|City of South Bend, Indiana|
South Bend from above
Location in the state of Indiana
|- Type||Strong Mayor-Council|
|- Mayor||Steve Luecke (D)|
|- Total||39. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The political units and divisions of the United States include The 50 states (four of these being officially styled as Commonwealths) which are typically The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The US state of Indiana is divided into 92 counties. The oldest and newest counties in Indiana are Knox County (created 1790 St Joseph County is a County located in the US state of Indiana. The Mayor-Council government system sometimes called the Mayor-Commission government system is one of two variations of Government used for the most part in modern A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Steve Luecke is the current Mayor of South Bend Indiana, serving since 1997. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 1 sq mi (101. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 3 km²)|
|- Land||38. To help compare different Orders of magnitude and geographical regions we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km² 7 sq mi (100. 2 km²)|
|- Water||0. 4 sq mi (1. 1 km²)|
|Elevation||692 ft (211 m)|
|- Density||2,786. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 6/sq mi (1,075. 9/km²)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|- Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0452796|
South Bend is a city on the St. The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during Daylight saving time ( DST The Eastern Time Zone ( ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America UTC−4 is the Time offset used in the Atlantic Standard Time Zone in Canada in winter and the North American Eastern Time Zone during The ZIP code is the system of Postal codes used by the United States Postal Service (USPS A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks Area code 574 is a North American Numbering Plan Area code for South Bend /North Central Indiana. Federal Information Processing Standards ( FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States Federal government for use by all non-military The Geographic Names Information System ( GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout Joseph river and a twin city of Mishawaka in St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States. Mishawaka (ˌmɪʃəˈwɑːkə is a city on the St Joseph river and a Twin city of South Bend in St St Joseph County is a County located in the US state of Indiana. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union The United States of America —commonly referred to as the As of the 2000 census, the city had a total of 107,789 residents; its metropolitan area had a population of 316,663. It is the fourth largest city in Indiana and county seat of St. Joseph County. A county seat is a term for an Administrative center for a County, primarily used in the United States. St Joseph County is a County located in the US state of Indiana. It is the economic and cultural hub of the region commonly known as Michiana, and may be best known as the home of the University of Notre Dame. Government The Michiana Area Council of Governments (MACOG is the official Metropolitan Planning Organization for north central Indiana and the South Bend-Mishawaka The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in
South Bend lies along the Indiana Toll Road at the south most turn in the St. Joseph River, from which it derives its name. The Indiana Toll Road, officially the Indiana East-West Toll Road, is a tolled Highway running east-west across the northernmost part of Indiana The St Joseph River (locally known as the St Joe) is a river approximately 210 mi (338 km long in southern Michigan and northern Indiana in the The area was originally settled in the early 19th century by fur traders, and established as a city in 1865. The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal Fur. The St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access led to heavy industrial development that peaked with Studebaker being based in the city, along with Oliver Chilled Plow Company and several other industrial companies. Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States Wagon and Automobile manufacturer based in
The population of South Bend has declined since its peak of 132,445 in 1960. This is in large part due to the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry. Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States Wagon and Automobile manufacturer based in The 2000 census saw South Bend's population increase 2. 2% from 1990, the first gain since 1960. Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, education, and small business. A large tourism sector also exists, mainly supported by the University of Notre Dame. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in South Bend still remains the focal point for Michiana, with the second busiest airport in Indiana, interurban rail service to downtown Chicago, and several large businesses including Crowe Chizek, Bosch and AM General. Government The Michiana Area Council of Governments (MACOG is the official Metropolitan Planning Organization for north central Indiana and the South Bend-Mishawaka In Australia "interurban" is a general term for Intercity rail. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. AM General is an American heavy vehicle manufacturer based in South Bend Indiana, best known for the civilian
The first settlements in the current South Bend area were established as fur trading posts. The first westerner to make permanent settlement was Pierre Frieschutz Navarre in 1820. Navarre arrived on behalf of the American Fur Company. The American Fur Company was founded by John Jacob Astor in 1808 His home was not far from what would become downtown South Bend.  Alexis Coquillard, another agent of the American Fur Company, passed through South Bend in 1823 and returned in 1824 with his family to make it his home.  At the time, the post was known as Big St. Joseph Station. In 1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and Company. The area soon became known as St. Joseph’s, Indiana as recorded in the Samuel Hanna and Company records.  By 1829, the town was growing, with Coquillard and Taylor emerging as leaders. The town applied for a post office, and Taylor was named postmaster later that year. Postmaster (or Postmistress) refers to the head of an individual Post office. The town was designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana . The following year, the name of the city was changed to South Bend. This change was in order to ease confusion as several other communities called Southold existed at the time.  In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph County. St Joseph County is a County located in the US state of Indiana. Soon after, design began on what would become the town of South Bend. 
The area was incorporated as a town in 1835 and rapidly grew. During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's development centered around the industrial complex of factories located on the two races (man-made canals along the St. Joseph River in South Bend). A mill race or raceway is the current or channel of a stream esp The St Joseph River (locally known as the St Joe) is a river approximately 210 mi (338 km long in southern Michigan and northern Indiana in the Several dams were created, and mills were built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive entered South Bend. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas 1851 ( MDCCCLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year  This led to a general shift of businesses from the river toward the tracks. In 1852, Henry Studebaker set up a wagon shop in South Bend. Studebaker would go on to become a large automobile manufacturer of the United States. Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States Wagon and Automobile manufacturer based in Other manufacturing companies such as the Singer Sewing Company and the Oliver Chilled Plow Company would soon follow suit, and manufacturing would become the driving force in the South Bend economy through the mid-20th century. Singer Corporation is a manufacturer of sewing machines first established as I 
South Bend also gained from its position on what was known as The Michigan Road, the main north–south artery of northern Indiana in the 19th century.  Another significant development occurred near South Bend in 1842, when the Reverend Edward Sorin founded the University of Notre Dame, just north of the town. The Very Rev Edward Frederick Sorin, CSC (1814-1893 a priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross was the founder of the University of Notre Dame in Indiana The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in  Notre Dame would eventually become an intrinsic part of South Bend, contributing greatly to the economy and culture.  In 1865, a petition was introduced for South Bend to incorporate as a city. South Bend held its first elections as a city on Monday, June 5, 1865. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year 
Other industries continued to develop in South Bend in the early twentieth century, including Birdsell Manufacturing Company, the Bendix Corporation, Honeywell, AlliedSignal, the Robert Bosch GmbH, South Bend Lathe Works, the O'Brien Paint Corp. The Bendix Corporation was an American manufacturing and engineering company which during various times in its 60 year existence made brake systems aeronautical hydraulics Honeywell ( is a major American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer products engineering services and aerospace systems Italic text --> AlliedSignal was an aerospace automotive and engineering company that acquired and merged with Honeywell for $15 billion in 1999 Robert Bosch GmbH is a German diversified technology-based corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart Germany. South Bend Lathe is today a division of LeBlond Ltd which is part of the Makino corporation a multinational Machine tool –building firm , and the South Bend Toy Company. Fast development led to the creation of electric rail transportation throughout the area, and in 1925 and the South Shore interurban streetcar service was established from downtown South Bend to downtown Chicago. Railway electrification supplies electrical energy to railway Locomotives and Multiple units so they can operate without having a Reciprocating History Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway The oldest predecessor of the line was the Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway, chartered on December 2 In Australia "interurban" is a general term for Intercity rail. 
During World War II, the South Bend Blue Sox All-American Girls Professional Baseball League team was formed in South Bend. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The South Bend Blue Sox were a founding team in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was a women's professional Baseball league founded by Philip K The team participated in all the league's seasons from 1943-1954. 
By 1950, More than half of all employment was in the manufacturing sector.  Due to economic difficulties, the Studebaker Company closed its automotive manufacturing plants in South Bend in December of 1963. Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States Wagon and Automobile manufacturer based in  A general decline in manufacturing soon followed. By the year 2000 manufacturing only made up 16% of the local economy, and the population decreased by nearly 30,000. 
In 1984, South Bend community leaders began seeking a minor league baseball team for the city. A stadium was constructed in 1986 and a 10 year player development contract was signed with the Chicago White Sox. The Chicago White Sox are a professional Baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The team would be known as the South Bend White Sox. In 1994, the team's name was changed to the South Bend Silver Hawks. The South Bend Silver Hawks are a US Class A Minor league baseball team affiliated with the Arizona Diamondbacks, that plays in the Midwest  The Silver Hawks are currently a Class A minor league affiliate of the Arizona Diamondbacks in the Midwest League.
South Bend is located at . According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 39. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 1 square miles (101. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 3 km²), of which, 38. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 7 square miles (100. 2 km²) is land and 0. 4 square miles (1. 1 km²) (1. 10%) is water.(41. 672597, -86. 255157)
South Bend is located 5 miles (8 km) from the Michigan border, and approximately equidistant from Illinois and Ohio. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The city is 93 miles (150 km) driving distance from Chicago. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The nearest shore of Lake Michigan is 20 miles (32 km) away. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States.
The St. Joseph River flows from the east end of the city turning north near the city center, giving South Bend its name at the bend in the river. The St Joseph River (locally known as the St Joe) is a river approximately 210 mi (338 km long in southern Michigan and northern Indiana in the South Bend sits on the North-South continental divide, and the river flows north into Lake Michigan.  The downtown area is located in the north central part of the city along the St. Joseph River, with Notre Dame directly adjacent to the north. The city extends further north on the west side, mainly with manufacturing and distribution facilities near the South Bend Regional Airport. South Bend Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the Central business district of South Bend, a Mishawaka is adjacent to South Bend's east side. Mishawaka (ˌmɪʃəˈwɑːkə is a city on the St Joseph river and a Twin city of South Bend in St
South Bend has a humid continental climate, with a Köppen climate classification of Dfa. The humid continental climate is a Climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist Lake Michigan has a large effect on the climate of South Bend, including lake effect snow in winter and moderating temperatures year round. Lake-effect snow is produced in the winter when cold Arctic winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water providing energy and picking up Water vapor which freezes  June through August are the warmest months, with average temperatures above 80 °F. Normally, 42 days with thunderstorms occur each year.  The snowiest month is usually January, with snow fall normally recorded from October through April.  On average South Bend receives 81. 8 inches (208 cm) of snow per year.  Spring and fall are often mild and overcast, with 293 partly coudy to cloudy days each year. 
|Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures|
|Record high||68°F (20°C)||74° (23°)||85° (29°)||91° (33°)||96° (36°)||106° (41°)||109° (43°)||105° (41°)||99° (37°)||92° (33°)||82° (28°)||70° (21°)|
|Normal high||31° (-1°)||36° (2°)||47° (8°)||59° (15°)||71° (22°)||80° (27°)||83° (28°)||81° (27°)||74° (23°)||62° (17°)||48° (9°)||36° (2°)|
|Normal low||16° (-9°)||19° (-7°)||28° (-2°)||38° (3°)||48° (9°)||58° (14°)||63° (17°)||61° (16°)||53° (12°)||42° (6°)||33° (1°)||22° (-6°)|
|Record low||-22° (-30°)||-20° (-29°)||-13° (-25°)||11° (-12°)||24° (-4°)||35° (2°)||42° (6°)||40° (4°)||29° (-2°)||12° (-11°)||-7° (-22°)||-18° (-28°)|
|Precipitation||2. 3 in. (5. 8 cm. )||2 (5)||2. 9 (7. 3)||3. 6 (9. 2)||3. 5 (8. 9)||4. 2 (10. 6)||3. 7 (9. 5)||4 (10. 1)||3. 8 (9. 6)||3. 3 (8. 3)||3. 4 (8. 6)||3. 1 (7. 8)|
|Source: The Weather Channel|
As of the census of 2000, there were 107,789 people, 42,908 households, and 25,959 families residing in the city. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population The population density was 2,786. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 4 people per square mile (1,075. 9/km²). There were 46,349 housing units at an average density of 1,198. 1/sq mi (462. 7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 56. 05% White, 34. 60% African American, 0. 41% Native American, 1. 20% Asian, 0. 06% Pacific Islander, 4. 87% from other races, and 2. 80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8. 45% of the population.
Ancestries: Germans (17. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as 4%), Polish (10. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. 6%), Irish (10. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate 5%), English (5. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English 8%), United States (3. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 9%), Hungarian (3. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. 3%) (U. S. Census).
There were 42,908 households out of which 30. 5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39. 0% were married couples living together, 17. NOTICE TO WOULD-BE ROMEOS ************** 0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39. 5% were non-families. 32. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2. 45 and the average family size was 3. 12.
In the city the population was spread out with 27. 3% under the age of 18, 10. 4% from 18 to 24, 29. 3% from 25 to 44, 18. 2% from 45 to 64, and 14. 8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91. 1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86. 7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,439, and the median income for a family was $39,046. Males had a median income of $31,958 versus $23,744 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,121. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country About 13. 6% of families and 16. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country 0% of those under age 18 and 9. 1% of those age 65 or over.
South Bend's location on the St. Joseph River led to an industrial based economy in the late 1800s and early to mid-1900s. By the end of World War II that economy began to diminish.  Remnants of the old economy can still be seen in the abandoned industrial buildings around the city. Since that time, education, health care, and small business have come to the forefront of South Bend's economy.
Nearby University of Notre Dame is a large contributor to the local economy. The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in The university is the largest employer in St. Joseph County, employing 4,758 people. 
Health care is another major contributor to the South Bend economy. Memorial Health Systems is the largest employer in the city.  Other notable businesses include Honeywell, Bosch, Woodwind & Brasswind and PEI Genesis. Woodwind & Brasswind is a store that specializes in Musical instruments, based in South Bend, Indiana, United States. Both AM General and Crowe Chizek have corporate headquarters in South Bend. AM General is an American heavy vehicle manufacturer based in South Bend Indiana, best known for the civilian
Efforts are underway to spur economic growth in South Bend. The St. Joe Valley Metronet is a not for profit organization attempting to create a more robust telecommunications infrastructure capable of inexpensive high speed data transmission. It is thought this could bring more high tech firms to the city and surrounding area.  Redevelopment is underway for some of the abandoned industrial facilities, with the abandoned Oliver Corp. buildings being the most recent example of reclaimed property. 
South Bend was influenced by a large influx of Polish Catholic immigrants in the late 19th century. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete".  Dyngus Day is widely celebrated on the Monday after Easter and is known locally to be the beginning of the city elections campaign season. Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a Holiday in some largely Christian cultures especially Roman Catholic Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group  Fat Tuesday is also celebrated in South Bend, with Paczkis being a staple food product in the city for the day. " Mardi Gras " ( French for Fat Tuesday) is the day before Ash Wednesday. Pączki ( Polish: pączki, pronounced MP3 Pronunciation File are traditional Polish Doughnuts Pączki is the Plural form of the  There are twenty-three Catholic churches in the city and surrounding county, eleven Catholic schools, and three Catholic universities adjacent to the city in Notre Dame, Indiana. Notre Dame Indiana is an Unincorporated community northeast of South Bend in St 
The World Pulse Festival is held annually in South Bend. The event is an annual Contemporary Christian music festival, attracting more than 50,000 visitors each year. Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term " inspirational music " is a genre of Popular music which is 
The South Bend Regional Museum of Art is located in the Century Center in downtown South Bend. The South Bend Regional Museum of Art is a museum located in the Century Center in South Bend Indiana. The Century Center Convention Center, managed by Global Spectrum, opened in 1977 and has been managed by Global Spectrum since January 2007 The Museum was opened to the public in March of 1996, and features a variety of artists from South Bend and the Michiana region. Government The Michiana Area Council of Governments (MACOG is the official Metropolitan Planning Organization for north central Indiana and the South Bend-Mishawaka Currently, over 850 works are featured in the permanent collection. The museum also offers several classes and workshops for adults and children. 
Copshaholm is one of the central features of the Northern Indiana Center for History. The 38 room mansion was built in 1895 and is currently listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of The history museum is composed of several buildings on its campus. It includes areas dedicated to the history of the St. Joseph River Valley, the University of Notre Dame, the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, and the Kidsfirst Children's Museum. The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was a women's professional Baseball league founded by Philip K 
The Studebaker National Museum is a large collection of wagons and automobiles from the 150 year production history of the Studebaker company. The Studebaker National Museum is a Museum in South Bend Indiana, USA that displays a variety of automobiles wagons carriages and military vehicles Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States Wagon and Automobile manufacturer based in  The museum began as a collection of wagons and automobiles produced by Studebaker, including the Presidential carriages of Lincoln, McKinley, Harrison and Grant. The company donated the collection to the city of South Bend in 1966. The collection was housed in various locations from the Century Center to its current location in downtown South Bend adjacent to the Northern Indiana Center for History. The Century Center Convention Center, managed by Global Spectrum, opened in 1977 and has been managed by Global Spectrum since January 2007 The two museums share one campus, and together form The Museums at Washington and Chapin. The Museums at Washington and Chapin are several museums that share a campus in South Bend Indiana. 
South Bend is also home to the Morris Performing Arts Center. The Morris Performing Arts Center (formerly the Palace Theater) is a 2560-seat Concert hall in South Bend Indiana. The center was built in 1922 and included the Palace Theater, featuring vaudeville acts. The theatre saw its heyday in 1940 with the premiere of Knute Rockne, All American starring Ronald Reagan. Knute Rockne All American is a 1940 biographical film which tells the story of Knute Rockne, perhaps the most famous of all of the football A crowd estimated at 24,000 gathered outside the event. The theater was scheduled for demolition in 1959, when E. M. Morris purchased the facility and sold it to the city for one dollar. The Palace was then renamed the Morris Civic Auditorium. A total renovation was completed in 2000. The Morris Performing Arts Center also includes the Palais Royale Ballroom, on which restoration was recently completed.  The center serves as home to the South Bend Symphony Orchestra, as well as the Broadway Theater League.
Another dynamic cultural institution is the South Bend Civic Theatre, founded in 1957. For many years it was located at The Firehouse at 701 Portage Avenue. At the beginning of 2007 a new theatre opened at 403 N. Main Street, in what was formerly the Scottish Rite Building. The new site includes a 209-seat Main Stage Auditorium and a 90-seat “black-box” Studio Theatre.  The South Bend Civic produces more than a dozen plays per year, including several productions in its Family Series.
Schuyler Colfax, the 17th Vice President of the United States, is interred in the city cemetery. Schuyler Colfax Jr (March 23 1823 &ndash January 13 1885 was a U The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death 
The University of Notre Dame's Fighting Irish provide much of the sports action for the South Bend locale. The Notre Dame Fighting Irish are the varsity sports teams of the University of Notre Dame. Football Saturdays have become a major event for the city, attracting fans who come to watch the game and tailgate party. In North America, a tailgate party is a Social event held on and around the open Tailgate of a vehicle.  Notre Dame basketball games are also popular, along with the other sports at Notre Dame. The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in Thanks in large part to the location of the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana to South Bend's immediate north, the College Football Hall of Fame was moved from Kings Mill, Ohio to downtown South Bend in 1995. The College Football Hall of Fame, located in South Bend Indiana, USA is a hall of fame and museum devoted to College football. Kings Mills is an unincorporated community in the northeastern corner of Deerfield Township, Warren County, Ohio, United States Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads
South Bend is home to the South Bend Silver Hawks, a class A Minor League Baseball team. The South Bend Silver Hawks are a US Class A Minor league baseball team affiliated with the Arizona Diamondbacks, that plays in the Midwest Part of the History of baseball series Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of Professional baseball leagues in North The Silver Hawks play at Coveleski Stadium in downtown South Bend. Stanley Coveleski Regional Stadium is home to the South Bend Silver Hawks, the Minor league baseball team of South Bend Indiana. In 2005 the franchise nearly moved to Marion, Illinois. Marion is the second largest city in Southern Illinois and serves as the region's largest retail trade center A group of investors led by former Indiana Governor and South Bend Mayor Joe Kernan bought the Silver Hawks, keeping the team in South Bend. Joseph Eugene Kernan (born April 8, 1946) widely known as Joe Kernan, is an American politician who became the Governor of Indiana 
The Potawatomi Zoo opened in 1902. The Potawatomi Zoo is a zoo in eastern South Bend Indiana. In addition to the animals there is a train ride around the western half of the zoo and an old-fashioned engineer Potawatomi is the oldest zoo in Indiana, and features over 400 animals in its 23 acres. A zoological garden, shortened to zoo, is an institution in which living animals are exhibited in captivity The zoo is run by the South Bend Parks and Recreation Department which maintains a variety of parks and facilities for the city.  Along with the zoo, the South Bend Parks and Recreation department operates over fifty parks, golf courses, and recreational areas throughout the city. 
Near the Potawatomi Zoo are the Potawatomi Greenhouses and Ella Morris and Muessel-Ellison Botanical Conservatories. A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse or hothouse) is a building where plants are cultivated A conservatory is a Glass and Metal structure traditionally found in the Garden of a large house The green houses were originally constructed in the 1920s, with the conservatories being added in the 1960s.  In 2007 the greenhouses and conservatories were in danger of closing due to increased operating costs, but a campaign by the Botanical Society of South Bend was able to solicit funds to keep the facilities operating. 
The city is home to the first of the few artificial white water courses in the United States. In 1984, the abandoned East Race canal of the St. Joseph River was converted into North America's first artificial whitewater waterway. The St Joseph River (locally known as the St Joe) is a river approximately 210 mi (338 km long in southern Michigan and northern Indiana in the  Through the use of movable barriers and obstacles the East Race provides a configurable whitewater course for recreational and competitive canoeing, kayaking and rafting.
South Bend government follows the mayor-council representative municipal government model. The Mayor-Council government system sometimes called the Mayor-Commission government system is one of two variations of Government used for the most part in modern Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. The government operates out of the County-City building in downtown South Bend. The government of St. Joseph county also operates at this facility.
The government of South Bend is led by the office of the mayor. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government The mayor is elected to a four-year term and acts as chief executive for the city government. The current mayor is Steve Luecke. 
The legislative branch of the South Bend government is the city council. A city council is a form of Local government, usually covering a City or other Urban area, such as a Town. The council is composed of nine members each elected to four year terms. South Bend is divided into six districts, each district electing one council member. The final three members are elected at-large. At-Large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are Elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body (for example a city state Under Indiana state law, the council may pass resolutions and ordinances. This article concerns the legal meaning of the term resolution. Resolutions are in regard to internal council procedures, while ordinances address city municipal codes. 
The final elected member of the South Bend government is the City Clerk. The municipal clerk along with the tax collector is the oldest of public servants The city clerk is responsible for maintaining official city records, and providing general clerical assistance to the City Council. 
The South Bend area is home to several institutions of higher learning; the most famous of which is the University of Notre Dame. Higher Education South Bend Indiana is home to a wide variety of higher educational facilities including several full universities as well as community and technical The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in Notre Dame Indiana is an Unincorporated community northeast of South Bend in St The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame) (ˌnoʊtɚˈdeɪm is a private Roman Catholic Research university located in The university is located to the north of South Bend in Notre Dame, Indiana. Notre Dame Indiana is an Unincorporated community northeast of South Bend in St The University of Notre Dame was founded by Father Edward Sorin, a French priest, in 1842 before South Bend was incorporated as a city in 1865, and has been an intrinsic part of the South Bend area with great effect on its culture and economy. The Very Rev Edward Frederick Sorin, CSC (1814-1893 a priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross was the founder of the University of Notre Dame in Indiana St. Mary's College and Holy Cross College are both located near Notre Dame just north of South Bend. Saint Mary's College is a private Catholic Liberal arts college founded in 1844 by the Sisters of the Holy Cross. Holy Cross College is a Roman Catholic, co-educational residential institution of higher education in Notre Dame, unincorporated St
Indiana University South Bend is the third largest campus in the Indiana University system. Indiana University South Bend is the third largest campus of the Indiana University system. Indiana University, founded in 1820, is a nine-campus University system in the state of Indiana. Enrollment in Fall 2007 was 7,517.  Other universities with campuses in South Bend include Brown Mackie College, Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, Purdue University and the Graduate Theological Foundation. The Brown Mackie College system of schools is a collection of private for-profit educational institutions for career preparation in the business legal health sciences information Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana (usually shortened to Ivy Tech Community College or colloquially Ivy Tech) is the state of Indiana 's system The Graduate Theological Foundation (GTF is a theological institution founded in 1962 and located in South Bend
Public schools in South Bend are operated by the South Bend Community School Corporation. The South Bend Community School Corporation operates the public schools in South Bend Indiana. The corporation runs 17 primary centers (grades K-4), nine intermediate centers (grades 5-8), and four high schools, serving over 22,000 students as of 2006. 
South Bend is also home to Indiana's First Charter School, Veritas Academy.
One major daily newspaper serves the South Bend Metro area, the South Bend Tribune. The South Bend Tribune is a newspaper distributed in the Michiana ( Indiana, United States) region It is distributed throughout the Michiana region and publishes five editions including a Metro edition, Mishawaka edition, Michigan edition, Penn-Harris-Madison East edition and a Marshall edition.
South Bend has a wide variety of local radio broadcast available in the area. Stations' programming content contains a wide variety including public radio, classical music, religious, country, and urban contemporary among others. Public broadcasting refers to radio television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Urban contemporary is a music Radio format. The term was coined by the late New York DJ Frankie Crocker in the mid 1970s For more information, see List of Radio Stations in South Bend, Indiana. The following is a list of FCC -licensed Radio stations in the U
As of 2007, the South Bend-Elkhart designated market area is the 88th largest in the United States, with 334,370 (0. A media market, broadcast market, media region, designated market area, DMA or simply market is a region where the Population 3% of the US population) homes.  Most of the major television networks have affiliates in the Michiana area.
South Bend located stations include WNDU-TV (NBC), WNIT-TV (PBS) and WHME-TV (LeSEA). WNDU-TV is a Television station in South Bend Indiana. The station is an affiliate of the NBC Television network. The National Broadcasting Company ( NBC) is an American Television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the WHME-TV is a full-service Christian and general entertainment television station serving the South Bend market LeSEA is an Acronym that stands for " Le ster S umrall E vangelistic A ssociation Stations located in nearby Mishawaka, IN include WSBT-TV (CBS), WBND-LP (ABC), WCWW-LP (CW) and WMYS-LP (My Network TV). Mishawaka (ˌmɪʃəˈwɑːkə is a city on the St Joseph river and a Twin city of South Bend in St WSBT-TV (channel 22 is a Television station in South Bend Indiana. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. WBND-LP, is an ABC affiliate based in South Bend Indiana. The Weigel Broadcasting outlet operates at channel 57 with an ERP of 58 The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. WCWW-LP is the low-powered CW network affiliate in South Bend Indiana. WMYS redirects here For the Indianapolis radio station formerly known as WMYS see WXNT. MyNetworkTV (unofficially abbreviated MyNet or MNT) is a Television network in the United States, owned by the Fox Broadcasting Company WSJV (FOX) also broadcasts in the Michiana area from Elkhart, IN. WSJV is a Television station licensed to Elkhart Indiana and serving the South Bend Indiana market Elkhart (ˈɛlkɑrt is a city located in Elkhart County, Indiana, United States.
South Bend's location around the St. Joseph River has influenced the development of its streets. South Bend Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the Central business district of South Bend, a The St Joseph River (locally known as the St Joe) is a river approximately 210 mi (338 km long in southern Michigan and northern Indiana in the While it mainly follows a grid layout, development around the river led to roads adapted to follow the river. South Bend is connected to state and national highway systems by Indiana 2, 23, 933, US 20, 31 and by Interstate 80 and 90, the Indiana Toll Road. State Road 2 in the US State of Indiana is an east-west route running from the Illinois border at Illinois Route 17 east to the outskirts State Road 23 in the US state of Indiana is a north-south highway in the north-central part of the state State Road 933 ( SR 933) is a State highway in the US state of Indiana, consisting of sections of a now-decommissioned U US Route 20 is an east-west United States highway. As the "0" in its route number implies U US Route 31 is a long north-south highway connecting northern Michigan to southern Alabama, with termini at Interstate 75 near Mackinaw City In the US state of Indiana, Interstate 80 consists entirely of the following two routes The Borman Expressway from the Interstate 90 (I-90 is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3100 miles (5000 kilometers The Indiana Toll Road, officially the Indiana East-West Toll Road, is a tolled Highway running east-west across the northernmost part of Indiana Original routes of both the Lincoln Highway and the Dixie Highway also pass through South Bend. The Lincoln Highway was the first automobile road across America. The Dixie Highway was a United States Automobile Highway first planned in 1914 to connect the US Midwest with the Southern United The Headquarters for the Lincoln Highway Association are in South Bend. 
For transportation around the South Bend metro area, the St. Joseph Valley Parkway was constructed between 1960 and 1990. The St Joseph Valley Parkway is a limited-access divided Highway in the U The road connects Benton Harbor, Michigan, South Bend, Mishawaka, and Elkhart. Benton Harbor is a city in Berrien County in the US State of Michigan. Mishawaka (ˌmɪʃəˈwɑːkə is a city on the St Joseph river and a Twin city of South Bend in St Elkhart (ˈɛlkɑrt is a city located in Elkhart County, Indiana, United States. While segments are designated as US 20, US 31 and Indiana 331, it is simply referred to locally as "The bypass". State Road 331 ( SR 331) is a State highway in the US state of Indiana. A bypass is a Road or Highway that avoids or "bypasses" a built-up area town or village to let through Traffic flow without interference from  The Indiana Toll Road/Interstate 80/90 passes through northern South Bend.
Public transportation in South Bend is controlled by Transpo (South Bend Public Transportation Company). Transpo operates bus routes between South Bend and suburbs Mishawaka and Roseland Monday through Saturday. Mishawaka (ˌmɪʃəˈwɑːkə is a city on the St Joseph river and a Twin city of South Bend in St Transpo routes cover 183 miles (295 km) with over 60 vehicles.  In 2006, the Transpo fleet switched to Bio-diesel fuel. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by
South Bend serves as the transportation hub for Michiana. Government The Michiana Area Council of Governments (MACOG is the official Metropolitan Planning Organization for north central Indiana and the South Bend-Mishawaka The South Bend Regional Airport lies off of US 31 and the Indiana Toll Road in the Northwest corner of South Bend. South Bend Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the Central business district of South Bend, a The airport connects South Bend to larger hubs including Atlanta, Chicago O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Minneapolis, Orlando, and St. Petersburg, Florida. Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state Las Vegas ( Spanish: "The Meadows" is the most populous City in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. St Petersburg (often shortened to St Pete) is a city in Pinellas County Florida, United States. Over 1,000,000 passengers are served annually making it the second busiest airport in Indiana. As of 2006, land acquisition is underway for 200 acres (81 ha) of development. 
The electric commuter railroad South Shore Line connects South Bend's South Bend Regional Airport to Millennium Station in downtown Chicago. History Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway The oldest predecessor of the line was the Chicago and Indiana Air Line Railway, chartered on December 2 South Bend Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the Central business district of South Bend, a Millennium Station (formerly Randolph Street Terminal; sometimes called Randolph Street Station or Randolph/South Water Street Station) is a major Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Due to increased ridership in 2005 between Chicago and South Bend, more cars are being added. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. In 2008, the South Shore will be celebrating its centennial anniversary. Planning for festivities are already underway and will take place at the South Bend Regional Airport. South Bend Regional Airport is a public Airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the Central business district of South Bend, a 
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to South Bend via two trains, the Lake Shore Limited to Chicago, New York City and Boston and the Capitol Limited, to Chicago and Washington, D.C.. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 The Lake Shore Limited is a daily Passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The City of New York Amtrak 's Capitol Limited is one of the two routes connecting Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D A bus line connects from Notre Dame and the airport to Chicago O'Hare and Midway Airports, with several northwest Indiana stops. 
Electricity in South Bend is provided by Indiana Michigan Power, a subsidiary of American Electric Power. American Electric Power ( is a major investor-owner Electric utility in various parts of the United States.  Natural Gas is supplied by the Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO). 
The South Bend Water Works delivers water to residents of South Bend. The water is collected from 32 deep wells and runs through 545 miles of water main to be distributed to South Bend citizens.