Fact sheet Size Space Shuttle Space Shuttle Discovery launches at the start of STS-120. Space Shuttle Discovery ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of STS-120 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS that launched on October 23, 2007 from the Kennedy Space Center Function Manned partially re-usable launch and reentry system Manufacturer United Space Alliance:Thiokol/Boeing (SRBs)Lockheed Martin (Martin Marietta) - (ET)Rockwell International (orbiter) Country of origin United States of America Height 56. United Space Alliance (USA is spaceflight operations company USA is a joint venture equally owned by The Boeing Company (NYSEBA and Lockheed Martin Corporation Thiokol (variously Thiokol Chemical Company, Morton-Thiokol Inc The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Lockheed Martin ( is a large multinational Aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology Company formed in 1995 by the merger of Martin Marietta Corporation was founded in 1961 through the Merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems ( Boeing IDS) based in St Louis, Missouri, USA, is a unit of The Boeing Company responsible for The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 1 m (184 ft (56 m)) Diameter 8. 7 m (28. 5 ft (8. 7 m)) Mass 2,029,203 kg (4,474,574 lb) Stages 2 Payload to LEO 24,400 kg (53,700 lb) Payload toGTO 3,810 kg (8,390 lb) Status Active Launch sites LC-39, Kennedy Space CenterSLC-6, Vandenberg AFB (unused) Total launches 121 Successes 119 Failures 2 Maiden flight April 12, 1981 Notable payloads International Space Station componentsHubble Space TelescopeGalileoMagellanChandra X-ray ObservatoryCompton Gamma Ray Observatory No boosters 2 Engines 1 solid Thrust 2,800,000 lbf each, sea level liftoff (12. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass In military aircraft or space exploration the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship including as Cargo, Munitions scientific instruments A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km A Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit or Geostationary Transfer Orbit ( GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit around the Earth between a Low Earth orbit Launch Complex 39 (LC-39 is a Rocket launch site at the John F The John F Kennedy Space Center ( KSC) is the NASA Space vehicle launch facility and Launch Control Center ( Spaceport) on Space Launch Complex-6 ( SLC-6, nicknamed "Slick Six" at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California was a launch pad and support area designed Vandenberg Air Force Base is a United States military installation with a Spaceport, in Santa Barbara County, California, United States. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 The Hubble Space Telescope ( HST; also known colloquially as "the Hubble" or just "Hubble" is a space telescope that was carried into Galileo was an Unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the Planet Jupiter and its moons Named after the Astronomer The Magellan spacecraft was a space probe sent to the planet Venus, the first post- Voyager unmanned spacecraft to be launched by NASA The Chandra X-ray Observatory is a Satellite launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999. The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight A solid rocket or a solid-fuel rocket is a Rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants ( Fuel / Oxidizer) This article deals with the unit of force For the unit of mass see Pound (mass. Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface 5 MN) Specific impulse 269 s Burn time 124 s Fuel solid Engines (none)(3 SSMEs located on Orbiter) Thrust 1,180,000 lb (540,000 kg)f combined total, sea level liftoff (5. The newton (symbol N) is the SI derived unit of Force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on Classical Specific impulse (usually abbreviated I sp is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines A Space Shuttle External Tank ( ET) is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the Liquid hydrogen fuel and Liquid oxygen SSME redirect here For the services field see Service Science Management and Engineering The Space Shuttle Main Engines ( SSMEs 25 MN) Specific impulse 455 s Burn time 480 s Fuel LOX/LH2 Engines 2 OME Thrust 12,000 lbf combined total vacuum thrust (53 kN) Specific impulse 316 s Burn time 1250 s Fuel MMH/N2O4
Space Shuttle program insignia

NASA's Space Shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System (STS), is the spacecraft currently used by the United States government for its human spaceflight missions. Specific impulse (usually abbreviated I sp is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2 is the Liquid state of the element Hydrogen. The Space Shuttle orbiters are the orbital Spacecraft of the Space Shuttle program operated by NASA, the space agency of the United States. The Orbital Maneuvering System, or OMS (pronounced /omz/ is a system of Rocket engines used on the space shuttle orbiter for orbital injection Specific impulse (usually abbreviated I sp is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines Monomethylhydrazine ( MMH) is a volatile Hydrazine with the Chemical formula C[[Hydrogen H]]3 N 2 Nitrogen tetroxide ( dinitrogen tetroxide or nitrogen peroxide) is the Chemical compound N2O4 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers At launch, it consists of a rust-colored external tank (ET), two white, slender Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), and the orbiter, a winged spaceplane which is the space shuttle in the narrow sense. A Space Shuttle External Tank ( ET) is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the Liquid hydrogen fuel and Liquid oxygen The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight The Space Shuttle orbiters are the orbital Spacecraft of the Space Shuttle program operated by NASA, the space agency of the United States. A spaceplane is a Rocket plane designed to pass the Edge of space.

The orbiter carries astronauts and payload such as satellites or space station parts into low earth orbit, into the Earth's upper atmosphere or thermosphere. An astronaut or cosmonaut (космона́вт) is a person trained A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the Mesosphere and directly below the Exosphere. [1] Usually, five to seven crew members ride in the orbiter. The payload capacity is 50,000 lb (22,700 kg). When the orbiter's mission is complete it fires its Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) thrusters to drop out of orbit and re-enters the lower atmosphere. The Orbital Maneuvering System, or OMS (pronounced /omz/ is a system of Rocket engines used on the space shuttle orbiter for orbital injection [1] During the descent and landing, the shuttle orbiter acts as a glider, and makes a completely unpowered ("dead stick") landing. Terminology A "glider" is an unpowered Aircraft. The most common types of glider are today used for sporting purposes A deadstick landing, also called a dead-stick landing or forced landing, occurs when an Aircraft loses all of its propulsive power and is forced to

## Description

Six air-worthy shuttles have been built; the first orbiter, Enterprise, was not built for space flight, and was used only for testing purposes. The Space Shuttle Enterprise ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101 was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. Five space-worthy orbiters were built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service Space Shuttle Discovery ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Space Shuttle Endeavour ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after launch in 1986, and Endeavour was built as a replacement. The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart Columbia broke apart during re-entry in 2003. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas

First launched in 1981, NASA has announced that the Space Shuttle would be retired in 2010, and from 2014 on, would be replaced by Orion, a new vehicle that is designed to take humans to the Moon and beyond along with its partner rockets, the Ares I and Ares V Rockets; however, since Orion is meant primarily for manned space flights, ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle, with its 7,667 kg payload, has been suggested as an alternative for tasks like supplying space stations. Orion is a Spacecraft design currently under development by the United States space agency NASA. The European Space Agency ( ESA) established in 1975 is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member Design The ATV is designed to complement the Progress spacecraft, having three times its capacity A space station is an artificial structure designed for Humans to live in Outer space.

Each Space Shuttle is a partially reusable launch system that is composed of three main assemblies: the reusable Orbiter Vehicle (OV), the expendable external tank (ET), and the two partially-reusable solid rocket boosters (SRBs). A reusable launch system (or reusable launch vehicle, RLV is a Launch system which is capable of launching a Launch vehicle into space more than once The Space Shuttle orbiters are the orbital Spacecraft of the Space Shuttle program operated by NASA, the space agency of the United States. A Space Shuttle External Tank ( ET) is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the Liquid hydrogen fuel and Liquid oxygen The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight The tank and boosters are jettisoned during ascent; only the orbiter goes into orbit. The vehicle is launched vertically like a conventional rocket, and the orbiter glides to a horizontal landing, after which it is refurbished for reuse.

At times, the orbiter itself is referred to as the space shuttle. Technically, this is a misnomer, as the actual "Space Transportation System" (space shuttle) is the combination of the orbiter, the external tank (ET), and the two partially-reusable solid rocket boosters. A Space Shuttle External Tank ( ET) is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the Liquid hydrogen fuel and Liquid oxygen The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight Combined, these are referred to as the "Stack".

### Orbiter vehicle

Main article: Space Shuttle Orbiter

The orbiter resembles an aircraft with double-delta wings, swept 81° at the inner leading edge, and 45° at the outer leading edge. The Space Shuttle orbiters are the orbital Spacecraft of the Space Shuttle program operated by NASA, the space agency of the United States. The delta wing is a Wing Planform in the form of a triangle named after the Greek uppercase delta which is a triangle (Δ Its vertical stabilizer's leading edge is swept back at a 50° angle. The four elevons, mounted at the trailing edge of the wings, and the rudder/speed brake, attached at the trailing edge of the stabilizer, with the body flap, control the orbiter during descent and landing. Elevons are Aircraft control surfaces that combine the functions of the elevator (used for pitch control and the Aileron (used for roll control A rudder is a device used to steer a Ship, Boat, Submarine, Hovercraft, or other conveyance that move through a fluid (generally air or The orbiter has a large payload bay measuring 15 feet (4. 6 m) by 60 feet (18. 3 m) comprising most of the fuselage. The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped" is an Aircraft 's main body section that holds crew and passengers or Cargo

Three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are mounted on the orbiter's aft fuselage in a triangular pattern. SSME redirect here For the services field see Service Science Management and Engineering The Space Shuttle Main Engines ( SSMEs The three engines can swivel 10. 5 degrees up and down, and 8. 5 degrees from side to side during ascent to change the direction of their thrust and steer the shuttle as well as push. The orbiter structure is made primarily from aluminum alloy, although the engine thrust structure is made from titanium (alloy). WikipediaNaming An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22

### Solid Rocket Boosters

Two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) each provide 2. The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight 8 million lbf (12. 5 MN) of thrust at liftoff, which is 83% of the total thrust needed for liftoff. The SRBs are jettisoned two minutes after launch at a height of about 150,000 feet (45. 7 km), and then deploy parachutes and land in the ocean to be recovered. [2] The SRB cases are made of steel about ½ inch (1. 3 cm) thick. [3]

### Flight systems

Early shuttle missions took along the GRiD Compass, arguably one of the first laptop computers. The Grid Compass 1100 (written GRiD by its manufacturer was arguably the first Laptop computer, introduced in April 1982 A laptop computer, also known as a notebook computer, is a small Personal computer designed for mobile use. The Compass sold poorly, as it cost at least $8000 (USD), but offered unmatched performance for its weight and size. The United States dollar ( sign:$; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been [4] NASA was one of its main customers. [5]

The shuttle was one of the earliest craft to use a computerized fly-by-wire digital flight control system. Aircraft flight control systems consist of Flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls connecting linkages and the necessary operating mechanisms to control Aircraft flight control systems consist of Flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls connecting linkages and the necessary operating mechanisms to control This means no mechanical or hydraulic linkages connect the pilot's control stick to the control surfaces or reaction control system thrusters. A reaction control system, abbreviated RCS, is a subsystem of a Spacecraft.

A primary concern with digital fly-by-wire systems is reliability. Much research went into the shuttle computer system. The shuttle uses five identical redundant IBM 32-bit general purpose computers (GPCs), model AP-101, constituting a type of embedded system. The IBM AP-101 is an Avionics Computer, used most notably in the U An embedded system is a special-purpose Computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with Real-time computing constraints Four computers run specialized software called the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS). A fifth backup computer runs separate software called the Backup Flight System (BFS). Collectively they are called the Data Processing System (DPS). [6][7]

The design goal of the shuttle's DPS is fail operational/fail safe reliability. After a single failure, the shuttle can still continue the mission. After two failures, it can still land safely.

The four general-purpose computers operate essentially in lockstep, checking each other. If one computer fails, the three functioning computers "vote" it out of the system. This isolates it from vehicle control. If a second computer of the three remaining fails, the two functioning computers vote it out. In the rare case of two out of four computers simultaneously failing (a two-two split), one group is picked at random.

Atlantis deploys landing gear before landing on a selected runway just like a common aircraft. In Aviation, the undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels that supports an Aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi

The Backup Flight System (BFS) is separately developed software running on the fifth computer, used only if the entire four-computer primary system fails. The BFS was created because although the four primary computers are hardware redundant, they all run the same software, so a generic software problem could crash all of them. Embedded system avionic software is developed under totally different conditions from public commercial software, the number of code lines is tiny compared to a public commercial software, changes are only made infrequently and with extensive testing, and many programming and test personnel work on the small amount of computer code. An embedded system is a special-purpose Computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with Real-time computing constraints Avionics means "aviation electronics" It comprises electronic systems for use on aircraft artificial satellites and spacecraft comprising Communications However in theory it can still fail, and the BFS exists for that contingency. And while BFS will run in parallel with PASS, to date, BFS has never been engaged to take over control from PASS during any shuttle mission.

The software for the shuttle computers is written in a high-level language called HAL/S, somewhat similar to PL/I. HAL/S is a real-time Aerospace Programming language, best known for its use in the Space Shuttle program. PL/I ("Programming Language One" ˌpiːˌɛlˈwʌn is an imperative computer Programming language designed for scientific engineering It is specifically designed for a real time embedded system environment. In Computer science, real-time computing (RTC is the study of hardware and software systems that are subject to a "real-time constraint"—i An embedded system is a special-purpose Computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with Real-time computing constraints

The IBM AP-101 computers originally had about 424 kilobytes of magnetic core memory each. Magnetic core memory, or ferrite-core memory, is an early form of Random access Computer memory. The CPU could process about 400,000 instructions per second. They have no hard disk drive, and load software from magnetic tape cartridges.

In 1990, the original computers were replaced with an upgraded model AP-101S, which has about 2. 5 times the memory capacity (about 1 megabyte) and three times the processor speed (about 1. 2 million instructions per second). The memory was changed from magnetic core to semiconductor with battery backup.

### Typography and graphic design

The typeface used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is Helvetica. In Typography, a typeface is a set of one or more Fonts designed with stylistic unity each comprising a coordinated set of Glyphs A typeface usually comprises Helvetica is the name of a widely used Sans-serif Typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss Typeface designer Max Miedinger. [8] On the front lower corner of the cargo bay doors is the name of the orbiter, on the back lower corner of the cargo bay is the NASA 'Worm' logo. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA logo has three official designs although one of them (the "worm" has been retired from official use Below the NASA logo is the text 'United States' with a flag of the United States. Flags of the United States The Flag of the United States of America consists of 13 equal horizontal stripes of Red (top and bottom alternating Another United States flag appears on the right wing.

During STS-101, Atlantis was the first shuttle to fly with a glass cockpit. STS-101 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS flown by Space Shuttle '' Atlantis''. Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of A glass cockpit is an Aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays.

Internally, the shuttle remains largely similar to the original design, with the exception of the improved avionics computers. In addition to the computer upgrades, the original vector graphics monochrome cockpit displays were replaced with modern full-color, flat-panel display screens, similar to those of contemporary airliners like the Airbus A380 and Boeing 777. Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points lines, Curves and shapes or Polygon (s which are all based WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout This is called a glass cockpit. A glass cockpit is an Aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays. In the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project tradition, programmable calculators are carried as well (originally the HP-41C). The HP-41 series are programmable expandable handheld RPN Calculators made by Hewlett-Packard from 1979 to 1990. With the coming of the ISS, the orbiter's internal airlocks have been replaced with external docking systems to allow for a greater amount of cargo to be stored on the shuttle's mid-deck during station resupply missions.

The Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) have had several improvements to enhance reliability and power. SSME redirect here For the services field see Service Science Management and Engineering The Space Shuttle Main Engines ( SSMEs This explains phrases such as "Main engines throttling up to 104%. " This does not mean the engines are being run over a safe limit. The 100% figure is the original specified power level. During the lengthy development program, Rocketdyne determined the engine was capable of safe reliable operation at 104% of the originally specified thrust. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne is a United States company that designs and produces Rocket engines that use liquid propellants. They could have rescaled the output number, saying in essence 104% is now 100%. To clarify this would have required revising much previous documentation and software, so the 104% number was retained. SSME upgrades are denoted as "block numbers", such as block I, block II, and block IIA. The upgrades have improved engine reliability, maintainability and performance. The 109% thrust level was finally reached in flight hardware with the Block II engines in 2001. The normal maximum throttle is 104%, with 106% and 109% available for abort emergencies.

For the first two missions, STS-1 and STS-2, the external tank was painted white to protect the insulation that covers much of the tank, but improvements and testing showed that it was not required. A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASA 's Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent The first Space Shuttle mission STS (Space Transportation System-1, was launched April 12 1981, and returned April 14. STS-2 was a Space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'', that launched on November 12, 1981. A Space Shuttle External Tank ( ET) is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the Liquid hydrogen fuel and Liquid oxygen The weight saved by not painting the tank results in an increase in payload capability to orbit. [9] Additional weight was saved by removing some of the internal "stringers" in the hydrogen tank that proved unnecessary. The resulting "light-weight external tank" has been used on the vast majority of shuttle missions. STS-91 saw the first flight of the "super light-weight external tank". STS-91 was the final Space Shuttle mission to the Mir space station This version of the tank is made of the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy. It weighs 7,500 lb (3. 4 t) less than the last run of lightweight tanks. As the shuttle cannot fly unmanned, each of these improvements has been "tested" on operational flights.

The SRBs (Solid Rocket Boosters) have undergone improvements as well. Design engineers added a third O-ring seal to the joints between the segments after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. An o-ring, also known as a packing or a toric joint, is a mechanical Gasket in the shape of a Torus; it is a loop of Elastomer with The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart

The three nozzles of the Main Engine cluster with the two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods, and the vertical stabilizer above. SSME redirect here For the services field see Service Science Management and Engineering The Space Shuttle Main Engines ( SSMEs The Orbital Maneuvering System, or OMS (pronounced /omz/ is a system of Rocket engines used on the space shuttle orbiter for orbital injection The vertical stabilizers, or fins, of Aircraft, Missiles or Bombs are typically found on the aft end of the Fuselage or body

Several other SRB improvements were planned in order to improve performance and safety, but never came to be. These culminated in the considerably simpler, lower cost, probably safer and better performing Advanced Solid Rocket Booster. These rockets entered production in the early to mid-1990s to support the Space Station, but were later canceled to save money after the expenditure of \$2. 2 billion. [10] The loss of the ASRB program resulted in the development of the Super LightWeight external Tank (SLWT), which provides some of the increased payload capability, while not providing any of the safety improvements. In addition, the Air Force developed their own much lighter single-piece SRB design using a filament-wound system, but this too was cancelled.

STS-70 was delayed in 1995, when woodpeckers bored holes in the foam insulation of Discovery's external tank. STS-70 was a Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' mission to insert a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS into earth orbit The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. Since then, NASA has installed commercial plastic owl decoys and inflatable owl balloons which must be removed prior to launch. [11] The delicate nature of the foam insulation has been the cause of damage to the Thermal Protection System, the tile heat shield and heat wrap of the orbiter, during recent launches. The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS is the barrier that protects the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing 1650 °C (3000 °F) heat of NASA remains confident that this damage, while linked to the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, will not jeopardize the objective of NASA to complete the International Space Station (ISS) in the projected time allotted. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar.

A cargo-only, unmanned variant of the shuttle has been variously proposed, and rejected since the 1980s. It was called the Shuttle-C, and would have traded re-usability for cargo capability, with large potential savings from reusing technology developed for the space shuttle. The Shuttle-C was a NASA proposal to turn the Space Shuttle launch stack into a dedicated unmanned cargo launcher

On the first four shuttle missions, astronauts wore modified U. S. Air Force high-altitude full-pressure suits, which included a full-pressure helmet during ascent and descent. From the fifth flight, STS-5, until the loss of Challenger, one-piece light blue nomex flight suits and partial-pressure helmets were worn. STS-5 was a Space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart Nomex (styled NOMEX) is a registered Trademark for flame resistant meta- Aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed A less-bulky, partial-pressure version of the high-altitude pressure suits with a helmet was reinstated when shuttle flights resumed in 1988. The LES ended its service life in late 1995, and was replaced by the full-pressure Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), which resembles the Gemini space suit worn in the mid-1960s. The Advanced Crew Escape Suit, or ACES is a full Pressure suit currently worn by all Space Shuttle crews for the ascent and entry portions of flight The Gemini space suit is a Space suit worn by astronauts for launch in-flight activities (including EVAs and landing

To extend the duration that orbiters can stay docked at the ISS, the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS) was installed. The Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS pronounced spits) allows a docked Space Shuttle to make use of power provided by the International Space The SSPTS allows these orbiters to use power provided by the ISS to preserve their consumables. The SSPTS was first used successfully on STS-118. STS-118 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS flown by Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.

### Technical data

Space Shuttle Atlantis transported by a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), 1998 (NASA). Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Space Shuttle Endeavour being transported by a Boeing 747. Space Shuttle Endeavour ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
Space Shuttle Orbiter and Soyuz-TM (drawn to scale).
An overhead view of Atlantis as it sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) before STS-79. The Mobile Launcher Platform or MLP is a two-story structure used by NASA, along with the Crawler-Transporter, to transport the Space Shuttle STS-79 was a Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'' mission to the Mir space station Two Tail Service Masts (TSMs) to either side of the orbiter's tail provide umbilical connections for propellant loading and electrical power.
Water is released onto the mobile launcher platform on Launch Pad 39A at the start of a rare sound suppression system test in 2004. During launch, 300,000 US gallons (1,100 m³) are poured onto the pad in only 41 seconds.

Orbiter specifications[12] (for Endeavour, OV-105)

• Length: 122. 17 ft (37. 24 m)
• Wingspan: 78. 06 ft (23. 79 m)
• Height: Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff
• Empty weight: 151,205 lb (68,585 kg)
• Gross Liftoff Weight: 240,000 lb (109,000 kg)
• Maximum Landing Weight: 230,000 lb (104,000 kg)
• Main engines: Three Rocketdyne Block IIA SSMEs, each with a sea level thrust of 393,800 pounds-force (lbf) (178,600 kilograms-force (kgf) / 1. Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton 's Second and Third Laws. This article deals with the unit of force For the unit of mass see Pound (mass. The unit kilogram-force ( kgf, often incorrectly just kg) or kilopond ( kp) is defined as the Force exerted by Earth's gravity 75 meganewtons (MN))
• Maximum payload: 55,250 pounds (25,061 kg)
• Payload bay dimensions: Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff by Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff
• Operational altitude: 100 to 520 nmi (185 to 960 km)
• Speed: 25,404 ft/s (7,743 m/s, 27,875 km/h, 17,321 mi/h)
• Crossrange: 1,085 nmi (2,009 km)
• Crew: Varies. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. The earliest shuttle flights had the minimum crew of two; many later missions a crew of five. Today, typically seven people fly (commander, pilot, several mission specialists, and rarely a flight engineer). Commander is a Military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service Astronaut ranks and positions‎ A Mission Specialist (MS is a position held by certain NASA Astronauts for the Space Shuttle program In Aviation, a flight engineer is a member of the aircrew of some Aircraft. On two occasions, eight astronauts have flown (STS-61-A, STS-71). STS-61-A was the 22nd Space Shuttle mission It was a scientific Spacelab mission booked by Germany - hence the payload name D-1 (for Deutschland 1 STS-71 was the third mission of the US / Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, which carried out the first Space Shuttle docking to Mir Eleven people could be accommodated in an emergency mission (see STS-3xx). Space shuttle missions designated STS-3xx (officially called Launch On Need missions are rescue missions which would be mounted to rescue the crew of a Space Shuttle

External tank specifications (for SLWT)

• Length: 153. 8 ft (46. 9 m)
• Diameter: 27. 6 ft (8. 4 m)
• Propellant volume: 535,000 US gal (2,025 )
• Empty Weight: 58,500 lb (26,535 kg)
• Gross Liftoff Weight: 1,667,000 lb (756,000 kg)

Solid Rocket Booster Specifications

• Length: Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff
• Diameter: Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff
• Empty Weight (per booster): 139,490 lb (63,272 kg)
• Gross Liftoff Weight (per booster): 1. A gallon is a measure of Volume. It is in current use in the United States and still has limited use in many other English-speaking countries CM3 redirects here If you were looking for the 3rd game in the Cooking Mama series abbreviated as CM3 see here. 3 million lb (590,000 kg)
• Thrust (sea level, liftoff): 2. 8 million lbf (12. 5 MN)

System Stack Specifications

• Height: Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff
• Gross Liftoff Weight: 4. 5 million lb (2,040,000 kg)
• Total Liftoff Thrust: 6. 781 million lbf (30. 16 MN)

## Mission profile

### Launch

All Space Shuttle missions are launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The John F Kennedy Space Center ( KSC) is the NASA Space vehicle launch facility and Launch Control Center ( Spaceport) on The shuttle will not be launched under conditions where it could be struck by lightning. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or Aircraft are often struck by lightning with no adverse effects because the electricity of the strike is dissipated through its conductive structure and the aircraft is not electrically grounded. In Electrical engineering, the term ground or earth has several meanings depending on the specific application areas Like most jet airliners, the shuttle is mainly constructed of conductive aluminum, which would normally shield and protect the internal systems. However, upon takeoff the shuttle sends out a long exhaust plume as it ascends, and this plume can trigger lightning by providing a current path to ground. The NASA Anvil Rule for a shuttle launch states an anvil cloud cannot appear within a distance of 10 nautical miles. Cumulonimbus (Cb is a type of Cloud that is tall dense and involved in Thunderstorms and other intense Weather. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. [13] The Shuttle Launch Weather Officer will monitor conditions until the final decision to scrub a launch is announced. In addition, the weather conditions must be acceptable at one of the Transatlantic Abort Landing sites (One of several Space Shuttle abort modes) to launch. A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASA 's Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent [14] While the shuttle might safely endure a lightning strike, a similar strike caused problems on Apollo 12, so for safety NASA chooses not to launch the shuttle if lightning is possible (NPR8715. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program 5).

The Shuttle has not been launched if its flight will take it from one year to the next (December to January), a year-end rollover (YERO). Its flight software, designed in the 1970s, was not designed for this, and would require the orbiter's computers be reset through a change of year, which could cause a glitch while in orbit. In 2007, NASA engineers devised a solution to this, allowing Shuttle flights to cross the year-end boundary. [15]

On the day of a launch, after the final hold in the countdown at T minus 9 minutes, the Shuttle goes through its final preparations for launch, and the countdown is automatically controlled by a special computer program at the Launch Control Center. This is known as the Ground Launch Sequencer (GLS), which stops the count if it senses a critical problem with any of the Shuttle's on-board systems. The GLS hands off the count to the Shuttle's on-board computers at T minus 31 seconds.

At T minus 16 seconds, the massive sound suppression system (SPS) begins to drench the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) and SRB trenches with 300,000 U. The Mobile Launcher Platform or MLP is a two-story structure used by NASA, along with the Crawler-Transporter, to transport the Space Shuttle S. gallons (1,100 m³) of water to protect the Orbiter from damage by acoustical energy and rocket exhaust reflected from the flame trench and MLP during liftoff. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of Sound, Ultrasound and Infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases liquids and solids [16]

At T-minus 10 seconds, hydrogen igniters are activated under each engine bell to quell the stagnant gas inside the cones before ignition. Failure to burn these gases can trip the onboard sensors and create the possibility of an overpressure and explosion of the vehicle during the firing phase. The main engine turbopumps are also commanded to begin charging the combustion chambers with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen at this time. The computers reciprocate this action by allowing the redundant computer systems to begin the firing phase.

The three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) start at T minus 6. SSME redirect here For the services field see Service Science Management and Engineering The Space Shuttle Main Engines ( SSMEs 6 seconds. The main engines ignite sequentially via the shuttle's general purpose computers (GPCs) at 120 millisecond intervals. The GPCs require that the engines reach 90% of their rated performance to complete the final gimbal of the main engine nozzles to liftoff configuration. [17] When the SSMEs start, the water from the sound suppression system flashes into a large volume of steam that shoots southward. All three SSMEs must reach the required 100% thrust within three seconds, otherwise the onboard computers will initiate an RSLS abort. A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASA 's Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent If the onboard computers verify normal thrust buildup, at T minus 0 seconds, the SRBs are ignited. The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight At this point the vehicle is committed to takeoff, as the SRBs cannot be turned off once ignited. After the SRBs reach a stable thrust ratio, pyrotechnic nuts are detonated by radio controlled signals from the shuttle's GPC's to release the vehicle [18]. The plume from the solid rockets exits the flame trench in a northward direction at near the speed of sound, often causing a rippling of shockwaves along the actual flame and smoke contrails. At ignition, the GPC's mandate the firing sequences via the Master Events Controller, a computer program integrated with the shuttle's four redundant computer systems. There are extensive emergency procedures (abort modes) to handle various failure scenarios during ascent. A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASA 's Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent Many of these concern SSME failures, since that is the most complex and highly stressed component. After the Challenger disaster, there were extensive upgrades to the abort modes. The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart

Shuttle launch of Atlantis at sunset in 2001. The sun is behind the camera, and the plume's shadow intersects the moon across the sky.
STS mission profile
SSLV at Mach 2. 46 and 66,000 feet (20,000 m). The surface of the vehicle is colored by the pressure coefficient, and the gray contours represent the density of the surrounding air, as calculated using the OVERFLOW codes. OVERFLOW - the OVERset grid FLOW solver - is a software package for simulating fluid flow around solid bodies using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD

After the main engines start, but while the solid rocket boosters are still clamped to the pad, the offset thrust from the Shuttle's three main engines causes the entire launch stack (boosters, tank and shuttle) to pitch down about 2 m at cockpit level. This motion is called the "nod", or "twang" in NASA jargon. As the boosters flex back into their original shape, the launch stack pitches slowly back upright. This takes approximately six seconds. At the point when it is perfectly vertical, the boosters ignite and the launch commences.

Shortly after clearing the tower the Shuttle begins a roll and pitch program to set its orbital inclination and so that the vehicle is below the external tank and SRBs, with wings level. The vehicle climbs in a progressively flattening arc, accelerating as the weight of the SRBs and main tank decrease. To achieve low orbit requires much more horizontal than vertical acceleration. This is not visually obvious, since the vehicle rises vertically and is out of sight for most of the horizontal acceleration. The near circular orbital velocity at the 380 km (236 statute miles) altitude of the International Space Station is 7. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States 68 kilometers per second (27,650 km/h, 17,180 mph), roughly equivalent to Mach 23 at sea level. As the International Space Station orbits at an inclination of 51. 6 degrees, the Shuttle has to set its inclination to the same value to rendezvous with the station.

Around a point called Max Q, where the aerodynamic forces are at their maximum, the main engines are temporarily throttled back to avoid overspeeding and hence overstressing the Shuttle, particularly in vulnerable areas such as the wings. In Aerospace engineering, max Q is the point of maximum Dynamic pressure, the point at which aerodynamic stress on a spacecraft in atmospheric flight is maximized A speed or Velocity greater than that for which the aircraft was designed At this point, a phenomenon known as the Prandtl-Glauert singularity occurs, where condensation clouds form during the vehicle's transition to supersonic speed.

126 seconds after launch, explosive bolts release the SRBs and small separation rockets push them laterally away from the vehicle. A pyrotechnic fastener (also called an explosive bolt, or pyro, within context is a Fastener, usually a nut or bolt that incorporates a pyrotechnic The SRBs parachute back to the ocean to be reused. The Shuttle then begins accelerating to orbit on the Space Shuttle main engines. SSME redirect here For the services field see Service Science Management and Engineering The Space Shuttle Main Engines ( SSMEs The vehicle at that point in the flight has a thrust-to-weight ratio of less than one — the main engines actually have insufficient thrust to exceed the force of gravity, and the vertical speed given to it by the SRBs temporarily decreases. However, as the burn continues, the weight of the propellant decreases and the thrust-to-weight ratio exceeds 1 again and the ever-lighter vehicle then continues to accelerate toward orbit.

The vehicle continues to climb and takes on a somewhat nose-up angle to the horizon — it uses the main engines to gain and then maintain altitude while it accelerates horizontally towards orbit. At about five and three-quarter minutes into ascent, the orbiter rolls heads up to switch communication links from ground stations to Tracking and Data Relay Satellites. A Tracking and Data Relay Satellite ( TDRS) is one of a network of Communications satellites of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS used

Finally, in the last tens of seconds of the main engine burn, the mass of the vehicle is low enough that the engines must be throttled back to limit vehicle acceleration to 3g (30 m/s²), largely for astronaut comfort.

Before complete depletion of propellant, as running dry would destroy the engines, the main engines are shut down. The oxygen supply is terminated before the hydrogen supply, as the SSMEs react unfavorably to other shutdown modes. Liquid oxygen has a tendency to react violently, and supports combustion when it encounters hot engine metal. The external tank is released by firing explosive bolts and falls, largely burning up in the atmosphere, though some fragments fall into the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The sealing action of the tank plumbing and lack of pressure relief systems on the external tank helps it break up in the lower atmosphere. After the foam burns away during reentry, the heat causes a pressure buildup in the remaining liquid oxygen and hydrogen until the tank explodes. This ensures that any pieces that fall back to Earth are small.

To prevent the shuttle from following the external tank back into the lower atmosphere, the Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engines are fired to raise the perigee higher into the upper atmosphere. The Orbital Maneuvering System, or OMS (pronounced /omz/ is a system of Rocket engines used on the space shuttle orbiter for orbital injection On some missions (e. g. , missions to the ISS), the OMS engines are also used while the main engines are still firing. The reason for putting the orbiter on a path that brings it back to Earth is not just for external tank disposal. It is one of safety; if the OMS malfunctions, or the cargo bay doors cannot open for some reason, the shuttle is already on a path to return to earth for an emergency abort landing.

Since it flies in the upper atmosphere, the craft's orbit slowly decays due to air friction. The orbiter must periodically boost its velocity with the OMS to prevent re-entry into the lower atmosphere.

### Re-entry and landing

Simulation of the outside of the Shuttle as it heats up to over 1,500°C during re-entry.

Almost the entire space shuttle re-entry, except for lowering the landing gear and deploying the air data probes, is normally performed under computer control. However, the re-entry can be flown entirely manually if an emergency arises. The approach and landing phase can be controlled by the autopilot, but is usually hand flown.

The vehicle begins re-entry by firing the Orbital maneuvering system engines, while flying upside down, backside first, in the opposite direction to orbital motion for approximately three minutes, giving roughly 200 mph (90 m/s) of delta-v. The resultant slowing of the Shuttle lowers its orbital perigee down into the upper atmosphere. The shuttle then flips over, by pulling its nose up (which is actually "down" because it's flying upside down). This OMS firing is done roughly halfway around the globe from the landing site.

The vehicle starts encountering more significant air density in the lower thermosphere at about 400,000 ft (120 km), at around Mach 25 (8. Mach number (\mathrm{Ma} or M (generally ˈmɑːk sometimes /ˈmɑːx/ or /ˈmæk/ is the speed of an object moving through air or any Fluid 2 km/s). The vehicle is controlled by a combination of RCS thrusters and control surfaces, to fly at a 40 degree nose-up attitude, producing high drag, not only to slow it down to landing speed, but also to reduce reentry heating. In addition, the vehicle needs to bleed off extra speed before reaching the landing site. This is achieved by performing s-curves at up to a 70 degree roll angle.

The orbiter's maximum glide ratio/lift to drag ratio varies considerably with speed, ranging from 1:1 at hypersonic speeds, 2:1 at supersonic speeds and reaching 4. Glide ratio, also called Lift-to-drag ratio, glide number or finesse is an Aviation term that refers to the distance an Aircraft will move forward for In Aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly Supersonic. 5:1 at subsonic speeds during approach and landing. [19]

In the lower atmosphere, the orbiter flies much like a conventional glider, except for a much higher descent rate, over 10,000 feet per minute (50 m/s).

At approximately Mach 3, two air data probes, located on the left and right sides of the orbiter's forward lower fuselage, are deployed to sense air pressure related to the vehicle's movement in the atmosphere.

Columbia touches down at Kennedy Space Center at the end of STS-73. Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's STS-73 is a Space Shuttle program mission Crew Kenneth D Bowersox (3 Commander Kent V

When the approach and landing phase begins, the orbiter is at a 10,000 ft (3,000 m) altitude, 7. 5 miles (12 km) from the runway. The pilots apply aerodynamic braking to help slow down the vehicle. The orbiter's speed is reduced from 424 mph (682 km/h) to approximately 215 mph (346 km/h), (compared to 160 mph (260 km/h) for a jet airliner), at touch-down. The landing gear is deployed while the Orbiter is flying at 267 mph (430 km/h). To assist the speed brakes, a 40 ft (12 m) drag chute is deployed either after main gear or nose gear touchdown (depending on selected chute deploy mode) at about 213 mph (343 km/h). The chute is jettisoned as the orbiter slows through 69 mph (110 km/h).

After landing, the vehicle stands on the runway for several minutes to permit the fumes from poisonous hydrazine, used as a propellant for attitude control, to dissipate, and for the shuttle fuselage to cool before the astronauts disembark. Hydrazine is a Chemical compound with the formula N2H4 It has an Ammonia -like odor and is derived from the same industrial chemistry Aircraft attitude is used to mean two closely related aspects of the situation of an aircraft in flight A reaction control system, abbreviated RCS, is a subsystem of a Spacecraft.

### Landing sites

Conditions permitting, the space shuttle will always land at Kennedy Space Center; however, if the conditions make landing there unfavorable, the shuttle can touch down at Edwards Air Force Base in California or at other sites around the world. The John F Kennedy Space Center ( KSC) is the NASA Space vehicle launch facility and Launch Control Center ( Spaceport) on Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. A landing at Edwards means that the shuttle must be mated to the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, and returned to Cape Canaveral, costing NASA an additional 1. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Cape Canaveral from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County Florida, United States, near the center of that 7 million dollars. Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-3) also landed once at the White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico, but this is often a last resort, as NASA scientists believe that the sand could cause damage to the shuttle's exterior. STS-3 was the third Space shuttle mission and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle Columbia. White Sands Missile Range (WSMR is a Rocket range of almost area the largest military installation in the United States New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America.

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the space shuttle during re-entry. A computer is a Machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.

A list of other landing sites:[20]

A list of launch abort sites:

## Fleet history

DateOrbiterEventRemarks
February 18, 1977EnterpriseFirst flightAttached to Shuttle Carrier Aircraft throughout flight. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays The Space Shuttle Enterprise ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101 was the first Space Shuttle built for NASA. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
August 12, 1977EnterpriseFirst free flightTailcone on; lakebed landing. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays
October 12, 1977EnterpriseFourth free flightFirst with no tailcone; lakebed landing. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays
October 26, 1977EnterpriseFinal Enterprise free flightFirst landing on Edwards AFB concrete runway. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays
April 12, 1981ColumbiaFirst Columbia flight, first orbital test flightSTS-1
November 11, 1982ColumbiaFirst operational flight of the Space Shuttle, first mission to carry four astronautsSTS-5
April 4, 1983ChallengerFirst Challenger flightSTS-6
August 30, 1984DiscoveryFirst Discovery flightSTS-41-D
October 3, 1985AtlantisFirst Atlantis flightSTS-51-J
January 28, 1986ChallengerDisintegrated 73 seconds after launchAll seven crew members perished. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Space Shuttle Columbia ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy Space shuttle in NASA 's The first Space Shuttle mission STS (Space Transportation System-1, was launched April 12 1981, and returned April 14. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) STS-5 was a Space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle Columbia, launched November 11, 1982. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Space Shuttle Challenger ( NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099 was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service STS-6 was a Space Shuttle mission conducted by NASA using Space Shuttle ''Challenger''. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Space Shuttle Discovery ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of STS-41-D was the first space shuttle mission for Space Shuttle ''Discovery''. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Space Shuttle Atlantis ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-104 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of STS-51-J was a Space shuttle mission by NASA that was the first to use the Space Shuttle ''Atlantis''. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28 1986 when ''Challenger'', a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, broke apart
September 29, 1988DiscoveryFirst post-Challenger missionSTS-26
May 4, 1989AtlantisThe first Space Shuttle mission to launch a space probe, Magellan. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) STS-26 was the 26th mission and seventh for Space Shuttle ''Discovery'', launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Events 1256 - The Augustinian monastic order is constituted at the Lecceto Monastery when Pope Alexander IV Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Magellan spacecraft was a space probe sent to the planet Venus, the first post- Voyager unmanned spacecraft to be launched by NASA STS-30
May 7, 1992EndeavourFirst Endeavour flightSTS-49
November 19, 1996ColumbiaLongest Shuttle mission to date at 17 days, 15 hoursSTS-80
October 11, 2000Discovery100th Space Shuttle missionSTS-92
February 1, 2003ColumbiaDisintegrated during re-entryAll seven crew members perished. STS-30 was a Space shuttle mission by NASA using the Space Shuttle ''Atlantis''. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Space Shuttle Endeavour ( Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105 is one of the three currently operational orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet of STS-49 was the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) STS-80 was a Space Shuttle mission flown by Space Shuttle ''Columbia''. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. STS-92 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS flown by Space Shuttle '' Discovery''. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Space Shuttle Columbia disaster occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated over Texas
July 25, 2005DiscoveryFirst post-Columbia missionSTS-114
Planned fleet events
2010AtlantisLast planned Atlantis flightSTS-131
2010DiscoveryLast planned Discovery flightSTS-132
2010EndeavourLast planned Endeavour flight; Last flight of the Space Shuttle ProgramSTS-133

### Fiction and games

• Space shuttles in fiction
• Space Shuttle Mission 2007, latest Space Shuttle simulator for Windows XP and Vista PCs. A human spaceflight is a Spaceflight with a human crew, and possibly passengers These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight or were launched with that intention but failed Even before the Apollo moon landing in 1969 in October 1968 NASA began early studies of space shuttle designs A NASA Orbiter Processing Facility ( OPF) is one of the Hangars where Space Shuttle orbiters undergo maintenance between flights The Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV, is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space Shuttle SERV was a concept that was never realized put forward in 1971 by Chrysler Corporation, for NASA 's Alternate Space Shuttle Concept program Space accidents, either during operations or training for Spaceflights have killed 22 Astronauts (five percent of all people who have been in space two percent History First orbital flights The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet unmanned Sputnik A Space Shuttle abort is an emergency procedure due to equipment failure on NASA 's Space Shuttle, most commonly during ascent This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by mission The Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA is a NASA training vehicle that duplicates the Space Shuttle 's approach profile and handling qualities allowing Even before the first space shuttle was launched Science fiction filmmakers were featuring the craft in their productions
• Orbiter, a freeware simulator that allows users to fly various spacecraft including the shuttle. Orbiter is a Closed source Freeware space flight simulator for the Windows operating system
• Space Shuttle America
• Shuttle, a Space Shuttle simulator for PC, Amiga & Atari ST. Space Shuttle America (also known as Space Shuttle America - The Next Century) was a Motion simulator ride at the Six Flags Great America
• X-Plane, a flight simulator that allows players to fly the Space Shuttle's re-entry phase. X-Plane is a Flight simulator for Personal computers produced

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6. ^ Ferguson, Roscoe C. ; Robert Tate and Hiram C. Thompson. Implementing Space Shuttle Data Processing System Concepts in Programmable Logic Devices. NASA Office of Logic Design. Retrieved on 2006-08-27. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan
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