|Regions of Italy||Apulia, Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Molise, Sardinia and Sicily|
47,504 mi² (123,036 km²)
Standard Italian (official); Neapolitan, Sardinian language, Sicilian, and Italian dialects; minorities of Griko and pockets of Franco-Provençal, Occitan and Arbëresh. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west Apulia ( Puglia) to the east Calabria to Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Neapolitan (autonym napulitano; napoletano is the name given to the varied Italo-Western group of dialects of Southern Italy or more specifically the Sardinian ( Sardu, Saldu) is after Italian the main language spoken in the island of Sardinia, Italy, remarkable for being the most conservative Sicilian (scn '''''lu sicilianu''''' lingua siciliana, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language. The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all Vernacular Idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy, and it Franco-Provençal ( Francoprovençal) or Arpitan ( Vernacular: frp francoprovençâl arpitan patouès; francoprovenzale arpitano dialetto Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan Arbëreshë are an ethnic community living in Italy, especially the regions of Calabria and Sicily.
- Total (2006)
168. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 6 people/km²
|GDP (nom. )|
- Per capita
$0. 369 trillion (17h)
- Per capita
$0. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 365 trillion (24th)
Southern Italy (Italian: Italia Meridionale or Mezzogiorno) encompasses the regions of Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Apulia and Molise, which lie in Italy's south, and Abruzzo, which is sometimes considered central Italy. Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west Apulia ( Puglia) to the east Calabria to Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Sicily is usually included due to its historical and cultural connections. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) uses the term Italia Meridionale and excludes Sicily, which it groups with Sardinia as Insular Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica ( Istat) is the Italian national statistical institute Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Insular Italy refers to the macro-region composed of the country's two largest islands and their respective regions Sicily and Sardinia. Some would also include the southern parts of Lazio, which historically were part of the southern kingdoms. For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central
The term Mezzogiorno (Midday) first came into use in the 18th century. The term was popularized by Giuseppe Garibaldi who referred to the area of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies as "Il Mezzogiorno". Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The term, which is a reference to Southern Italy's hot midday sun, came into vogue after Italy's unification and was often associated with notions of poverty, illiteracy, and crime: misconceptions of the South that persist to this day. 
Depending on just what one includes as being in Southern Italy, it forms the "boot" of the Italian peninsula, containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and sometimes southern Lazio), the toe (Calabria), and the heel (the southern half of Apulia). Separating the two is the Gulf of Taranto, named after the city of Taranto, which sits at the angle between the heel and the boot itself. The Gulf of Taranto ( Italian: Golfo di Taranto, Latin: Sinus Tarentinus) is a gulf of the Ionian Sea, in southern Italy Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in It is an arm of the Ionian Sea. The Ionian Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea. The rest of the southern third of the Italian peninsula is studded with smaller gulfs and inlets. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe
On the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto (named after the largest city on the tip of the heel). The Strait of Otranto connects the Adriatic Sea with the Ionian Sea. On the Adriatic, south of the "spur" of the boot, the peninsula of Monte Gargano (Policastro), the Gulf of Salerno, the Gulf of Naples, and the Gulf of Gaeta are each named after a large coastal city. Monte Gargano is a mountain in Apulia, Italy forming the backbone of the peninsula Promontorio del Gargano on the Adriatic Sea. Salerno is a town in southern Italy, capital of the province of the same name in the region of Campania. The Gulf of Naples is located in the south western coast of Italy ( Province of Naples, Campania region Gaeta is a city and Comune in the Province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy. Along the northern coast of the Salernitan gulf, on the south of the Sorrentine peninsula, runs the famous Amalfi Coast. The Amalfi Coast, or Costiera Amalfitana in Italian, is a stretch of coastline on the southern side of the Sorrentine Peninsula of Italy ( Off the tip of the peninsula there is the world famous isle of Capri. Capri ( Italian pronunciation Cápri usual English pronunciation Caprí is an Italian island off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side
The climate is Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification Csa), except at the highest elevations (Dsa, Dsb) and the semi-arid eastern stretches in Apulia, along the Ionian Sea in Calabria, and the southern stretches of Sicily (BSw). A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual Rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in
The largest city of Southern Italy is Naples, a title it has historically maintained for centuries. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Palermo and Bari are the next largest cities in the area
Ever since the Greeks colonised Magna Graecia in the eighth and seventh centuries BC, the south of Italy has, in many respects, followed a distinct history from the north. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The 7th century BC started the first day of 700 BC and ended the last day of 601 BC. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in 282 BC, the south fell under Roman domination and remained in such a position well into the barbarian invasions (the Gladiator War is a notable suspension of imperial control). Pyrrhus (318-272 BC ( Greek: Πύρρος Aιακιδης Pyrros Aiakides was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Events By place Asia Minor The city of Pergamum in Asia Minor ends its allegiance to Lysimachus. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name The Third Servile War, also called the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of a series of unrelated and unsuccessful slave The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial It was held by the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome in the West and even the Lombards failed to consolidate it, though the centre of the south was theirs from Zotto's conquest in the final quarter of the 6th century. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Zotto (also Zotton or Zottone) was the military leader ( Latin: dux) of the Lombards in the Mezzogiorno. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Amalfi, an independent republic from the 7th century until 1075, and to a lesser extent Gaeta, Molfetta, and Trani, rivalled other Italian maritime republics in their domestic prosperity and maritime importance. Amalfi is also a town in the Antioquia Departament in Colombia. Gaeta is a city and Comune in the Province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy. Molfetta is a city and Comune of the Province of Bari in the southern Italian region of Puglia, on the Adriatic coast at sea-level Trani is a Seaport of Apulia, southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea, in the Province The it '''Repubbliche Marinare''' ( Italian for " Maritime Republics " is the collective name of a number of important City-states which flourished in
From then to the Norman conquest of the 11th century, the south of the peninsula was constantly plunged into wars between Greek, Lombard, and the Caliphate. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history The Norman conquest of southern Italy completely subjugated the Lombard principalities, integrated the Islamic element, and overwhelmed the Byzantines from all but Naples, which ultimately gave in to Roger II in 1127. The Norman conquest of Southern Italy spanned most of the eleventh century involving many battles and many independent players conquering territories of their own For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Roger II ( 22 December 1095 &ndash 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his He raised the south to kingdom status in 1130, calling it the Kingdom of Sicily. The following is a list of monarchs of Sicily. Counts of Sicily Sicily was granted pending its Christian reconquest to Robert Guiscard as "duke" The Normans retained harmonious control of their territory, and ran the kingdom of Sicily efficiently. However, it lasted only 64 years before the Holy Roman Emperors long-held designs on the region came to fruition. The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states The Hohenstaufen rule ended in defeat, but the conquering French of Charles of Anjou were themselves forcibly pushed out in the event immortalized as the Sicilian Vespers. Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I of Naples, who had taken control Hereafter, until the union in Spain, the kingdom was split between the principalities of Naples on the mainland and of Sicily over the island. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Aragonese rule left its impression on Italy and the Renaissance through such figures as Alfonso the Magnanimous and the Borgia clan. The Crown of Aragon was a permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th Alfonso the Magnanimous (also Alphonso; Catalan: Alfons) (1396 &ndash 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as With the unification of the crowns of Castile and Aragon in the late 15th century, southern Italy and Sicily ceased to have a local monarch and were ruled by viceroys appointed by the Spanish crown. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
The region remained a part of Spain until the War of the Spanish Succession, when Duke Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia took Sicily. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714 several European powers combined to stop French succession to the Spanish throne and what would likely have been a resulting Victor Amadeus II, Italian Vittorio Amedeo II ( May 14 1666 - October 31 1732) was the Duke of Savoy (1675-1730 It was soon exchanged with Austria for Sardinia. Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor It became an independent kingdom for Charles of Bourbon and experienced a period of enlightenment with a local, flourishing royal court. Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and In 1798 the French revolutionaries captured southern Italy and created the short-lived Parthenopaean Republic. The Parthenopaean Republic (Italian Repubblica Partenopea) was a French -supported Republic in the territory of the Kingdom of Naples, formed Eventually, France created the Kingdom of Naples for the benefit of Napoleon's marshal Joachim Murat. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat) ( Gioacchino Napoleone Murat) ( March 25 1767 &ndash October 13 1815) An object of irredentism and the Risorgimento, the land was conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Redshirts in 1861 and, with the north, formed the modern state of Italy. Irredentism is any position advocating Annexation of territories administered by another State on the grounds of common Ethnicity or prior historical possession Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. Redshirts is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his Mille expedition to southern Italy but sometimes
Garibaldi’s Redshirts were supported by most southern Italians; however, to many others the "northern regime" of Victor Emanuel II was "a hostile invasion which looted the treasury of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, devastated the heavily protected local industries, and reduced Naples from the fourth largest city in Europe and the capital of a kingdom to a provincial town". Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of 
The transition to a united Kingdom of Italy was not smooth for the South. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom The Southern economy was much more agrarian and feudal than the industrial northern economy (still Salerno, "the Manchester of the two Sicilies", could count in 1877 something like 10000 textile workers, more than twice the textile labour of widely-known productive centers like Turin). Salerno is a town in southern Italy, capital of the province of the same name in the region of Campania. Poverty and organized crime, tho were persistent problems in Southern Italy as well. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Because of this, the South experienced great economic difficulties resulting in massive emigration leading to a worldwide Southern Italian diaspora. The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of Many natives also relocated to the industrial cities in northern Italy, such as Genoa, Milan and Turin. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.
Today, the South remains considerably less economically developed than the North. Southern Italian secession movements have developed, but have gained little, if any, significant influence.
In spite of the fact that in recent history southern Italy has been less affluent than the North, in the past southern Italy was often a prosperous and advanced area, culturally and economically more wealthy than northern or central Italy, and a leader in European cultural and political affairs. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the
The Norman Kingdom of Sicily was prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europe. The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy 
In the 11th and 12th centuries, Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples played a major role in European affairs and exhibited many signs of prosperity. The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian Some historians say, however, that by the middle of the 13th century, due to fiscal policies that prevented the growth of a strong merchant class, the region became economically backward compared to the northern Italian states. . Unlike the rest of Italy, which experienced the rise of many small, independent and prosperous city states, all enterprise in the comparatively large kingdom centred on the capital city of Naples. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. The outlying areas, cursed with generally poor agricultural conditions, fell further behind. Sicily's trade fell primarily under Catalan control. The Catalans are the people from Catalonia, an Autonomous community of Spain, including people originating in that region but living elsewhere In spite of economic repression, Southern Italy did experience periods of cultural flowering. With the Spanish conquest, however, the kingdom continued to be repressed and exploited by foreign rule until the late 18th century and when Bourbon rule meant a native court and a time of enlightenment. The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
According to some historians, during the time of the Bourbons the kingdom became a highly productive area. The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. It was the first place in all of Italy to build railways and a local manufacturing base was growing. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Following occupation by the Kingdom of Sardinia and the unification with the rest of Italian peninsula in 1861, factory technology which the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies had gained from the British was taken away to Piemonte, Lombardy and Liguria. Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. Piedmont ( Piemonte; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions  The kingdom of the Two Sicilies had 80 million ducats taken from the banks as a contribution to the new Italian treasury, while other former states in the Italian unification were forced to pay far less. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The ducat (ˈdʌkət is a Gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. For the US government securities see Treasury security. Also see Treasury management. 
According to some, because of Italian unification, southern Italy's status declined and, as a result, suffered mass emigration, especially between 1892 and 1921.  Corruption, which had grown since Bourbon control was destroyed, was such a large problem that Giovanni Giolitti admitted that there were places "where the law does not operate at all". Giovanni Giolitti ( October 27, 1842 &ndash July 17, 1928) was an Italian statesman  One study released in 1910 examined tax rates in north, central and southern Italy indicated that northern Italy with 48% of the nation's wealth paid 40% of the nation's taxes, while the south with 27% of the nation's wealth paid 32% of the nation's taxes.  There were also several natural disasters (earthquakes and landslides) during this period, often killing hundreds of people with each disaster. Giolitti's poor response to a major earthquake in Messina in 1908 was blamed for the high number of deaths. The management of the aftermath of the Messina earthquake infuriated southern Italians who claimed that Giolitti favoured the rich north over them.
With the introduction of Italian Fascism, the government of Benito Mussolini succeeded in defeating many of the illicit crime organisations, which had risen because of the lack of governmental control, born when the Bourbons were defeated by Garibaldi. The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini Mussolini and the Fascists also made a genuine attempt to bring Italy forward as a nation and even began developing some southern and central areas, instead of purely focusing on the north as had the previous governments. This was a moment when "Italianism" seemd a reality to some Southerners, instead of regionalism. During the 1950s, the regional policy the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno was set up to help raise the living standards in the South to those of the North. The Cassa per il Mezzogiorno ( English: Register or Fund for the South) was a public effort by the government of Italy to stimulate economic The Cassa aimed to do this in two ways: by land reforms creating 120,000 new small farms, and through the "Growth Pole Strategy" whereby 60% of all government investment would go to the South, thus boosting the Southern economy by attracting new capital, stimulating local firms, and providing employment. As a result the South became increasingly subsidized and dependent, incapable of generating growth itself.
Today, in spite of increased affluence and a much improved economy, the regional disparities persist. Southern Italy continues to be the least prosperous area of Italy. Problems continue to include corruption, organized crime and relatively high unemployment. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Southern Italy includes 37% of Italy's population, occupies 40% of its land area, but only produces 24% of its gross domestic product. This does not, however, include the large underground informal economy, reported to be as high as 30% of GDP. In Economics, the term informal economy (or second economy in the South African context refers to all economic activities that fall outside the formal  After being suppressed during the 1920s and 1930s, the organised crime networks were "set free" by the United States who claimed to think they were genuine "anti-fascist movements" and they grew to a level they had never done before; since this time, as the majority of Italy's political groups have been leftist and completely unable to control corruption, or on the other hand the political groups were actively involved with corruption, it has remained today, mostly visibly in the form of a landfill management problem. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as Waste management is the collection Transport, processing, Recycling or disposal of Waste materials 
Even though the standard of living is still below that of northern and central Italy, there are districts with substantial economic production. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Central Italy is a geographic area in Italy that encompasses four of the country's 20 autonomous regions: Lazio Marches On the whole, Southern Italy's per capita income has improved to the point where it is nearing the European Union median. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in 
The regions of Southern Italy were exposed to some different historical influences than the rest of the peninsula, starting most notably with Greek colonization. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Greek influence in the South was dominant until Latinization was completed by the time of the Roman Principate. The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, Greek influences returned by the late Roman Empire, especially following the reconquests of Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or
Sicily, a cultural crossroads throughout the Middle Ages, was captured by Muslims and turned into an Emirate for a period, and via Sicily elements of progressive Islamic culture, architecture and science were introduced to Italy and Europe. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The rest of the mainland was subject to a struggle of power among the Byzantines, Lombards, and Franks. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group In addition, the Venetians established outposts as trade with Byzantium and the Near East increased. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century
Until the Norman conquests of the 11th and 12th centuries much of the South followed Eastern rite (Greek) Christianity. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. The Normans and other northern rulers of the Middle Ages significantly impacted the architecture, religion and high culture of the region. Later, Southern Italy was subjected to rule by the new European nation states, first Aragon, then Spain and Austria. Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Spanish had a major impact on the culture of the South, having ruled it for over three centuries.
In recent years, Southern Italy has experienced a revival of its traditions and music, such as Neapolitan song and the Tarantella. Canzone Napoletana, sometimes referred to as Neapolitan song, is a generic term for a traditional form of music sung in the Neapolitan language, ordinarily The Tarantella is an Italian dance its name coming from the town of Taranto, where it originated