today predominantly use rockets for propulsion, but other propulsion techniques such as ion drives are becoming more common, particularly for unmanned vehicles, and this can significantly reduce the vehicle's mass and increase its delta-v. Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of Spacecraft and artificial Satellites There are many different methods A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of Spacecraft and artificial Satellites There are many different methods An ion thruster is a form of Electric propulsion used for Spacecraft propulsion that creates thrust by accelerating Ions Ion thrusters are characterized In Astrodynamics, the term delta-v, literally "change in velocity" (see symbol delta) has a specific meaning it is a Scalar which takes
Current spaceflights are frequently, but not invariably paid for by governments; but there are strong launch markets such as satellite television that is purely commercial, although the launchers themselves are often at least partly funded by governments. Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable
Uses for spaceflight include:
There is growing interest in spacecraft and flights paid for by commercial companies and even private individuals. Earth observation satellites are Satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from Orbit, similar to Reconnaissance satellites but intended A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or Communications satellite deployed for A weather satellite is a type of Satellite that is primarily used to monitor the Weather and Climate of the Earth. History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik Space tourism is the recent Phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space pioneered by Russia A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial Satellite stationed in space for the purposes of Telecommunications. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage Private spaceflight is flight above Earth Altitude conducted by and paid for by an entity other than a government It is thought that some of the high cost of access to space is due to governmental inefficiencies; and certainly the costs of the governmental paperwork surrounding NASA is legendary. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program If a commercial company were able to be more efficient, costs could come down significantly. Space launch vehicles such as Falcon I have been wholly developed with private finance, and the quoted costs for launch are lower. The Falcon 1 is a partially reusable Launch system designed and manufactured by SpaceX.