A space suit is a complex system of garments, equipment and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather This applies to extra-vehicular activity (EVA) outside spacecraft orbiting Earth and has applied to walking, and riding the Lunar Rover, on the Moon. Extra-vehicular activity ( EVA) is work done by an Astronaut away from the Earth and outside of a Spacecraft. A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV or lunar rover was a type of surface exploration rover used on the Moon during the Apollo program.
Some of these requirements also apply to pressure suits worn for other specialized tasks, such as high-altitude reconnaissance flight. A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive even breathing pure oxygen Above Armstrong's Line (~63,000 ft/~19,000 m), pressurized suits are needed in the sparse atmosphere. The Armstrong Limit, often called Armstrong's Line, is the Altitude that produces an Atmospheric pressure so low ( Hazmat suits that superficially resemble space suits are sometimes used when dealing with biological hazards. A hazmat suit is a garment worn as protection from '''haz'''ardous '''mat'''erials or substances
A space suit must perform several functions to allow its occupant to work safely and comfortably. It must provide:
Generally, to supply enough oxygen for respiration, a spacesuit using pure oxygen must have a pressure of about 4. Particle radiation is the radiation of Energy by means of fast-moving Subatomic particles. A Micrometeoroid (also micrometeorite, micrometeor) is a tiny Meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space usually weighing less than a Gram An ( Integrated) Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment ( TMG or ITMG) is the outer layer of a Space suit. This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter Liquid is one of the principal States of matter. A liquid is a Fluid that has the particles loose and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange. 7 psi (32. The pound per square inch or more accurately pound-force per square inch (symbol psi or lbf/in² or lbf/in²) is a unit of 4 kPa), equal to the 3 psi (20. 7 kPa) partial pressure of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere at sea level, plus 40 torr (5. In a mixture of Ideal gases each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume Temperature and layers The temperature of the Earth's atmosphere varies with altitude the mathematical relationship between temperature and altitude varies among five The torr (symbol Torr) is a non- SI unit of Pressure defined as 1/760 of an atmosphere. 3 kPa) CO2 and 47 torr (6. 3 kPa) water vapor pressure, both of which must be subtracted from the alveolar pressure to get alveolar oxygen partial pressure in 100% oxygen atmospheres, by the alveolar gas equation. General properties of water vapor Evaporation/sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface it is said to have evaporated Following is a list of average Partial pressures (in Torr) for a human at rest Factors affecting alveolar gas pressures The alveolar oxygen pressure is lower The alveolar pO2 is not routinely measured but is calculated from blood gas measurements by the Alveolar gas equation: p_AO_2 = p_IO_2 - p_ACO_2/R + F \  The latter two figures add to 87 torr (11. 6 kPa, 1. 7 psi), which is why many modern spacesuits do not use 3 psi, but 4. 7 psi (this is a slight overcorrection, as alveolar partial pressures at sea level are not a full 3 psi, but a bit less). In spacesuits that use 3 psi, the astronaut gets only 3 - 1. 7 = 1. 3 psi (9 kPa) of oxygen, which is about the alveolar oxygen partial pressure attained at an altitude of 6100 ft (1860 m) above sea level. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International This is about 78% of normal sea level pressure, about the same as pressure in a commercial passenger jet aircraft, and is the realistic lower limit for safe ordinary space suit pressurization which allows reasonable work capacity.
A space suit should allow its user natural unencumbered movement. Nearly all designs try to maintain a constant volume no matter what movements the wearer makes. This is because mechanical work is needed to change the volume of a constant pressure system. In Physics, mechanical work is the amount of Energy transferred by a Force. If flexing a joint reduces the volume of the spacesuit, then the astronaut must do extra work every time he bends that joint, and he has to maintain a force to keep the joint bent. Even if this force is very small, it can be seriously fatiguing to constantly fight against your suit. It also makes delicate movements very difficult. The work required to bend a joint is dictated by the formula
where Vi and Vf are respectively the initial and final volume of the joint, P is the pressure in the suit, and W is the resultant work. Because pressure is dictated by life support requirements, the only means of reducing work is to minimize the change in volume.
All space suit designs try to minimize or eliminate this problem. The most common solution is to form the suit out of multiple layers. The bladder layer is a rubbery, airtight layer much like a balloon. The restraint layer goes outside the bladder, and provides a specific shape for the suit. Since the bladder layer is larger than the restraint layer, the restraint takes all of the stresses caused by the pressure inside the suit. Since the bladder is not under pressure, it will not "pop" like a balloon, even if punctured. The restraint layer is shaped in such a way that bending a joint causes pockets of fabric, called "gores", to open up on the outside of the joint, while folds called "convolutes" fold up on the inside of the joint. The gores make up for the volume lost on the inside of the joint, and keep the suit at a nearly constant volume. However, once the gores are opened all the way, the joint cannot be bent any further without a considerable amount of work.
In some Russian space suits, strips of cloth were wrapped tightly round the spaceman's arms and legs outside the spacesuit to stop the spacesuit from ballooning when in space.
The outermost layer of a space suit, the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, provides thermal insulation, protection from micrometeoroids, and shielding from harmful solar radiation. An ( Integrated) Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment ( TMG or ITMG) is the outer layer of a Space suit. A Micrometeoroid (also micrometeorite, micrometeor) is a tiny Meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space usually weighing less than a Gram
There are three theoretical approaches to suit design:
Hard-shell suits are usually made of metal or composite materials. While they resemble suits of armor, they are also designed to maintain a constant volume. However they tend to be difficult to move, as they rely on bearings instead of bellows over the joints, and often end up in odd positions that must be manipulated to regain mobility.
Mixed suits have hard-shell parts and fabric parts. NASA's Extravehicular Mobility Unit uses a fiberglass Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and fabric limbs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Space Shuttle / International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection A Hard Upper Torso Assembly, or HUT, is a central component of many Space suits notably NASA 's Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU ILC Dover's I-Suit replaces the hard upper torso with a fabric soft upper torso to save weight, restricting the use of hard components to the joint bearings, helmet, waist seal, and rear entry hatch. ILC Dover (formerly ILC Industries, also known as simply ILC) is a Dover Delaware -based corporation located in nearby Frederica Delaware. The I-Suit is a Spacesuit model constructed by ILC Dover. The suit began as an EVA mobility demonstrator developed to meet a contract awarded by Virtually all workable spacesuit designs incorporate hard components, particularly at interfaces such as is the waist seal, bearings, and in the case of rear-entry suits, the back hatch, where all-soft alternatives are not viable.
Skintight suits, also known as mechanical counterpressure suits or space activity suits, are a proposed design which would use a heavy elastic body stocking to compress the body. A space activity suit is a kind of Spacesuit which provides mechanical pressure by means of elastic garments as opposed to pressurizing the suit with the breathing gas as is The head is in a pressurized helmet, but the rest of the body is pressurized only by the elastic effect of the suit. This eliminates the constant volume problem, reduces the possibility of a space suit depressurization and gives a very lightweight suit. However, these suits are very difficult to put on and face problems with providing a constant pressure everywhere. Most proposals use the body's natural sweat to keep cool.
Related preceding technologies include the gas mask used in WWII, the oxygen mask used by pilots of high flying bombers in WWII, the high altitude or vacuum suit required by pilots of the Lockheed U-2 and SR-71 Blackbird, the diving suit, rebreather, scuba diving gear, and many others. A gas mask is a Mask worn over the face to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne Pollutants and Toxic materials World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing Oxygen gas from a storage tank to the Lungs. This vacuum means "absence of matter" or "an empty area or space" for the cleaning appliance see Vacuum cleaner. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A diving suit is a garment or device designed to protect a diver from the Underwater environment A rebreather is a type of Breathing set that provides a Breathing gas containing Oxygen and recycled exhaled gas Scuba diving is swimming underwater, or taking part in another activity while using a Scuba set.
The development of the spheroidal dome helmet was key in balancing the need for field of view, pressure compensation, and low weight. One inconvenience with some spacesuits is the head being fixed facing forwards and being unable to turn to look sideways. Astronauts call this effect "alligator head". An astronaut or cosmonaut (космона́вт) is a person trained
SK-1 space suit
Berkut space suit
Krechet space suit
Orlan space suit
Sokol space suit
Navy Mark V vacuum suit
Gemini spacewalk suit
Manned Orbiting Laboratory MH-7 space suit
Apollo/Skylab A7L EVA and moon suit
Advance Crew Escape System Pressure Suit
Extravehicular Mobility Unit
Shenzhou 5 space suit
Shenzhou 6 space suit (worn by Nie Haisheng)
Several companies and universities are developing technologies and prototypes which represent improvements over current spacesuits. Colonel Niè Hǎishèng ( (born October 13, 1964) is a Chinese military pilot and CNSA Astronaut ( yuhangyuan)
The Mark III is a NASA prototype, constructed by ILC Dover, which incorporates a hard lower torso section and a mix of soft and hard components. The Mark III or MK III (H-1 is a NASA Space suit technology demonstrator built by ILC Dover. ILC Dover (formerly ILC Industries, also known as simply ILC) is a Dover Delaware -based corporation located in nearby Frederica Delaware. The Mark III is markedly more mobile than previous suits, despite its high operating pressure (8. 3 psi/57 kPa), which makes it a "zero-prebreathe" suit, meaning that astronauts would be able to transition directly from a one atmosphere, mixed-gas space station environment, such as that on the International Space Station, to the suit, without risking decompression sickness, which can occur with rapid depressurization from an atmosphere containing Nitrogen or another inert gas. Decompression sickness (DCS, the diver’s disease, the bends, caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person Nitrogen (ˈnaɪtɹəʤɪn is a Chemical element that has the symbol N and Atomic number 7 and Atomic weight 14
The I-Suit is a spacesuit prototype also constructed by ILC Dover, which incorporates several design improvements over the EMU, including a weight-saving soft upper torso. The I-Suit is a Spacesuit model constructed by ILC Dover. The suit began as an EVA mobility demonstrator developed to meet a contract awarded by Both the Mark III and the I-Suit have taken part in NASA's annual Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field trials, during which suit occupants interact with one another, and with rovers and other equipment. NASA 's Desert Research and Technology Studies ( Desert RATS or D-RATS) is a group of teams which perform an annual series of field trials seeking to
Bio-Suit is a space activity suit under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which as of 2006 consists of several lower leg prototypes. A space activity suit is a kind of Spacesuit which provides mechanical pressure by means of elastic garments as opposed to pressurizing the suit with the breathing gas as is A space activity suit is a kind of Spacesuit which provides mechanical pressure by means of elastic garments as opposed to pressurizing the suit with the breathing gas as is Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Bio-suit is custom fit to each wearer, using laser body scanning.
The MX-2 is a space suit analogue constructed at the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory. The University of Maryland College Park (often referred to as The University of Maryland UMD, UMCP or simply Maryland) is a public research The Space Systems Laboratory ( SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A The MX-2 is used for manned neutral buoyancy testing at the Space Systems Lab's Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility. Neutral buoyancy is a condition in which a physical body's mass equals the mass it displaces in a surrounding medium By approximating the work envelope of a real EVA suit, without meeting the requirements of a flight-rated suit, the MX-2 provides an inexpensive platform for EVA research, compared to using EMU suits at facilities like NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The Space Shuttle / International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU is an independent anthropomorphic system that provides environmental protection The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL is an Astronaut training facility located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility and maintained by NASA 's
The MX-2 has an operating pressure of 2. 5–4 psi. It is a rear-entry suit, featuring a fiberglass hard upper torso. A Hard Upper Torso Assembly, or HUT, is a central component of many Space suits notably NASA 's Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU Air, LCG cooling water, and power are open loop systems, provided through an umbilical. A Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment, or LCVG, is a form-fitting garment worn by Astronauts in order to maintain a comfortable core body temperature An umbilical cable or umbilical is a cable which supplies required consumables to an apparatus The suit includes a mac mini to capture sensor data, such as suit pressure, inlet and outlet air temperatures, and heart rate. The Mac Mini (officially capitalized Mac mini) is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc  Resizable suit elements and adjustable ballast allow the suit to accommodate subjects ranging in height from 68 in. to 75 in. , and with a weight range of 120 lb (54 kg). 
Beginning in May 2006, five North Dakota schools collaborated on a new spacesuit prototype, funded by a $100,000 grant from NASA, to demonstrate technologies which could be incorporated into a planetary suit. North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The suit was tested in the Theodore Roosevelt National Park badlands of western North Dakota. Established in 1978 Theodore Roosevelt National Park is a United States National Park comprising three geographically separated areas of Badlands in western Badlands are a type of Arid Terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and Clay -rich Soils have been extensively eroded by Wind The suit weighs 47 pounds without a life support backpack, and costs only a fraction of the standard $22,000,000 cost for a flight-rated NASA spacesuit. The suit was developed in just over a year by students from the University of North Dakota, North Dakota State, Dickinson State, the state College of Science and Turtle Mountain Community College. The University of North Dakota ( UND) is a Public university in Grand Forks North Dakota, USA. North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University ( NDSU) is a Public university in Dickinson State University ( DSU) is a four-year public university in Dickinson North Dakota, United States, and is a part of the North Dakota University The North Dakota State College of Science ( NDSCS) is a 2-year public college in Wahpeton North Dakota and part of the North Dakota University System. Turtle Mountain Community College is a tribal college in Belcourt North Dakota.  The mobility of the North Dakota suit can be attributed to its low operating pressure; while the North Dakota suit was field tested at a pressure of 1 psi differential, NASA's EMU suit operates at a pressure of 4. 7 psi, a pressure designed to supply approximately sea-level oxygen partial pressure for respiration (see discussion above). In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange. A space suit is a complex system of Garments equipment and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space
On August 2, 2006, NASA indicated plans to issue a Request for Proposal (RFP) for the design, development, certification, production, and sustaining engineering of a space suit system to meet the needs of Project Constellation.  NASA foresees a single suit capable of supporting: survivability during launch, entry and abort; zero-gravity EVA; lunar surface EVA; and Mars surface EVA.
For as long as there has been fiction set in space, authors have tried to describe the space suits worn by their characters. These fictional suits vary in appearance and technology, and range from the highly authentic to the utterly improbable.
A very early fictional account of space suits can be seen in the book Edison's Conquest of Mars (1898). Edison's Conquest of Mars, by Garrett P Serviss, is one of the many Science fiction novels published in the nineteenth century Later comic book series such as Buck Rogers (1930s) and Dan Dare (1950s) also featured their own takes on space suit design. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative Buck Rogers is a fictional character who first appeared in 1928 as Anthony Rogers the hero of two Novellas by Philip Francis Nowlan published in the magazine Dan Dare is a classic British Science fiction comic hero created by illustrator Frank Hampson. Science fiction authors such as Robert A. Heinlein contributed to the development of fictional space suit concepts. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer.