A spacecraft is a vehicle or device designed for spaceflight. Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Mir (Мир which can mean both Peace and World, and was the name given to peasant communes in pre-revolutionary Russia was a Soviet (and Phoenix is a Robotic spacecraft on a Space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. Spaceflight is the use of Space technology to fly a Spacecraft into and through Outer space. On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters outer space but then returns to the planetary surface (such as Earth) without making a complete orbit. A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which the Spacecraft reaches space, but its Trajectory intersects Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star For an orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters a closed orbit around the planetary body. An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which a Spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least Spacecraft used for human spaceflights carry people on board as crew or passengers. A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers Spacecraft used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. A robotic spacecraft is a Spacecraft with no humans on board that is usually under Telerobotic control Autonomous robots are Robots which can perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance Telerobotics is the area of Robotics concerned with the control of robots from a distance chiefly using wireless connections (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Robotic spacecraft that leave the vicinity of the planetary body are space probes. A space probe is a scientific Space exploration mission in which a Robotic spacecraft leaves the Gravity well of Earth and approaches the Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around the planetary body are artificial satellites. This article is about artificial satellites For natural satellites also known as moons see Natural satellite. Starships, which are built for interstellar travel, are so far a theoretical concept only. A starship is a theoretical Spacecraft designed for traveling between the stars, as opposed to a vehicle designed for Orbital spaceflight or Interplanetary Interstellar space travel is unmanned or manned Travel between Stars The concept of interstellar travel in Starships is a staple in Science fiction
Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, planetary exploration and space tourism. Earth observation satellites are Satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from Orbit, similar to Reconnaissance satellites but intended A weather satellite is a type of Satellite that is primarily used to monitor the Weather and Climate of the Earth. Navigation is the process of reading and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another Planetary science, also known as planetology and closely related to planetary astronomy, is the Science of Planets or Planetary systems Space tourism is the recent Phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space pioneered by Russia Spacecraft and space travel are common themes in works of science fiction. Spaceflight is the use of Space technology to fly a Spacecraft into and through Outer space.
A spacecraft system comprises various subsystems, dependent upon mission profile. Spacecraft subsystems may include: attitude determination and control (variously called ADAC, ADC or ACS), guidance, navigation and control (GNC or GN&C), communications (COMS), command and data handling (CDH or C&DH), power (EPS), thermal control (TCS), propulsion, structures, and payload.
- Life support
- Spacecraft intended for human spaceflight must also include a life support system for the crew. In Human spaceflight, the life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in outer space
- Attitude control
- Spacecraft need an attitude control subsystem to be correctly oriented in space and respond to external torques and forces properly. The attitude of a body is its orientation as perceived in a certain Frame of reference; providing a vector along which a spacecraft is pointing is a description of its attitude A torque (τ in Physics, also called a moment (of force is a pseudo- vector that measures the tendency of a force to rotate an object about The attitude control subsystem consists of sensors and actuators, together with controlling algorithms. A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system The attitude control subsystem permits proper pointing for the science objective, sun pointing for power to the solar arrays and earth-pointing for communications.
- Guidance refers to the calculation of the commands (usually done by the CDH subsystem) needed to steer the spacecraft where it is desired to be. Navigation means determining a spacecraft's orbital elements or position. The elements of an orbit are the parameters needed to specify that Orbit uniquely given a model of two point-masses obeying the Newtonian laws of motion and the Control means adjusting the path of the spacecraft to meet mission requirements. On some missions, GNC and Attitude Control are combined into one subsystem of the spacecraft.
- Command and data handling
- The CDH subsystem receives commands from the communications subsystem, performs validation and decoding of the commands, and distributes the commands to the appropriate spacecraft subsystems and components. The CDH also receives housekeeping data and science data from the other spacecraft subsystems and components, and packages the data for storage on a solid state recorder or transmission to the ground via the communications subsystem. Other functions of the CDH include maintaining the spacecraft clock and state-of-health monitoring.
- Spacecraft need an electrical power generation and distribution subsystem for powering the various spacecraft subsystems. For spacecraft near the Sun, solar panels are frequently used to generate electrical power. The Sun (Sol is the Star at the center of the Solar System. Spacecraft operating in the inner Solar system usually rely on the use of Photovoltaic solar panels to derive electricity from Sunlight. Spacecraft designed to operate in more distant locations, for example Jupiter, might employ a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to generate electrical power. A radioisotope thermoelectric generator ( RTG, RITEG) is an Electrical generator which obtains its power from Radioactive decay. Electrical power is sent through power conditioning equipment before it passes through a power distribution unit over an electrical bus to other spacecraft components. Batteries are typically connected to the bus via a battery charge regulator, and the batteries are used to provide electrical power during periods when primary power is not available, for example when a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft is eclipsed by the Earth. A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km For other possible meanings of the terms "eclipse" and "eclipsed" see eclipse.
- Thermal control
- Spacecraft must be engineered to withstand transit through the Earth's atmosphere and the space environment. Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five Space environment is a branch of Astronautics, Aerospace engineering and Astronomy that seeks to understand and address conditions existing in space that They must operate in a vacuum with temperatures potentially ranging across hundreds of degrees Celsius as well as (if subject to reentry) in the presence of plasmas. This vacuum means "absence of matter" or "an empty area or space" for the cleaning appliance see Vacuum cleaner. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Material requirements are such that either high melting temperature, low density materials such as Be and C-C or (possibly due to the lower thickness requirements despite its high density) W or ablative C-C composites are used. Depending on mission profile, spacecraft may also need to operate on the surface of another planetary body. The thermal control subsystem can be passive, dependent on the selection of materials with specific radiative properties. Active thermal control makes use of electrical heaters and certain actuators such as louvers to control temperature ranges of equipments within specific ranges. An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system
A launch vehicle
, like this Proton rocket
, is typically used to bring a spacecraft to orbit
. In Spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a Rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into Outer space. The Proton rocket In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star
- Spacecraft may or may not have a propulsion subsystem, depending upon whether or not the mission profile calls for propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of Spacecraft and artificial Satellites There are many different methods The Swift spacecraft is an example of a spacecraft that does not have a propulsion subsystem. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission consists of a Robotic spacecraft called Swift, which was launched into Orbit on November 20, 2004 Typically though, LEO spacecraft (for example Terra (EOS AM-1) include a propulsion subsystem for altitude adjustments (called drag make-up maneuvers) and inclination adjustment maneuvers. Inclination in general is the Angle between a Reference plane and another plane or axis of direction A propulsion system is also needed for spacecraft that perform momentum management maneuvers. Components of a conventional propulsion subsystem include fuel, tankage, valves, pipes, and thrusters. The TCS interfaces with the propulsion subsystem by monitoring the temperature of those components, and by preheating tanks and thrusters in preparation for a spacecraft maneuver.
- Spacecraft must be engineered to withstand launch loads imparted by the launch vehicle, and must have a point of attachment for all the other subsystems. Depending upon mission profile, the structural subsystem might need to withstand loads imparted by entry into the atmosphere of another planetary body, and landing on the surface of another planetary body. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere "
- The payload is dependent upon the mission of the spacecraft, and is typically regarded as the part of the spacecraft "that pays the bills". Typical payloads could include scientific instruments (cameras, telescopes, or particle detectors, for example), cargo, or a human crew. A camera is a device used to capture images either as still Photographs or as sequences of moving images ( Movies or Videos. A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. In experimental and applied Particle physics and Nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers
- Ground segment
- The ground segment, though not technically part of the spacecraft, is vital to the operation of the spacecraft. Typical components of a ground segment in use during normal operations include a mission operations facility where the flight operations team conducts the operations of the spacecraft, a data processing and storage facility, ground stations to radiate signals to and receive signals from the spacecraft, and a voice and data communications network to connect all mission elements. 
- Launch vehicle
- The launch vehicle is used to propel the spacecraft from the Earth's surface, through the atmosphere, and into an orbit, the exact orbit being dependent upon mission configuration. In Spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a Rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into Outer space. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star The launch vehicle may be expendable or reusable. An expendable launch system is a Launch system that uses an expendable launch vehicle (ELV to carry a payload into Space. A reusable launch system (or reusable launch vehicle, RLV is a Launch system which is capable of launching a Launch vehicle into space more than once
The first reusable spacecraft, the X-15, was air-launched on a suborbital trajectory on July 19, 1963. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981. NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 During the Shuttle era, six orbiters were built, all of which have flown in the atmosphere and five of which have flown in space. The Enterprise was used only for approach and landing tests, launching from the back of a Boeing 747 and gliding to deadstick landings at Edwards AFB, California. The Space Shuttle Enterprise ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101 was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope The first Space Shuttle to fly into space was the Columbia, followed by the Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service Space Shuttle Discovery ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Space Shuttle Endeavour ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of The Endeavour was built to replace the Challenger when it was lost in January 1986. STS-51-L was the twenty-fifth flight of the American Space Shuttle program, which marked the first time a civilian had flown aboard the Space Shuttle The Columbia broke up during reentry in February 2003. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas
The first automatic partially reusable spacecraft was the Buran (Snowstorm), launched by the USSR on November 15, 1988, although it made only one flight. The Buran spacecraft ( Буран "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard") GRAU index 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) This spaceplane was designed for a crew and strongly resembled the U. A spaceplane is a Rocket plane designed to pass the Edge of space. S. Space Shuttle, although its drop-off boosters used liquid propellants and its main engines were located at the base of what would be the external tank in the American Shuttle. Lack of funding, complicated by the dissolution of the USSR, prevented any further flights of Buran. The Space Shuttle has since been modified to allow for autonomous re-entry via the addition of a control cable running from the control cabin to the mid-deck which would allow for the automated deployment of the landing gear in the event a un-crewed re-entry was required following abandonment due to damage at the ISS.
Per the Vision for Space Exploration, the Space Shuttle is due to be retired in 2010 due mainly to its old age and high cost of program reaching over a billion dollars per flight. The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by U The Shuttle's human transport role is to be replaced by the partially reusable Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) no later than 2014. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (or CEV) was the conceptual component of the Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft The Shuttle's heavy cargo transport role is to be replaced by expendable rockets such as the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) or a Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicle. The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle ( EELV) program is a United States government, primarily a Department of Defense –sponsored effort begun in the The Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV, is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space
Scaled Composites' SpaceShipOne was a reusable suborbital spaceplane that carried pilots Mike Melvill and Brian Binnie on consecutive flights in 2004 to win the Ansari X Prize. Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled) formerly the Rutan Aircraft Factory, is a company currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located SpaceShipOne is a Spaceplane that completed the first privately funded Human spaceflight on June 21, 2004. A spaceplane is a Rocket plane designed to pass the Edge of space. Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 11, 1940) is one of the Test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental Spaceplane William Brian Binnie (born 1953 is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental Spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites. The Ansari X PRIZE was a Space competition in which the X PRIZE Foundation offered a US$ 10000000 Prize for the first non-government The Spaceship Company will build its successor SpaceShipTwo. The Spaceship Company is a spacecraft manufacturing company formed by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson in mid- 2005, jointly owned by Virgin Group Scaled Composites' Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2 is a Suborbital Spaceplane for carrying future Space tourists that is currently under development by A fleet of SpaceShipTwos operated by Virgin Galactic should begin reusable private spaceflight carrying paying passengers in 2009. Virgin Galactic is a company within Sir Richard Branson 's Virgin Group which plans to provide Sub-orbital spaceflights to the paying public Private spaceflight is flight above Earth Altitude conducted by and paid for by an entity other than a government
The term spacecraft is mainly used to refer to spacecraft that are real or conceived using present technology. The terms spaceship and starship are generally applied only to fictional spacecraft, usually those capable of transporting people. This is a list of fictional Spacecraft, Starships and exo-atmospheric vessels that have been identified by name in published works of fiction (novels films television series A starship is a theoretical Spacecraft designed for traveling between the stars, as opposed to a vehicle designed for Orbital spaceflight or Interplanetary Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another The spaceship is one of the prime elements in science fiction. Numerous short stories and novels are built up around various ideas for spacecraft, and spacecraft have often been featured in movies. The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Some hard science fiction books focus on the technical details of the craft, while others treat the spacecraft as a given and delve little into its actual implementation. Hard science fiction is a category of Science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail or on scientific accuracy or on both A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together
- Notable spacecraft
- See also: List of fictional spaceships
- The Death Star, Millennium Falcon, Star Destroyer, X-Wing and TIE Fighter from the Star Wars science-fiction universe. This is a list of fictional Spacecraft, Starships and exo-atmospheric vessels that have been identified by name in published works of fiction (novels films television series The Death Star is a Fictional Space station and Superweapon appearing in the Star Wars movies and expanded universe. The Millennium Falcon is a fictional spacecraft in the Star Wars universe commanded by smuggler Han Solo ( Harrison Ford) and his Star Destroyers are iconic vessels of the fictional Star Wars universe X-wings are fictional Starfighters from the original Star Wars trilogy and the Star Wars Expanded Universe. TIE fighters are fictional Starfighters in the Star Wars universe Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded
- USS Enterprise and Klingon Bird of Prey from the Star Trek franchise. The Enterprise or USS Enterprise (often referred to as the " Starship Enterprise " are the names of several fictional Klingon Starships appear in televised and filmed installments of the Star Trek Fictional universe.
- The Liberator and Scorpio from the British science fiction television series Blake's 7. The spaceship Liberator is a Fictional Starship featured in the first three seasons of the BBC Television series Blake's The Scorpio is a spaceship featured throughout the fourth season of the British science fiction television series Blake's 7. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Blake's 7 is a British Science fiction television series made by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC for their BBC 1 channel
- The TARDIS from the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. The TARDIS ( T ime A nd R elative D imension(s I n S pace is a time machine and Spacecraft in the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC.
- Discovery One from 2001: A Space Odyssey
- The Battlestar Galactica from the original and re-imagined series of the same name. United States Spacecraft Discovery One is a Fictional Spacecraft appearing in The Space Odyssey series, including the movie 2001 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C Battlestars are Capital ships from the Science fiction universe of Battlestar Galactica, depicted in the original Battlestar The Battlestar Galactica is a Space battleship in the original and re-imagined Science fiction Television series Battlestar Galactica is an American Science fiction television series, produced in 1978 by Glen Larson and starring Lorne Greene The Battlestar Galactica Science fiction franchise which began as a 1978 TV series, was "reimagined" in 2003 into a TV miniseries
- Daedalus class battlecruiser from the television series Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis. Stargate Atlantis (often abbreviated as SGA) is an American - Canadian Science fiction Television program, part of the
- USS Saratoga (SCVN-2812) from the television series Space: Above and Beyond. Space Above and Beyond (abbreviated as SAAB) was a short-lived 1990s American Science fiction Television show on the
- Serenity from the television series Firefly
- Star Bug, Blue Midget, and Red Dwarf from the BBC comedy science fiction series: Red Dwarf. Serenity is a fictional spaceship originally featured in the Science fiction television series Firefly. Firefly is an American Science fiction Television series created by writer/director Joss Whedon, creator of Buffy the Vampire Slayer Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red dwarf star is a small and relatively cool Star, of the Main sequence, either late K
- The UNSC In Amber Clad, Forward Unto Dawn and Pillar of Autumn from the Halo video game series. The bestselling ''Halo'' franchise takes place in the fictional Halo universe where there are four major factions players encounter or control The bestselling ''Halo'' franchise takes place in the fictional Halo universe where there are four major factions players encounter or control The bestselling ''Halo'' franchise takes place in the fictional Halo universe where there are four major factions players encounter or control Halo is a Science fiction Video game franchise created by Bungie and owned and published by Microsoft Game Studios.
- The SSV Normandy, from the Mass Effect video game. Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. Mass Effect is an Action role-playing game developed by BioWare for Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows.
- Unidentified flying objects
Some people believe that Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) may be alien spacecraft (that is, not of human construction and not originating from Earth), sometimes referred to as flying saucers. Extraterrestrial life is Life originating outside of the Earth. Flying saucer is the name given to a type of Unidentified flying object (UFO with a disc- or Saucer -shaped body usually described as silver or metallic But the term UFO used here in this context refers to observed flying objects for which no identification has been made, though other meanings for the word UFO exist. To date, no known, independently verifiable examples of alien spacecraft are known to exist.
Spacecraft in art
The Mare Nostrum Spaceship is the central element of the Space art group El Club de los Astronautas. Space art is a general term for art emerging from knowledge and ideas associated with Outer space, both as a source of inspiration and as a means for visualizing and promoting El Club de los Astronautas was founded 2004 as an art group based in Barcelona/Spain The group has worked out a utopian plan for the spacecraft and they are going to adopt and actualize the plan over time as technologies will develop to turn the plan into reality. Mare Nostrum represents a series of projects in the scientific, social and economic world that are building the foundation to its construction.
Examples of spacecraft
- See also: Human spaceflight
- See also: Orbital spaceflight
The Apollo 15 Command/Service Module as viewed from the Lunar Module on August 2, 1971. See also Human spaceflight Robotic spacecraft Animals in space Monkeys in space A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which a Spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least
A Russian Soyuz
bringing a crew to the ISS
- See also: Suborbital spaceflight
- See also: Space probe and Boilerplate (rocketry)
- Earth Orbit
- Clementine - US Navy mission, orbited Moon, detected hydrogen at the poles
- Luna 1 - first lunar flyby
- Luna 2 - first lunar impact
- Luna 3 - first images of lunar far side
- Luna 9 - first soft landing on the Moon
- Luna 10 - first lunar orbiter
- Luna 16 - first unmanned lunar sample retrieval
- Lunar Orbiter - very successful series of lunar mapping spacecraft
- Lunar Prospector - confirmed detection of hydrogen at the lunar poles
- SMART-1 ESA - Lunar Impact
- Surveyor - first USA soft lander
- Other - deep space
- Fastest spacecraft
- Helios I & II Solar Probes (252,792 km/h/157,078 mph)
- Furthest spacecraft from Earth
- Voyager 1 at 9. Design A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back A Spheroid Orbital module, which provides accommodation for the crew during Team The Gemini program was managed by the Manned Spacecraft Center Houston Texas under direction of the Office of Manned Space Flight NASA Headquarters Washington A Manned Maneuvering Unit ( MMU) is a Rocket pack ( propulsion Backpack that snaps onto the back of the Spacesuit) which has been used Mir (Мир which can mean both Peace and World, and was the name given to peasant communes in pre-revolutionary Russia was a Soviet (and The Salyut program (Салют lit  Salute or Fireworks) was the first Space station program undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted The Buran spacecraft ( Буран "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard") GRAU index 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational History Development began in 1992 under the name of Project 921-1. Skylab was the first Space station the United States launched into orbit and the second space station ever visited by a human crew Design A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts (from front to back A Spheroid Orbital module, which provides accommodation for the crew during NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States The Voskhod (Восход Voschod or Wosschod translated as "Rising") was a Spacecraft built by the Soviet Union 's space program for Human The Vostok ( Russian: Восток, translated as East) was a type of Spacecraft built by the Soviet Union 's space programme for A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight is a Spaceflight in which the Spacecraft reaches space, but its Trajectory intersects SpaceShipOne is a Spaceplane that completed the first privately funded Human spaceflight on June 21, 2004. A robotic spacecraft is a Spacecraft with no humans on board that is usually under Telerobotic control A space probe is a scientific Space exploration mission in which a Robotic spacecraft leaves the Gravity well of Earth and approaches the The term boilerplate in Rocketry refers to a non-functional craft system or payload which is used to test various configurations and basic size load and handling characteristics The Hubble Space Telescope ( HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble" is a space telescope that was carried into Jules Verne ATV, or Automated Transfer Vehicle 001 ( ATV-001) was an unmanned European cargo resupply spacecraft named after Design The ATV is designed to complement the Progress spacecraft, having three times its capacity The Buran spacecraft ( Буран "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard") GRAU index 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational Explorer 1 (officially titled at NASA as satellite 1958 Alpha) was the first Earth Satellite of the United States, launched on February 1 Project SCORE (Signal Communications Orbit Relay Equipment was the world’s first Communications satellite. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO) is a Spacecraft that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on December Sputnik 1 ( "Спутник-1", "Satellite-1" ПС-1 ( PS-1, i Mission profile Sputnik 2 was launched into a 212 x 1660 km (132 x 1031 mile orbit with a period of 103 Laika (from the Лайка, a breed of dog, literally meaning "Barker" or "Howler" was a Soviet space dog (c Crew 2 dogs - Belka ("Squirrel" and Strelka ("Little Arrow" or "Pointer" 40 mice 2 rats A variety of STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory is a solar observation mission which was launched on 26 October 2006 at 0052 GMT. Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite" started as a 1961 NASA program for active Geosynchronous Communication satellites all of which Sources A soft landing in the Business cycle is the process of an economy shifting from growth to slow-growth to potentially flat as it approaches but avoids a Recession Spacecraft design The spacecraft was an octagonal prism 188 m high and 1 Luna 1 (E-1 series also known as Mechta (Мечта lit: Dream) was the first Spacecraft to reach the vicinity Luna 2 (E-1A series was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna program spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. The Soviet spaceprobe Luna 3 (E-3 series was the third spacecraft sent successfully to the Moon and was an early triumph in the human exploration of outer space Sources Mission profile The Luna 16 automatic station was launched toward the Moon from a preliminary Earth orbit and after one mid-course correction on 13 September it entered The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned Lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States in 1966 through 1967 The Lunar Prospector mission was the third selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program. SMART-1 was a Swedish -designed European Space Agency Satellite that Orbited around the Moon. The Surveyor Program was a NASA program that from 1966 through 1968 sent seven Robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon. Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA / ESA / ASI Robotic spacecraft mission currently studying the planet Saturn and its Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA / ESA / ASI Robotic spacecraft mission currently studying the planet Saturn and its TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Titan (ˈtaɪtən, or as Galileo was an Unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the Planet Jupiter and its moons Named after the Astronomer Mariner 4 (Mariner-Mars 1964 was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I was a NASA space probe orbiter that helped in the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. For other meanings see Orbiter (disambiguation. An orbiter is a Space probe that Orbits a Planet or Natural Mariner 10 was a robotic Space probe launched on November 3, 1973 to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. NASA 's Mars Exploration Rover ( MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of The Mars Global Surveyor ( MGS) was a US Spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched The MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging ( MESSENGER) probe is a NASA Spacecraft, launched August 3, 2004 The Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II just a month after the Mars Global Surveyor New Horizons is a Robotic spacecraft mission by NASA currently underway Pioneer 10 ( Pioneer-F) was the first Spacecraft to travel through the Asteroid belt, which it entered on July 15, 1972 Pioneer 11 was the second mission (after its sister probe Pioneer 10) to investigate Jupiter and the Outer solar system and the first to explore the planet The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components launched separately The VENUS ( V ictoria E xperimental N etwork U nder the S ea project is a cabled sea floor observatory operated by the University Venera 4 ( Russian:Венера-4 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus. Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft sent to Mars as part of NASA 's Viking program, and holds the record for the longest Mars surface mission Voyager 2 is an unmanned Interplanetary Spacecraft launched on August 20, 1977. Neptune ( English|AmE] ] is the eighth and farthest Planet from the Sun in the Solar System. A space probe is a scientific Space exploration mission in which a Robotic spacecraft leaves the Gravity well of Earth and approaches the The Cluster mission is an European Space Agency (ESA Unmanned space mission to study the Earth 's Magnetosphere using four identical spacecraft Deep Space 1 is a Spacecraft launched on 24 October 1998 as part of NASA 's New Millennium program. Deep Impact is an ongoing NASA Space probe launched on 12 January 2005 that was designed to study the composition of the interior of the Comet The Genesis spacecraft was the first ever attempt to collect a sample of Solar wind, and the first " Sample return mission " to return from beyond the The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker renamed after its launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene M Stardust is an American interplanetary mission of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, whose primary purpose was to investigate the makeup of the The Helios deep Space probes were launched in the mid 1970s by the Federal Republic of Germany and NASA, using US Air Force launch vehicles The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram robotic Space probe of the outer Solar system and beyond launched September 5, 5824234 billion miles.
- Pioneer 10 at 8. Pioneer 10 ( Pioneer-F) was the first Spacecraft to travel through the Asteroid belt, which it entered on July 15, 1972 3445237 billion miles.
- Voyager 2 at 7. Voyager 2 is an unmanned Interplanetary Spacecraft launched on August 20, 1977. 4351695 billion miles.
- Heaviest spacecraft
Spacecraft under development
Unfunded/Cancelled spacecraft programs
The First Test Flight of the Delta Clipper-Experimental Advanced (DC-XA
- ^ The Rosetta ground segment. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System ( STS) is the United States government's current manned Launch NASA 's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System ( STS) is the Spacecraft currently used by the United States The Crew Exploration Vehicle (or CEV) was the conceptual component of the Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft Orion is a Spacecraft design currently under development by the United States space agency NASA. Kliper ( Клипер, English: Clipper) is a Russian-proposed next generation manned Spacecraft that was almost selected as the successor Chandrayaan I (चंद्रयान-1 lit Lunar Craft is an unmanned Lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO. The fr '''Centre National d'Études Spatiales''' ( CNES) is the French government Space agency (administratively a "public establishment of industrial and commercial The James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST) is a planned space Infrared observatory the successor to the aging Hubble Space Telescope. The Kepler Mission is a Space Photometer being developed by NASA. The Darwin Mission is a proposed European Space Agency (ESA program designed to directly detect Earth -like planets orbiting nearby stars, and search for The Herschel Space Observatory ("Herschel" is a European Space Agency (ESA mission originally proposed in 1982 by a consortium of European scientists that included The Mars Science Laboratory ( MSL) is a NASA rover scheduled to be launched on September 15, 2009 and perform the first ever History Development began in 1992 under the name of Project 921-1. The Terrestrial Planet Finder ( TPF) was a plan by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States for a Telescope The Boeing X-37 Advanced Technology Demonstrator is a demonstration Spaceplane that is intended to test future launch technologies while in Orbit and during atmospheric The SpaceX Dragon is a proposed conventional blunt-cone ballistic capsule Spacecraft, capable of carrying seven people or a mixture of personnel and cargo to and from Low A fractionated spacecraft is a Satellite architecture where the functional capabilities of a conventional monolithic spacecraft are distributed across multiple Modules The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new Technology A fractionated spacecraft is a Satellite architecture where the functional capabilities of a conventional monolithic spacecraft are distributed across multiple Modules History The Chinese National Manned Space Program was given the designation of Project 921 in 1992 Hermes was a proposed mini-shuttle designed by the French Centre national d'études spatiales ( CNES) in 1975, and later by the European Space Agency The Buran spacecraft ( Буран "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard") GRAU index 11F35 K1, was the only fully completed and operational Teledesic was a company founded in the 1990s to build a commercial Broadband Satellite constellation for Internet services The Manned Orbital Laboratory ( MOL) was part of the United States Air Force 's Manned spaceflight program a successor to the cancelled X-20 Dyna-Soar WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches Orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware expending only propellants and fluids The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable Single stage to orbit launch vehicle built HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was an unrealised British space shuttle proposal Hopper is a proposed European Space Agency orbital craft advanced concept The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable Single stage to orbit launch vehicle built Rotary Rocket Inc, was a rocketry company headquartered in a facility at Mojave Airport that developed the Roton concept in the late 1990s as a fully reusable VentureStar was Lockheed Martin 's proposed design for a Single-stage-to-orbit Reusable launch system. Astrionics is the science and technology of the development and application of electronic systems sub-systems and components used in Spacecraft. This is a timeline of known Spaceflights, both manned and unmanned sorted chronologically by launch date The design of Spacecraft covers a broad area including the design of both Robotic spacecraft ( Satellites and Planetary probes, and spacecraft for Human Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of Spacecraft and artificial Satellites There are many different methods History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik This is a list of spaceflight records. Most of these records relate to Human spaceflights but some unmanned and canine records are included A starship is a theoretical Spacecraft designed for traveling between the stars, as opposed to a vehicle designed for Orbital spaceflight or Interplanetary The Ansari X PRIZE was a Space competition in which the X PRIZE Foundation offered a US$ 10000000 Prize for the first non-government Earth to Orbit (ETO describes the process or means of placing a payload into an Orbit around the Earth. ESA. int (2004-02-17). "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Events 1500 - Battle of Hemmingstedt. 1600 - Philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at Campo de' Fiori Retrieved on 2008-02-11. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu.
- Wertz, James; Larson, Wiley J (1999). Space Mission Analysis and Design, 3rd edition, Torrance, CA: Microcosm. ISBN 978-1881883104.
- Knight, Will (2006-01-23). Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor "Spacecraft skin 'heals' itself".
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- A vehicle that travels through space.
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