|Southern Christian Leadership Conference|
|Formation||10 January 1957|
|Region served||United States|
|President/CEO||Charles Kenzie Steele, Jr.|
|Key people||Raleigh Trammell, Chairman|
|Affiliations||17 affiliates; 57 chapters|
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an American civil rights organization. The date of establishment or date of founding of an Institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Headquarters (HQ denotes the location where most if not all of the important functions of an organization are concentrated The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Charles Kenzie Steele Jr (born August 3, 1946 in Tuscaloosa Alabama) is an American businessman politician and civil rights leader was A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages The United States of America —commonly referred to as the SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African 
The origins of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference lie in the Montgomery Bus Boycott that began after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her bus seat to a white man. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery Alabama, intended to oppose Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4 1913 – October 24 2005 was an African American Civil rights activist whom the U The bus boycott, which lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956, brought together two Montgomery ministers: Ralph David Abernathy and Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as other Montgomery civil rights activists, and supporters from across the South. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U Ralph David Abernathy ( March 11 1926 – April 17 1990) was an American Civil rights activist and leader and a close associate of Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive
As campaigns to desegregate buses began to spread in the South, a group of 60 activists met in Ebenezer Church in Atlanta, Georgia, on January 1957 to discuss the use of nonviolent resistance as the guiding principle for such movements. Desegregation is the process of ending Racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, In addition to King and Abernathy, the conference attracted such civil rights activists as Ella Baker, T. J. Jemison, Stanley Levison, Joseph Lowery, Bayard Rustin, Fred Shuttlesworth, C. K. Steele, and others. Ella Josephine Baker ( December 13, 1903 &ndash December 13, 1986) was a leading African American civil rights and human rights Theodore Judson Jemison (b 1918 better known as TJ Jemison, was President of the National Baptist Convention from 1982 to 1994 Stanley David Levison (1912 - 1979 was a Jewish businessman from New York, who had also attained a law degree from St For the engraver see Joseph Wilson Lowry. Joseph Echols Lowery, (born October 6, 1921, in Huntsville Alabama) Rustin redirects here for the unrelated film see Rustin (film Bayard Rustin ( March 17, 1912 – August 24 Fred Shuttlesworth (born Freddie Lee Robinson on March 18, 1922) is a civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation and other Rev Charles Kenzie Steele (born in Bluefield West Virginia; died 1980 in Tallahassee) was a preacher and a civil rights activist
At the meeting, the group established the Negro Leadership Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration, which was soon renamed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. As its name suggested, the organization intended to draw its strength from leaders of the Black Church in the South. The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African-American Christian churches that minister to predominantly black congregations
Originally, SCLC was composed of affiliated churches and some community organizations such as the Montgomery Improvement Association and Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights, rather than individual members. The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA was formed on December 5 1955 by black ministers and community leaders in Montgomery Alabama. In recent years SCLC has begun recruiting individual and corporate memberships. In the 1950s, SCLC's organizational role was initially seen as a central clearinghouse for information and marshalling support local civil rights struggles by SCLC affiliates. By the early 1960s, SCLC began to offer direct organizational support to affiliates and conduct major campaigns in cooperation with affiliates. 
Since its establishment, SCLC has been committed civil disobedience combined with education as a means of securing equal rights for African Americans. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa
During its first few years, SCLC activities were focused primarily on education, voter registration, and support for local struggles being waged by SCLC affiliates. SCLC and Dr. King were sometimes criticized for lack of militancy by younger activists in groups such as Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) who were participating in sit-ins and Freedom Rides. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for a Protest, often to promote political social Freedom Rider is also a song by Traffic and later Rascal Flatts Civil Rights activists called Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses
Originally started in 1954 by Esau Jenkins and Septima Clark on the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, the Citizenship Schools focused on teaching adults to read so they could pass the voter-registration literacy tests, fill out driver's license exams, use mail-order forms, and open checking accounts. Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Septima Poinsette Clark ( May 3, 1898 &ndash December 15, 1987) was an American Educator and Civil rights The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and Barrier islands on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Literacy Test refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at the federal level and potential voters at the state level Under the auspices of the Highlander Folk School (now Highlander Research and Education Center) the program was expanded across the South. The Highlander Research and Education Center, formerly known as the Highlander Folk School, is a leadership training school and cultural center located in New Market Tennessee
When the state of Tennessee revoked Highlander's charter and confiscated its land and property in 1961, SCLC rescued the citizenship school program and added Septima Clark, Bernice Robinson, and Andrew Young to its staff. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. This page is about Congressman and Ambassador Andrew Young For other men with the same name see Andrew Young (disambiguation. Under the innocuous cover of adult-literacy classes, the schools secretly taught democracy and civil rights, community leadership and organizing, practical politicals, and the strategies and tactics of resistance and struggle, and in so doing built the human foundations of the mass community struggles to come. Many of the Civil Rights Movement 's adult leaders such as Rosa Parks, Fannie Lou Hamer, Victoria Gray, and hundreds of other local leaders in black communities across the South attended and taught citizenship schools. The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4 1913 – October 24 2005 was an African American Civil rights activist whom the U Fannie Lou Hamer (born Fannie Lou Townsend on October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977) was an American Voting rights Victoria Jackson Gray Adams ( November 5 1926 - August 12 2006) was an American Civil rights activist from Hattiesburg 
In 1961 and 1962, SCLC joined SNCC in the Albany Movement, a broad protest against segregation in Albany, Georgia. The Albany Movement was a Desegregation coalition formed in Albany Georgia, on November 17, 1961. The Albany Movement was a Desegregation coalition formed in Albany Georgia, on November 17, 1961. Albany is a city in and the County seat of Dougherty County, Georgia, United States, in the southwestern part of the state It is generally considered the organization's first major nonviolent campaign. At the time, it was considered by many to be unsuccessful: despite large demonstrations and many arrests, few changes were won, and the protests drew little national attention. Yet, despite the lack of immediate gains, much of the success of the subsequent Birmingham Campaign can be attributed to lessons learned in Albany. 
By contrast, the 1963 SCLC campaign in Birmingham, Alabama, was an unqualified success. The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC to promote Civil rights for black Americans. The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC to promote Civil rights for black Americans. Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County. The campaign focused on a single goal — the desegregation of Birmingham's downtown merchants — rather than total desegregation, as in Albany. The brutal response of local police, led by Public Safety Commissioner "Bull" Connor, stood in stark contrast to the nonviolent civil disobedience of the activists. Theophilus Eugene "Bull" Connor ( July 11 1897, Selma Alabama &ndash March 10 1973) was
After his arrest in April, King wrote the "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in response to a group of clergy who had criticized the Birmingham campaign, writing that it was "directed and led in part by outsiders" and that the demonstrations were "unwise and untimely. The Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, is an Open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther " In his letter, King explained that, as president of SCLC, he had been asked to come to Birmingham by the local members:
King also addressed the question of "timeliness":
The most dramatic moments of the Birmingham campaign came on 2 May, when more than 1,000 Black children left school to join the demonstrations; hundreds were arrested. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. The following day, 2,500 more students joined and were met by Bull Connor with police dogs and high-pressure fire hoses. That evening, television news programs reported to the nation and the world scenes of fire hoses knocking down schoolchildren and dogs attacking individual demonstrators. Public outrage led the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully and a settlement was announced on 10 May, under which the downtown businesses would desegregate and eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, and the city would release the jailed protesters. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England.
After the Birmingham Campaign, SCLC called for massive protests in Washington DC to push for new civil rights legislation that would outlaw segregation nation-wide. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin issued similar calls for a March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Asa Philip Randolph ( April 15 1889 &ndash May 16 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader Rustin redirects here for the unrelated film see Rustin (film Bayard Rustin ( March 17, 1912 – August 24 On July 2nd, 1963, King, Randolph, and Rustin met with James L. Farmer, Jr. of CORE, John Lewis of SNCC, Roy Wilkens of the NAACP, and Whitney Young of the Urban League to plan a united march on August 28. James Leonard Farmer Jr ( January 12, 1920 – July 9, 1999) was a Black civil rights activist who was one of the "big 4" leaders John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and was a leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations Whitney Moore Young Jr ( July 31, 1921 – March 11, 1971) was an African-American Civil rights leader The National Urban League ( NUL) formerly known as the National League of black men and women, is a Civil rights organization based in New York City
The media and political establishment viewed the march with great fear and trepidation over the possibility that protesters would run riot in the streets of the capitol. But their fears, the March on Washington was a huge success, with no violence, and an estimated number of participants ranging from 200,000 to 300,000. It was also a logistical triumph — more than 2,000 buses, 21 special trains, 10 chartered aircraft, and uncounted autos converged on the city in the morning and departed without difficulty by nightfall.
The crowning moment of the march was Dr. King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech in which he articulated the hopes and aspirations of the Civil Rights Movement and rooted it in two cherished gospels — the Old Testament and the unfulfilled promise of the American creed. " I Have A Dream " is the popular name given to the historic public speech by Martin Luther King Jr The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African 
When civil rights activists protesting segregation in St. Augustine, Florida were met with arrests and Ku Klux Klan violence, the local SCLC affiliate appealed to Dr. King for assistance in the spring of 1964. SCLC sent staff to help organize and lead demonstrations and mobilized support for St. Augustine in the North. Hundreds were arrested on sit-ins and marches opposing segregation, so many that the jails were filled and the overflow prisoners had to be held in outdoor stockades. Among the northern supporters who endured arrest and incarceration were Mrs. Malcolm Peabody, the mother of the governor of Massachusetts and Mrs. John Burgess, wife of the Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts. 
Nightly marches to the Old Slave Market were attacked by white mobs, and when blacks attempted to integrate "white-only" beaches they were assaulted by police who beat them with clubs. On June 11, Dr. King and other SCLC leaders were arrested for trying to lunch at the Monson Motel restaurant, and when an integrated group of young protesters tried to use the motel swimming pool the owner poured acid into the water. TV and newspaper stories of the struggle for justice in St. Augustine helped build public support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that was then being debated in Congress. Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses 
When voter registration and civil rights activity in Selma, Alabama was blocked by an illegal injuction, the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL) asked SCLC for assistance. The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the Political and emotional peak of the American civil rights Selma is a city in and the County seat of Dallas County, Alabama, United States, located on the banks of the Alabama River. Dr. King, SCLC, and DCVL chose Selma as the site for a major campaign around voting rights that would demand national voting rights legislation in the same way that the Birmingham and St. The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC to promote Civil rights for black Americans. Augustine campaigns won passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving 
In cooperation with SNCC who had been organizing in Selma since early 1963, the Voting Rights Campaign commenced with a rally in Brown Chapel on January 2nd, 1965 in defiance of the injunction. Brown Chapel AME Church is a church in Selma Alabama. This church was a starting point for the Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965 and played a major role in SCLC and SNCC organizers recruited and trained blacks to attempt to register to vote at the courthouse, where many of them were abused and arrested by Dallas County Sheriff Jim Clark — a staunch segregationist. Dallas County is a County of the US state of Alabama. Its name is in honor of United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J Black voter applicants were subjected to economic retaliation by the White Citizens' Council, and threatened with physical violence by the Ku Klux Klan. The White Citizens' Council ( WCC) was an American white supremacist organization Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are Officials used the discriminatory literacy test to keep blacks off the voter rolls. Literacy Test refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at the federal level and potential voters at the state level
Nonviolent mass marches demanded the right to vote and the jails filled up with arrested protesters, many of them students. On February 1st, Dr. King and Rev. Abernathy were arrested. Voter registration efforts and protest marches spread to the surrounding Black Belt counties — Perry, Wilcox, Marengo, Greene, and Hale. Alabama 's Black Belt is a region of the state and part of the larger Black Belt Region of the Southern United States, which stretches from Perry County is a County of the US state of Alabama. Its name is in honor of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, of Rhode Island, Wilcox County is a County of the US state of Alabama. Its name is in honor of Lieutenant J Marengo County is a County of the US state of Alabama. It is named in honor of a battlefield near Turin, Italy, where the Greene County is the least populous county in the US state of Alabama. Hale County is a County of the US state of Alabama. It is named in honor of Confederate Colonel Stephen F
On February 18, an Alabama State Trooper shot and killed Jimmie Lee Jackson during a voting rights protest in Marion, county seat of Perry County. Jimmie Lee Jackson (December 1938 – February 26, 1965) was a young unarmed civil rights protestor who was shot by an Alabama State Trooper in 1965 Marion is the County seat of Perry County Alabama. As of the 2000 census the population of the city is 3511 In response, on March 7th close to 600 protesters attempted to march from Selma to Montgomery to present their grievances to Governor Wallace. George Corley Wallace Jr (August 25 1919 September 13 1998 was a Democratic Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967 1971-1979 and 1983-1987 and ran for Led by Reverend Hosea Williams of SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC, the marchers were attacked by State Troopers, deputy sheriffs, and mounted possemen who used tear-gas, clubs, and bull whips to drive them back to Brown Chapel. Hosea Lorenzo Williams ( January 5, 1926 &ndash November 16, 2000) was a United States civil rights leader, John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and was a leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. News coverage of this brutal assault on nonviolent demonstrators protesting for the right to vote — which became known as "Bloody Sunday" — horrified the nation. 
Dr. King called on clergy and people of conscience to support the black citizens of Selma. Thousands of religious leaders and ordinary Americans came to demand voting rights for all. One of them was James Reeb, a white Unitarian Universalist minister, who was savagely beaten to death on the street by Klansmen who severely injured two other ministers in the same attack. James Reeb ( January 1 1927 — March 11 1965) was an American white Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston Unitarian Universalism ( UUism) is a theologically liberal Religion characterized by its support for a "free and responsible search for truth
After many more protests, arrests, and much legal maneuvering, a Federal judge ordered Alabama to allow the march to Montgomery. It began on March 21 and arrived in Montgomery on the 24th. On the 25th, an estimated 25,000 protesters marched to the steps of the Alabama capitol in support of voting rights where Dr. King spoke on the voting rights struggle. Within five months, Congress and President Lyndon Johnson responded to the enormous public pressure generated by the Voting Rights Campiagn by enacting into law the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited
When the Meredith Mississippi March Against Fear passed through Grenada Mississippi on June 15, 1966, it sparked months of civil rights activity on the part of Grenada blacks. On June 5, 1966, James Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear for 220 miles from Memphis Tennessee, to Jackson Mississippi Grenada is a city in Grenada County, Mississippi, United States. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States They formed the Grenada County Freedom Movement (GCFM) as an SCLC affiliate, and within days 1,300 blacks registered to vote. 
Though the Civil Rights Act of 1964 had outlawed segregation of public facilities, the law had not been applied in Grenada which still maintained rigid segregation. Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving After black students were arrested for trying to sit downstairs in the "white" section of the movie theater, SCLC and the GCFM demanded that all forms of segregation be eliminated, and called for a boycott of white merchants. Over the summer, the number of protests increased and many demonstrators and SCLC organizers were arrested as police enforced the old Jim Crow social order. In July and August, large mobs of white segregationists mobilized by the KKK violently attacked nonviolent marchers and news reporters with rocks, bottles, baseball bats and steel pipes. Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are
When the new school year began in September, SCLC and the GCFM encouraged more than 450 black students to register at the formerly white schools under a court desegregation order. This was by far the largest school integration attempt in Mississippi since the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier The all-white school board resisted fiercely, whites threatened black parents with economic retaliation if they did not withdraw their children, and by the first day of school the number of black children registered in the white schools had dropped to approximately 250. On the first day of class, September 12, a furious white mob organized by the Klan attacked the black children and their parents with clubs, chains, whips, and pipes as they walked to school, injuring many and hospitalizing several with broken bones. Police and Mississippi State Troopers made no effort to halt or deter the mob violence.
Over the following days, white mobs continued to attack the black children until public pressure and a Federal court order finally forced Mississippi lawmen to intervene. By the end of the first week, many black parents had withdrawn their children from the white schools out of fear for their safety, but approximately 150 black students continued to attend, still the largest school integration in state history up to that point in time.
Inside the schools, blacks were harassed by white teachers, threatened and attacked by white students, and many blacks were expelled on flimsy pretexts by school officials. By mid-October, the number of blacks attending the white schools had dropped to roughly 70. When school officials refused to meet with a delegation of black parents, black students began boycotting both the white and black schools in protest. Many children, parents, GCFM activists, and SCLC organizers were arrested for protesting the school situation. By the end of October, almost all of the 2600 black students in Grenada County were boycotting school. The boycott was not ended until early November when SCLC attorneys won a Federal court order that the school system treat everyone equal regardless of race and meet with black parents.
Because of its dedication to non-violent direct-action protests, Civil disobedience, and mobilizing mass participation in boycotts and marches, SCLC was considered more "radical" than the older NAACP which favored lawsuits, legislative lobbying, and education campaigns conducted by professionals and usually opposed civil-disobedience. The Chicago Freedom Movement was the most ambitious Civil rights campaign in the North of the United States, and lasted from mid-1965 to early 1967 In 1968 Martin Luther King Jr and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC organized the Poor People's Campaign to address issues of Economic justice Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations At the same time it was generally considered to be less radical than CORE or the youth-led SNCC. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement
To a certain extent during the period 1960-1964, SCLC had a mentoring relationship with SNCC before SNCC began moving away from nonviolence and integration in the late 1960s. Over time, SCLC and SNCC took different strategic paths, with SCLC focusing on large-scale campaigns such as Birmingham and Selma to win national legislation and SNCC focusing on community-organizing to build political power on the local level. The Birmingham campaign was a strategic effort by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC to promote Civil rights for black Americans. The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the Political and emotional peak of the American civil rights In many communities, there was tension between SCLC and SNCC because SCLC's base was the minister-led Black churches and SNCC was trying to build rival community organizations led by the poor. 
The best-known member of the SCLC was Martin Luther King, who led the organization until he was assassinated on April 4th 1968. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Other prominent members of the organization have included Joseph Lowery, Ralph Abernathy, Ella Baker, Jesse Jackson, James Orange, Charles Kenzie Steele, C.T. Vivian, Fred Shuttlesworth, Walter E. Fauntroy, Claude Young, Al Sharpton, Curtis W. Harris, Hosea Williams, Maya Angelou, and Andrew Young. For the engraver see Joseph Wilson Lowry. Joseph Echols Lowery, (born October 6, 1921, in Huntsville Alabama) Ralph David Abernathy ( March 11 1926 – April 17 1990) was an American Civil rights activist and leader and a close associate of Ella Josephine Baker ( December 13, 1903 &ndash December 13, 1986) was a leading African American civil rights and human rights Jesse Louis Jackson Sr (born October 8 1941 is an American Civil rights activist and Baptist minister. James Edward Orange ( October 29 1942 &ndash February 16 2008) was a pastor He was also known for preaching and singing in a strong baritone Rev Charles Kenzie Steele (born in Bluefield West Virginia; died 1980 in Tallahassee) was a preacher and a civil rights activist Reverend C T Vivian (born July 28, 1924 in Boonville, Missouri) is a minister and was a close friend and lieutenant of Reverend Martin Fred Shuttlesworth (born Freddie Lee Robinson on March 18, 1922) is a civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation and other Walter Edward Fauntroy (born February 6, 1933) pastor of the New Bethel Baptist Church in Washington D Claude Young Jr is a Techno DJ from Detroit. Known for his mixing style that includes scratches juggles and cuts Claude Young has played in clubs all around the Alfred Charles "Al" Sharpton Jr (born October 3 1954 is an American Baptist minister political and civil rights / Social justice Curtis West Harris Sr (born July 1, 1924 in Dendron Virginia) is a minister, Civil rights activist and politician in Virginia Hosea Lorenzo Williams ( January 5, 1926 &ndash November 16, 2000) was a United States civil rights leader, Maya Angelou (ˈmaɪə ˈændʒəloʊ (born Marguerite Ann Johnson on April 4, 1928) is an American Poet, Memoirist This page is about Congressman and Ambassador Andrew Young For other men with the same name see Andrew Young (disambiguation.
|• 1957-1968||Martin Luther King, Jr.|
|• 1968-1977||Ralph Abernathy|
|• 1977-1997||Joseph Lowery|
|• 1997-2004||Martin Luther King III|
|• 2004||Fred Shuttlesworth|
|• 2004-present||Charles Kenzie Steele, Jr.|