|Apartheid in South Africa|
|Events and Projects|
P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
|History of South Africa|
Apartheid (meaning separateness in Afrikaans, cognate to English apart and -hood) was a system of legalized racial segregation enforced by the Afrikaner National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1990. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in Cognates in Linguistics are words that have a common origin They may occur within a language such as shirt and skirt as two English words descended from English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Apartheid had its roots in the history of Dutch, French and British colonisation and settlement of southern Africa, with the development of practices and policies of separation along racial lines and domination by European settlers and their descendents, which persisted both before and after South Africa gained self-governance as a unified dominion within the British Empire. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. When the Afrikaner National Party gained power in the post-World-War-Two general election in 1948, they set in place their programme of Apartheid, with the formalisation and expansion of existing policies and practices into the system of institutionalised racism and Afrikaner domination. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern Apartheid was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in elections in 1994, the first in South Africa with universal suffrage. The South African general election of 1994 was the first free election held in South Africa after the end of Apartheid, therefore also the first held on Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to The legacies of apartheid still shape South African politics and society.
Apartheid legislation classified inhabitants and visitors into racial groups (black, white, coloured and Indian (or Asian). The historical definition of race was an immutable and distinct type or Species, sharing distinct racial characteristics such as constitution temperament In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense Under Apartheid, South African blacks were stripped of their citizenship, legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based and nominally self-governing bantustans (tribal homelands), four of which became, under Apartheid, nominally independent, sovereign states. Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization. A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West A Gold Sovereign is a Gold coin first issued in 1489 for Henry VII of England and still in production as of 2008 The homelands occupied relatively small and economically unproductive areas of the country. The government based the homelands on the territory of Black Reserves founded during the British Empire period. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. These reserves were akin to the US Indian Reservation, Canadian First Nations reserves, or Australian aboriginal reserves. An Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau For the vast tract created by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in Canada and the United States see Indian Reserve (1763 In Canada The history of Indigenous Australians is thought to have spanned 40000 to 45000 years although some estimates have put the figure at up to 70000 years before European Many black South Africans, however, never resided in their identified "homelands". The homeland system disenfranchised black people residing in "white South Africa" by restricting their voting rights to their own identified black homeland. The government segregated education, medical care, and other public services with inferior standards for blacks. South Africa has 12 million learners 366 000 teachers and around 28 000 schools - including 390 special needs schools and 1 000 registered private schools The black education system within "white South Africa", by design, prepared blacks for lives as a labouring class. There was a deliberate policy in "white South Africa" of making services for black people inferior to those of whites, to try to "encourage" black people to move into the black homelands. Black people ended up with services greatly inferior to those of whites, and, to a lesser extent, to those of Indians and coloureds.
The system of apartheid sparked significant internal resistance.  The government responded to a series of popular uprisings and protests with police brutality, which in turn increased local support for the armed resistance struggle.  In response to popular and political resistance, the apartheid government resorted to detentions without trial, torture, censorship, and the banning of political opposition from organisations such as the African National Congress, the Black Consciousness Movement, the Azanian People's Organisation, the Pan Africanist Congress, and the United Democratic Front, which were popularly considered liberation movements. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Black Consciousness Movement ( BCM was a Grassroots anti- Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960s out of The Azanian People's Organisation, or AZAPO is a South African political organisation The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that A liberation movement is an organization fighting a rebellion against a colonial power often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an Anti-imperialist outlook Despite suffering extreme repression and exile, these organisations maintained popular support for the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa and forged connections with the international anti-apartheid movement during this period. Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africa's 
White South Africa became increasingly militarised, embarking on the so-called border war with the covert support of the USA, and later sending the South African Defence Force into townships. The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West The anti-apartheid organisations had strong links with other liberation struggles in Africa, and often saw their armed resistance to apartheid as part of the socialist struggle against capitalism. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where 
Although the creation of apartheid is usually attributed to the Afrikaner-dominated government of 1948-1994, it is also partially a legacy of British colonialism which introduced a system of pass laws in the Cape Colony and Natal during the nineteenth century. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and limit severely the movements of the non-white populace The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. This stemmed from the regulation of blacks' movement from the tribal regions to those occupied by whites and coloureds, ruled by the British. There were similar regulations in Australia and New Caledonia (the French Code de L'indigenat). The history of the indigenous inhabitants of Western Australia has been dated for tens of thousands of years prior to European contact For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. The Code de l'indigénat was a set of laws creating in practice an inferior legal status for natives of French Colonies from 1887 until 1944 - 1947.
Laws were passed not only to restrict the movement of blacks into these areas, but also to prohibit their movement from one district to another without a signed pass. Blacks were not allowed onto the streets of towns in the Cape Colony and Natal after dark and had to carry their passes at all times. The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. Mahatma Gandhi, a young lawyer at the time, cut his political teeth by organizing non-violent protests against restrictions which hurt middle-class Indians. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Gandhi 's work in South Africa dramatically changed him as he faced the discrimination commonly directed at blacks and Indians Jan Smuts' United Party government began to move away from the rigid enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II. Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts, OM, CH, PC, ED, KC, FRS (24 May 1870 &ndash 11 September 1950 was a prominent The United Party was South Africa's ruling political party between 1934 and 1948. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Amid fears integration would eventually lead the nation to racial assimilation, the legislature established the Sauer Commission to investigate the effects of the United Party's policies. The commission concluded integration would bring about a loss of personality for all racial groups. The practice of apartheid retained many of the features of the above segregationist policies of earlier administrations. Examples include the 1913 Land Act and the various workplace "colour bars". The Natives' Land of 1913 was an Act by the South African legislature aimed at regulating the acquisition of land by "natives" However, Werner Eiselen, the man who designed apartheid, argued the government could not sustain segregation and white supremacy. He also proposed in 1948 apartheid as a "political partition" policy instead of segregation in public facilities. Hence, the idea behind apartheid was more one of political separation, later known as "grand apartheid," than segregation, later known as "petty apartheid. " Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd is considered the most influential politician in the growth of apartheid. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd ( Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 &ndash Cape Town, 6 September 1966 was Prime Minister of South Africa from Natives were discriminated against in almost every facet of life. Legislation stated where and how they could live, travel, work, be educated, get married and mingle.
There are numerous distinct differences between segregation and apartheid:
Some authors, such as David Yudelman and Hermann Giliomee, argued the system of Apartheid can be traced to the labour movement in South Africa and Cape Colony policies as early as 1907. David Yudelman is a South African author and financial writer who resides in Toronto, Canada. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
In the run up to the 1948 elections, the National Party (NP) campaigned on its policy of apartheid. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in The Zulu ( IsiZulu: amaZulu) are the largest South African ethnic group of an estimated 10-11 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal The South African general election of 1948 was held on the May 26 1948 and saw Herenigde Nasionale Party leader DF Malan call for the Prohibition The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of The NP narrowly defeated Smuts' United Party and formed a coalition government with the Afrikaner Party (AP), then under the leadership of Protestant cleric Daniel Francois Malan. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a Cabinet of a parliamentary Government in which several parties cooperate The Afrikaner Party (AP was a South African Political party from 1941 to 1951 Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 &ndash 7 February 1959 more commonly known as D The coalition government immediately began implementing apartheid policies, passing legislation prohibiting miscegenation, classifying individuals by race, and creating a classification board to rule on race-based infractions. Miscegenation (Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind" is the mixing of different racial groups, that is marrying, cohabiting The Group Areas Act of 1950, designed to geographically separate racial groups, became the heart of the apartheid system. The Group Areas Act of 1950 (Act No 41 of 1950 was an Act of parliament created under the Apartheid Government of South Africa that assigned Racial The Separate Amenities Act was passed in 1953. The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49 of 1953, formed part of the Apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa. Under this Act, municipal grounds could be reserved for a particular race. It created, among other things, separate beaches, buses, hospitals, schools and universities. A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils" A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Signboards outlined things clearly with words like "whites only". These notices applied to entire buildings or parts of buildings such as government houses, hospitals, parks, restaurants, shops, beaches, post offices and all other public areas, including park benches.
Interracial contact in sport was frowned upon, but there were no segregatory sports laws. The government was able to keep sport segregated using other legislation, such as the Group Areas Act.
The government tightened existing pass laws, compelling all South Africans to carry identity documents. For the government, these identity documents became a barrier through which the migration of blacks to 'white' South Africa could be prevented. Blacks were prohibited from living in or visiting 'white' towns without a migration permit. For blacks, living in cities required employment. Families were excluded, thus separating wives from husbands and parents from children.
J.G. Strijdom, Malan's successor as Prime Minister, moved to strip coloureds and blacks of their voting rights in the Cape Province. Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom (15 July 1893 - 24 August 1958 was Prime Minister of South Africa from 30 November 1954 to 24 August 1958 The previous government had first introduced the Separate Representation of Voters Bill in parliament in 1951. However, a group of four voters, G Harris, WD Franklin, WD Collins and Edgar Deane, challenged its validity in court with support from the United Party. The Cape Supreme Court upheld the act, but the Appeal Court upheld the appeal, finding the act invalid because a two-thirds majority in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament was needed in order to change the entrenched clauses of the Constitution. The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's Legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces The current and official Constitution of the Republic of South Africa was adopted on 8 May 1996. The government then introduced the High Court of Parliament Bill, which gave parliament the power to overrule decisions of the court. The Cape Supreme Court and the Appeal Court declared this invalid too. In 1955 the Strijdom government increased the number of judges in the Appeal Court from five to eleven, and appointed pro-Nationalist judges to fill the new places. In the same year they introduced the Senate Act, which increased the senate from 49 seats to 89. Adjustments were made such that the NP controlled 77 of these seats. The parliament met in a joint sitting and passed the Separate Representation of Voters act in 1956, which removed coloureds from the common voters' roll in the Cape, and established a separate voters' roll for them.
|Apartheid legislation in South Africa|
From the 1950s onwards, various repressive and racist laws were passed. The principal "apartheid laws" were as follows:
To oversee the apartheid legislation, the bureaucracy expanded, and, by 1977, there were more than half a million white state employees. The purpose of these laws was to keep the races apart and any resistance in check. The essential thinking behind apartheid was straightforward: although South Africa was a unitary country, the Nationalists argued that the people did not comprise a single nation but, rather, were made up of four distinct racial groups, namely white, black, coloured and Indian. These races were split further into thirteen 'nations' or racial federations. White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups. This had the result of making the white race the prevalent one. Whites were seen as the most sophisticated and, in nature, entitled to rule South Africa.
Before South Africa became a republic, white politics was typified by the division between the chiefly-Afrikaans pro-republicans and the largely English anti-republicans, with the legacy of the Boer War still a factor for some people. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Once republican status was attained, Verwoerd called for improved relations and greater accord between the English and Afrikaners. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd ( Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 &ndash Cape Town, 6 September 1966 was Prime Minister of South Africa from He claimed that the only difference now was between those who supported apartheid and those in opposition to it. The ethnic divide would no longer be between Afrikaans and English, but rather white and black. Most Afrikaners supported the notion of white unanimity to ensure their safety. English whites were divided. Many had voted in opposition to a republic, especially in Natal, where most votes said "No". Later, however, some of them recognised the perceived need for white unity, convinced by the growing trend of decolonisation elsewhere in Africa, which left them apprehensive. Harold Macmillan's "Winds of Change" pronouncement left the English faction feeling that Britain had abandoned them. (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician The more conservative English-speakers gave support to Verwoerd; others were troubled by the severing of ties with Britain and remained loyal to the Crown. They were acutely displeased at the choice between British and South African nationality. Although Verwoerd tried to bond these different blocs, the subsequent ballot illustrated only a minor swell of support, proving that a great many English speakers remained apathetic and that Verwoerd had not succeeded in uniting the white populace.
The republic arrangement brought about greater harmony between English and Afrikaans white South Africans but intensified the split between those who supported and those who opposed apartheid. As black South Africans became more aware of the government's discriminatory policies, black resistance adopted a more drastic approach.
Blacks had no say in the construction of a South African republic. They had gone up against it, realising that it would cut them off from international security. Under a republic, white South Africans had absolute autonomy and the power to entrench apartheid even more. Nevertheless, condemnation by the Commonwealth and United Nations Organisation (UNO) encouraged them with the knowledge that exterior support for the liberation effort was not lost. The NP regime had outlawed the ANC and PAC after anti-pass protests and the carnage in the Sharpeville and Langa townships. Resistance organisations went underground. In May 1961, an assembly representing the banned ANC called for negotiations between the members of the different ethnic groupings. They cautioned the government that, if it disregarded their appeal, demonstrations would be held during the republic's inauguration. When the government overlooked them, the strikers carried out their threats. The government countered swiftly and clinically, giving police the authority to arrest people for up to twelve days. Many resistance directors were detained and numerous cases of police brutality were reported. Defeated, the protesters called off their strike. The ANC then chose to add armaments to the struggle and launched a martial wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), which would perform acts of sabotage on tactical state structures. Its first sabotage plans were set to be carried out on 16 December 1961, the anniversary of the Battle of Blood River. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the Battle of Blood River ( Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier; Zulu: iMpi yaseNcome) on 16 December 1838 470 Voortrekkers
The apartheid system is often classified into "grand apartheid" and "petty apartheid". Grand apartheid involved an attempt to partition South Africa into separate states, while petty apartheid referred to the segregationist dimension. The National Party clung to grand apartheid until the 1990s, while they abandoned petty apartheid during the 1980s.
When the NP came into power in 1948, its primary endeavour was to attain a white supremacist Christian National State and implement racial segregation. Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. It consisted of two separate blocks of land covering 2970 square miles (7700 km³ almost entirely A homeland (rel Country of origin and native land) is the concept of the territory ( Cultural geography) to which an Ethnic group A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West The key building blocks to enforcement of racial segregation were
These were to form the foundation on which the "Homelands" guidelines were developed. Territorial separation was not a new-fangled institution. There were, for example, the "reserves" created under the British government in the Nineteenth Century. Under HF Verwoerd's jurisdiction, however, this land was seen as a way to control the increasing movement of black people into the city. Black people would work in the cities but live in their own areas, where they would be housed, educated, and vote for their own internal governments. The ultimate plan was to create ten independent national states out of these homelands.
The state passed two laws which paved the way for "grand apartheid", which was centred on separating races on a large scale, through spatial divisions; that is, compelling people to live in separate places defined by race. The first grand apartheid law was the Population Registration Act 30 of 1950, which necessitated all citizens' being categorised according to race and this being recorded in their identity passes. Official team or Boards were established to come to an ultimate conclusion on those people whose race was unclear. This caused much difficulty, especially for coloured people, separating their families as members were allocated different races.
The second pillar of grand apartheid was the Group Areas Act 21 of 1950. Until then, most settlements had people of different races living side by side. This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived, how one survived and how one earned a living by virtue of racial inequality. Each race was allotted its own area, establishing the base for forced removals in later years.
The policy of separate development came into being with the accession to power of Dr HF Verwoerd in 1958. He began implementing the homeland structure as a cornerstone of separate development. Verwoerd came to believe in the granting of "independence" to these homelands. Border industries and the Bantu Investment Corporation, were established to promote economic development and the provision of employment in the homelands (to draw black people away from "white" South Africa).
The Tomlinson Commission of 1954 decided that apartheid was justifiable, but stated additional land ought to be given to the homelands, favouring the development of border industries. In 1958 the Promotion of Black Self-Government Act was passed, and proponents of apartheid began to argue that, once apartheid had been implemented, blacks would no longer be citizens of South Africa; they would instead become citizens of the independent "homelands". In terms of this model, blacks became (foreign) "guest labourers" who merely worked in South Africa as the holders of temporary work permits.
The South African government attempted to divide South Africa into a number of separate states. Some thirteen per cent of the land was reserved for black homelands - representing fifty per cent of South Africa's arable land. That thirteen per cent was divided into ten black "homelands" amongst eight ethnic units. Four of these were given independence, although this was never recognised by any other country. Each homeland was supposed to develop into a separate-nation state within which the eight black ethnic groups were to find and grow their separate national identity, culture and language; Transkei - Xhosa (given "independence"), Ciskei - Xhosa (given "independence" in 1981), Bophuthatswana - Tswana (given "independence"), Venda - Venda (given "independence"); KwaZulu - Zulu, Lebowa - Pedi, Kangwane - Swazi, QwaQwa - Sotho, Gazankulu - Tsonga, and KwaNdebele - Ndebele. The Transkei —which means "the area beyond the Kei River"—is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. It consisted of two separate blocks of land covering 2970 square miles (7700 km³ almost entirely Bophuthatswana (meaning gathering of the Tswana people) was a Bantustan ("homeland" in the northwest of South Africa. Venda was a Bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province KwaZulu was a Bantustan in South Africa, intended by the Apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people Lebowa was a Bantustan located in the Transvaal in north eastern South Africa. KaNgwane was a Bantustan in South Africa, intended by the Apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Swazi people QwaQwa was a Bantustan, or homeland in the eastern part of South Africa. Gazankulu was a Bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Tsonga (Shangaan people. KwaNdebele was a Bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Matabele people Each homeland controlled its own education and health system.
Once a homeland was granted its "independence," its designated citizens had their South African citizenship revoked, replaced with citizenship in their homeland. These people were then issued passports instead of passbooks. Citizens of the supposedly "autonomous" homelands also had their South African citizenship circumscribed, and so became less than South African.  The South African government attempted to draw an equivalence between their view of black "citizens" of the "homelands" and the problems which other countries faced through entry of illegal immigrants. Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country
While other countries were dismantling their discriminatory legislation and becoming more liberal on racial issues, South Africa continued to construct a labyrinth of legislation promoting racial and ethnic separation. Many white South Africans supported apartheid because of demographics; that is, separation and partition were seen as a means of avoiding a one-person-one-vote democracy within a single unified South African state, which would render whites a politically-powerless minority. Demography is the statistical study of all Populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic population that is one that changes over In addition, leaders of the above homelands became important defenders of apartheid, such as Kaiser Matanzima, Bantu Holomisa, Oupa Gqozo, Lucas Mangope and Mangosuthu Buthelezi. Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima ( June 15 1915 - June 15 2003) was a former leader of the then- Bantustan of Transkei in Bantubonke Harrington Holomisa (born 1955-07-25 in Mqanduli, Eastern Cape. Joshua Oupa Gqozo (ɔupʼa ɡǃʱɔz̤ɔ ( 10 March 1952 -) was the military ruler of the former Homeland of Ciskei in South Africa Kgosi Lucas Manyane Mangope is the former leader of the Bantustan of Bophuthatswana. Inkosi Mangosuthu ("Gatsha" Ashpenaz Nathan Buthelezi (born August 27, 1928) is a South African Zulu leader and leader of the
Apartheid placed great emphasis on "self-determination" and "cultural autonomy" for different ethnic groups. For this reason, "mother-tongue" education was strongly emphasised. Thus, in addition to pouring resources into developing Afrikaans educational material, resources were also poured into developing school textbooks in black languages like Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Tswana, and Pedi. As a result, one of the consequences of apartheid was a South African population literate in black-African languages (a rare thing in Africa where schooling is normally carried out in colonial languages like English and French).
During the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the government implemented a policy of 'resettlement', to force people to move to their designated "group areas". Some argue that over three and a half million people were forced to resettle during this period. These removals included people re-located due to slum clearance programmes, labour tenants on white-owned farms, the inhabitants of the so-called 'black spots', areas of black-owned land surrounded by white farms, the families of workers living in townships close to the homelands, and 'surplus people' from urban areas, including thousands of people from the Western Cape (which was declared a 'Coloured Labour Preference Area') who were moved to the Transkei and Ciskei homelands. The Transkei —which means "the area beyond the Kei River"—is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. It consisted of two separate blocks of land covering 2970 square miles (7700 km³ almost entirely The best-publicised forced removals of the 1950s occurred in Johannesburg, when 60,000 people were moved to the new township of Soweto, an acronym for South Western Townships. Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. 
Until 1955 Sophiatown had been one of the few urban areas where blacks were allowed to own land, and was slowly developing into a multiracial slum. Sophiatown (pronounced with a long stressed i) (also known as Sof'town or Kofifi) is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa As industry in Johannesburg grew, Sophiatown became the home of a rapidly expanding black workforce, as it was convenient and close to town. It could also boast the only swimming pool for black children in Johannesburg.  However, one of the oldest black settlements in Johannesburg and held an almost symbolic importance for the 50,000 blacks it contained, both in terms of its sheer vibrancy and its unique culture. Despite a vigorous ANC protest campaign and worldwide publicity, the removal of Sophiatown began on 9 February 1955 under the Western Areas Removal Scheme. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) In the early hours, heavily armed police entered Sophiatown to force residents out of their homes and load their belongings onto government trucks. The residents were taken to a large tract of land, thirteen miles from the city centre, known as Meadowlands (that the government had purchased in 1953). Meadowlands is a suburb of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Meadowlands became part of a new planned black city called Soweto. The Sophiatown slum was destroyed by bulldozers, and a new white suburb named Triomf (Triumph) was built in its place. This pattern of forced removal and destruction was to repeat itself over the next few years, and was not limited to people of African descent. Forced removals from areas like Cato Manor (Mkhumbane) in Durban, and District Six in Cape Town, where 55,000 coloured and Indian people were forced to move to new townships on the Cape Flats, were carried out under the Group Areas Act of 1950. Durban (eThekwini is the third most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the EThekwini metropolitan municipality. District Six ( Afrikaans Distrik Ses) is the name of a former inner-city residential area in Cape Town, South Africa. Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the The Group Areas Act of 1950 (Act No 41 of 1950 was an Act of parliament created under the Apartheid Government of South Africa that assigned Racial Ultimately, nearly 600,000 coloured, Indian and Chinese people were moved in terms of the Group Areas Act. Some 40,000 white people were also forced to move when land was transferred from "white South Africa" into the black homelands. Forced removals continue in post-apartheid South Africa and are being vigorously contested by, amongst others, the shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondolo. Abahlali baseMjondolo is a popular entirely non-professionalized and democratic mass movement of Shack dwellers and other poor people in South Africa.
The National Party passed a string of legislation which became known as petty apartheid. The first of these was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 55 of 1949, prohibiting marriage between white people and people of other races. The Immorality Amendment Act 21 of 1950 (as amended in 1957 by Act 23) forbade "unlawful racial intercourse" and "any immoral or indecent act" between a white person and an African, Indian or coloured person.
Blacks were not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in those areas designated as "white South Africa" without a permit. They were supposed to move to the black "homelands" and set up businesses and practices there. Transport and civil facilities were segregated. Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones. Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated. Because of the smaller numbers of white patients and the fact that white doctors preferred to work in "white" hospitals, conditions in white hospitals were much better than those in often overcrowded black hospitals.  Blacks were excluded from living or working in white areas, unless they had a pass — nicknamed the dompas ("dumb pass" in Afrikaans). Only blacks with "Section 10" rights (those who had migrated to the cities before World War II) were excluded from this provision. A pass was issued only to a black person with approved work. Spouses and children had to be left behind in black homelands. A pass was issued for one magisterial district (usually one town) confining the holder to that area only. Being without a valid pass made a person subject to arrest and trial for being an illegal migrant. This was often followed by deportation to the person's homeland and prosecution of the employer (for employing an illegal migrant). A bantustan or more commonly black african homeland or simply homeland, was territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South-West Police vans patrolled the "white" areas to round up "illegal" blacks found there without passes. Black people were not allowed to employ white people in "white South Africa".
Although trade unions for black and "coloured" (mixed race) workers had existed since the early 20th century, it was not until the 1980s reforms that a mass black trade union movement developed. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense In the 1970s each black child's education within the Bantu Education system (the black education system within "white South Africa") cost the state only a tenth of each white child's. Higher education was provided in separate universities and colleges after 1959. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges Eight black universities were created in the homelands; an Indian university built in Durban and a coloured university built in Cape Town. In addition, each black homeland controlled its own separate education, health and police system. Blacks were not allowed to buy hard liquor. They were able only to buy state-produced poor quality beer (although this was relaxed later). Public beaches were racially segregated. Public swimming pools, some pedestrian bridges, drive-in cinema parking spaces, graveyards, parks, and public toilets were segregated. Cinemas and theatres in "white areas" were not allowed to admit blacks. There were practically no cinemas in black areas. Most restaurants and hotels in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks except as staff. Black Africans were prohibited from attending "white" churches under the Churches Native Laws Amendment Act of 1957. This was, however, never rigidly enforced, and churches were one of the few places races could mix without the interference of the law. Blacks earning 360 rand a year, 30 rand a month, or more had to pay taxes while the white threshold was more than twice as high, at 750 rand a year, 62. The rand ( sign: R; code: ZAR) is the Currency of South Africa. 5 rand per month. On the other hand, the taxation rate for whites was considerably higher than that for blacks.
Blacks could never acquire land in white areas. In the homelands, much of the land belonged to a 'tribe', where the local chieftain would decide how the land had to be utilized. This resulted in white people owning almost all the industrial and agricultural lands and much of the prized residential land. Most blacks were stripped of their South African citizenship when the "homelands" became "independent". Thus, they were no longer able to apply for South African passports. Eligibility requirements for a passport had been difficult for blacks to meet, the government contending that a passport was a privilege, not a right. As such, the government did not grant many passports to blacks. Apartheid pervaded South African culture, as well as the law. This was reinforced in many media, and the lack of opportunities for the races to mix in a social setting entrenched social distance between people.
The population was classified into four groups: Black, White, Indian, and Coloured. In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense (These terms are capitalized to denote their legal definitions in South African law). The Coloured group included people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay ancestry, especially in the Western Cape). Bantu may refer to Bantu expansion, a series of migrations of Bantu speakers Bantu languages Bantu people Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major Ethnic groups of Southern Africa. The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. The concept of a Malay race ( Bangsa Melayu) was proposed by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840 The Western Cape is a province in the south west of South Africa. The Apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria at the time that the Population Registration Act was implemented to determine who was Coloured. Minor officials would administer tests to determine if someone should be categorised either Coloured or Black, or if another person should be categorised either Coloured or White. Different members of the same family found themselves in different race groups. Further tests determined membership of the various sub-racial groups of the Coloureds. Many of those who formerly belonged to this racial group are opposed to the continuing use of the term "coloured" in the post-apartheid era, though the term no longer signifies any legal meaning. The expressions 'so-called Coloured' (Afrikaans sogenaamde Kleurlinge) and 'brown people' (bruin mense) acquired a wide usage in the 1980s. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in
Discriminated against by apartheid, Coloureds were as a matter of state policy forced to live in separate townships — in some cases leaving homes their families had occupied for generations — and received an inferior education, though better than that provided to Black South Africans. In South Africa, the term Township usually refers to the (often underdeveloped urban living areas that under Apartheid, were reserved for non-whites They played an important role in the struggle against apartheid: for example the African Political Organisation established in 1902 had an exclusively coloured membership.
Voting rights were denied to Coloureds in the same way that they were denied to blacks from 1950 to 1983. In the South African Namibian Zambian Botswanan and Zimbabwean context the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense However, in 1977 the NP caucus approved proposals to bring coloured and Indians into central government. In 1982, final constitutional proposals produced a referendum among white voters, and the Tricameral Parliament was approved. The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African Parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994. The Constitution was reformed the following year to allow the Coloured and Asian minorities participation in separate Houses in a Tricameral Parliament, and Botha became the first Executive State President. The theory was that the Coloured minority could be granted voting rights, but the Black majority were to become citizens of independent homelands. These separate arrangements continued until the abolition of apartheid. The Tricameral reforms led to the formation of the (anti-apartheid) UDF as a vehicle to try and prevent the co-option of coloureds and Indians into an alliance with white South Africans. The subsequent battles between the UDF and the NP government from 1983 to 1989 were to become the most intense period of struggle between left-wing and right-wing South Africans.
Colonialism and apartheid had a major impact on women since they suffered both racial and gender discrimination. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism Oppression against African women was different from discrimination against men. Indeed, they had very few or no legal rights, no access to education and no right to own property.  Jobs were often hard to find but many African women worked as agricultural or domestic workers though wages were extremely low if not non-existent. Children suffered from diseases caused by malnutrition and sanitary problems, and mortality rates were therefore high. The controlled movement of African workers within the country through the Natives Urban Areas Act of 1923 and the pass-laws, separated family members from one another as men usually worked in urban centers, while women were forced to stay in rural areas. Marriage law and births were also controlled by the government and the pro-apartheid Dutch Reformed Church, who tried to restrict African birth rates. Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK was one of many branches of churches coming out of the Protestant Reformation in Europe
Defining its East Asian population, which is a minority in South Africa but who do not physically appear to belong any of the four designated groups, was a constant dilemma for the apartheid government. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Chinese South Africans who were descendants of migrant workers who came to work in the gold mines around Johannesburg in the late 19th century, were classified as "Other Asian" and hence "non-white", whereas immigrants from Republic of China (Taiwan), South Korea and Japan, with which South Africa maintained diplomatic relations, were considered "honorary whites", thus granted the same privileges as normal whites. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa It should be noted that "Non-Whites" were sometimes granted an 'honorary white' status as well, based on the government's belief that they were "civilised" and possessed Western values. This was frequently the case with African-Americans.
Internal resistance to the apartheid system in South Africa came from several sectors of society and saw the creation of organisations dedicated variously to peaceful protests, passive resistance and armed insurrection. Internal resistance to the apartheid system in South Africa came from several sectors of society and saw the creation of organisations dedicated variously to peaceful protests
In 1949 the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC) took control of the organisation and started advocating for a radical black nationalist programme that combined the tenants of Africanism with those of Marxism. The African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL is the youth wing of the African National Congress. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The new young leaders proposed that white authority could only be overthrown through mass campaigns. In 1950 that philosophy saw the launch of the Programme of Action, a series of strikes, boycotts and civil disobedience actions that led to occasionally violent clashes with the authorities.
In 1959 a group of disenchanted ANC members formed the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), which organised a demonstration against pass books on 21 March 1960. The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that One of those protests was held in the township of Sharpeville, where 69 people were killed in the Sharpeville uprising. The Sharpeville Massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police began shooting on a crowd
The majority of whites supported apartheid. However there were some who opposed apartheid, such as Helen Suzman, Colin Eglin and Harry Schwarz. Helen Suzman, born Helen Gavronsky ( 7 November, 1917 in Germiston Gauteng, South Africa) was an anti- Apartheid Colin Wells Eglin is a South African politician He was born at Sea Point Cape Town South Africa on 14 April, 1925. Harry Heinz Schwarz (born May 13, 1924) is a former South African anti- Apartheid politician diplomat and jurist
In the wake of the Sharpeville incident the government declared a state of emergency, More than 18 000 people were arrested, including leaders of the ANC and PAC, and both organisations were banned. The resistance went underground, with some leaders in exile abroad and others engaged in campaigns of domestic sabotage and terrorism.
In the 1970s the Black Consciousness Movement was created by tertiary students influenced by the American Black Power movement. BC endorsed black pride and African customs and did much to alter the feelings of inadequacy instilled among black people by the apartheid system. The leader of the movement, Steve Biko, was taken into custody on 18 August 1978 and died in detention. Stephen Bantu Biko December 1946 &ndash 12 September 1977 was a noted anti-[[apartheid] activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early
In 1976 secondary students in Soweto protested against forced tuition in Afrikaans. Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. On June 16, in what was meant to be a peaceful protest, 23 people were killed. In the following years several student organisations were formed with the goal of protesting against apartheid, and these organisations were central to urban school boycotts in 1980 and 1983 as well as rural boycotts in 1985 and 1986.
In parallel to student protests, labour unions started protest action in 1973 and 1974. After 1976 unions and workers are considered to have played an important role in the struggle against apartheid, filling the gap left by the banning of political parties. In 1979 black trade unions were legalised and could engage in collective bargaining, although strikes were still illegal.
At roughly the same time churches and church groups also emerged as pivotal points of resistance. Church leaders were not immune to prosecution, and certain faith-based organisations were banned, but the clergy generally had more freedom to criticise the government than militant groups did.
Among the white population, some 20 percent of which did not support apartheid, resistance was largely centred in the South African Communist Party and women's organisation the Black Sash. South African Communist Party ( SACP) is a Political party in South Africa. The Black Sash was a non-violent white women's resistance organization founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair Women were also notable in their involvement in trade union organisations and banned political parties.
to Apartheid in South Africa
|Instruments and legislation|
|United Nations Security Council Resolutions|
South Africa's policies were subject to international scrutiny in 1960, when British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan criticised them during his celebrated Wind of Change speech in Cape Town. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant The Academic boycotts of South Africa were a series of Boycotts of South African academic institutions and scholars initiated in the 1960s at the request of the Constructive engagement was the name given to the policy of the Reagan Administration towards the Apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1980s and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the Racist policies of Apartheid The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. The Sullivan Principles are the names of two corporate codes of conduct, developed by the African-American preacher Rev The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act () sponsored by US Representative Ron Dellums in 1972 was the first United States anti-apartheid legislation Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africa's United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the Racist policies of Apartheid Artists United Against Apartheid was a 1985 protest group founded by activist and performer Steven Van Zandt to protest Apartheid in South Africa Halt All Racist Tours was a group set up in New Zealand in 1969 to protest Rugby union tours to and from Apartheid South Africa. The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant The World Conference against Racism ( WCAR) are international events organized by the UNESCO in order to struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours United Nations Security Council Resolution 181, adopted on August 7, 1963, was concerned with an arms build-up by the Republic of South United Nations Security Council Resolution 191, adopted on June 18, 1964, after reiterating its previous requests of the Republic of South United Nations Security Council Resolution 282, adopted on July 23, 1970, concerned by violations of the arms embargo passed against South United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, passed on 4 November 1977 imposed a mandatory Arms embargo against Apartheid South Africa. Adopted on September 29, 1978, this resolution put forward proposals for a cease-fire and UN-supervised elections in South Africa controlled South-West Africa United Nations Security Council Resolution 591 strengthened the mandatory Arms embargo against Apartheid South Africa imposed by United Nations Security The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21 March. " Biko " is a Protest song by British rock musician Peter Gabriel. The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute was a global broadcast event staged on June 11, 1988 at the Wembley Stadium, London The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the Weeks later, tensions came to a head in the Sharpeville Massacre, resulting in more international condemnation. The Sharpeville Massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police began shooting on a crowd Soon thereafter, Verwoerd announced a referendum on whether the country should sever links with the British monarchy and become a republic instead. On October 5, 1960, South Africa 's white minority government held a Referendum on whether or not the then Union should sever its links TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Verwoerd lowered the voting age for whites to eighteen and included whites in South West Africa on the voter's roll. South-West Africa (Afrikaans Suidwes-Afrika; German Südwestafrika) was the name of what is today the Republic of Namibia. The referendum on 5 October that year asked whites, "Do you support a republic for the Union?", and 52 per cent voted "Yes". Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople As a consequence of this change of status, South Africa needed to reapply for continued membership of the Commonwealth, with which it had privileged trade links. Even though India became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1947 it became clear that African and Asian member states would oppose South Africa due to its apartheid policies. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations with a Republican form of government As a result, South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth on 31 May 1961, the day that the Republic came into existence. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
At the first UN gathering in 1946, South Africa was placed on the agenda. The primary subject in question was the handling of South African Indians, a great cause of divergence between South Africa and India. In 1952, apartheid was again discussed in the aftermath of the Defiance Campaign, and the UN set up a task team to keep watch on the progress of apartheid and the racial state of affairs in South Africa. Although South Africa's racial policies were a cause for concern, most countries in the UN concurred that this was a domestic affair, which fell outside the UN's jurisdiction.
In April 1960, the UN's conservative stance on apartheid changed following the Sharpeville massacre, and the Security Council for the first time agreed on concerted action against the apartheid regime, demanding an end to racial separation and discrimination. Instead, the South African government began further suppression, banning the ANC and PAC. In 1961, UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld stopped over in South Africa and subsequently stated that he had been unable to reach agreement with Prime Minister Verwoerd. Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( (29 July 1905 &ndash 18 September 1961 was a Swedish Diplomat, Christian mystic, and the second Secretary-General
On 6 November 1962, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1761, condemning South African apartheid policies. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the Racist policies of Apartheid In 1966, the UN held the first of many colloquiums on apartheid. The General Assembly announced 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the Sharpeville massacre. In 1971, the General Assembly formally denounced the institution of homelands, and a motion was passed in 1974 to expel South Africa from the UN, but this was vetoed by France, Britain and the United States of America, all key trade associates of South Africa.
On 7 August 1963 the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 181 calling for a voluntary arms embargo against South Africa, and in the same year, a Special Committee Against Apartheid was established to encourage and oversee plans of action against the regime. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. United Nations Security Council Resolution 181, adopted on August 7, 1963, was concerned with an arms build-up by the Republic of South An arms embargo is an Embargo that applies to weaponry It may also include "dual use" items From 1964, the US and Britain discontinued their arms trade with South Africa. In 1977, the voluntary UN arms embargo became mandatory with the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 418. United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, passed on 4 November 1977 imposed a mandatory Arms embargo against Apartheid South Africa.
Economic sanctions against South Africa were also frequently debated as an effective way of putting pressure on the apartheid government. In 1962, the UN General Assembly requested that its members sever political, fiscal and transportation ties with South Africa. In 1968, it proposed ending all cultural, educational and sporting connections as well. Economic sanctions, however, were not made mandatory, because of opposition from South Africa's main trading partners.
In 1978 and 1983 the United Nations condemned South Africa at the World Conference Against Racism, and a significant divestment movement started, pressuring investors to disinvest from South African companies or companies that did business with South Africa. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The World Conference against Racism ( WCAR) are international events organized by the UNESCO in order to struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant
After much debate, by the late 1980s the United States, the United Kingdom, and 23 other nations had passed laws placing various trade sanctions on South Africa. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located  A divestment movement in many countries was similarly widespread, with individual cities and provinces around the world implementing various laws and local regulations forbidding registered corporations under their jurisdiction from doing business with South African firms, factories, or banks. In Finance and Economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of Asset for either financial goals or ethical objectives 
The Organisation for African Unity (OAU) was created in 1963. The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. Its primary objectives were to eradicate colonialism and improve social, political and economic situations in Africa. It censured apartheid and demanded sanctions against South Africa. African states agreed to aid the liberation movements in their fight against apartheid. In 1969, fourteen nations from Central and East Africa gathered in Lusaka, Zambia, and formulated the 'Lusaka Manifesto', which was signed on 13 April by all of the countries in attendance except Malawi. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. It is located in the southern part of the central plateau of the country at an elevation The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Events 1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. This manifesto was later taken on by both the OAU and the United Nations.
The Lusaka Manifesto summarised the political situations of self-governing African countries, condemning racism and inequity, and calling for black majority rule in all African nations. It did not rebuff South Africa entirely, though, adopting an appeasing manner towards the apartheid government, and even recognising its autonomy. Although African leaders supported the emancipation of black South Africans, they preferred this to be attained through peaceful means. The manifesto's signatories did not support violent opposition to apartheid, because, for one thing, they could ill afford it and, for another, they dreaded retaliation.
South Africa's negative response to the Lusaka Manifesto and rejection of a change to her policies brought about another OAU announcement in 1971. The Mogadishu Declaration declared that South Africa's rebuffing of negotiations meant that her black people could only be freed through military means, and that no African state should converse with the apartheid government. Henceforth, it would be up to South Africa to keep contact with other African states.
In 1966, BJ Vorster was made South African Prime Minister. He was not prepared to dismantle apartheid, but he did try to redress South Africa's isolation and the purported 'laager' mentality. He wanted to revitalise the country's global reputation and overseas dealings, even those with black-ruled nations in Africa. This he called his "Outward-Looking" policy: South Africa would look outwards, towards the global neighbourhood, rather than adopting a siege mentality and estranging it. The buzzwords for his strategy were "dialogue" and "détente", signifying arbitration and reduction of tension.
In 1967, Vorster proffered technological and financial aid gratis to any African state prepared to receive it, asserting that absolutely no political strings were attached. He gave great attention to financial advantages, aware of the fact that many African states were in material need and would require financial aid in spite of their rebuffing of South Africa's racial principles. Malawi and Lesotho were the first countries to enter discussions with the NP government. The Republic of Malawi (məˈlɑːwi or; formerly Nyasaland) is in southern Africa. Lesotho (lɪˈsuːtuː) officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is a Landlocked country and Enclave — entirely surrounded by the Republic of South Angola and Mozambique soon followed. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa
One of the first steps to take in initiating dealings was to convene with the heads of these African countries. Here Vorster worked decidedly contrary to Verwoerd's policies. Where Verwoerd had declined to get together and engage in dialogue with leaders such as Abubakar Tafawa Balewa of Nigeria in 1962 and Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia in 1964, Vorster, in 1966, met with the heads of the states of Lesotho, Swaziland and Botswana. Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991 The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. There was still mutual suspicion, however, particularly after Vorster's denunciation of the Lusaka Manifesto in 1969. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland remained outspoken critics of apartheid, but they depended on South Africa's economic aid. This included pecuniary loans and the fact that many labourers from these states worked the South African mines.
Malawi was the first country not on South African borders to accept South African aid. It identified the monetary benefits of such a deal, for there were also many Malawians who were working in South African mines. In 1967, the two states set out their political and economic relations, and, in 1969, Malawi became the only country at the assembly which did not sign the Lusaka Manifesto. In 1970, Malawian president Hastings Banda made his first and most successful official stopover in South Africa. Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896? – 25 November 1997) was the leader of Malawi, from 1961 to 1994
Associations with Mozambique followed suit and were sustained after that country won its sovereignty in 1975. Angola was also granted South African loans. Other countries which formed relationships with South Africa were Liberia, the Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mauritius, Gabon, Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Ghana and the Central African Republic. Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République Gabon (gəˈbɒn or /gaˈbõ/ in French) is a country in west central Africa sharing borders with Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Republic The Republic of Zaire (pronunciation; République du Zaïre was the name of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo between October 27, 1971 The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Central Africa|Central African FederationThe Central African Republic ( CAR) République Centrafricaine ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn or Centrafrique) is a Landlocked These African states slammed apartheid (more than ever after South Africa's denunciation of the Lusaka Manifesto), but fiscal reliance on South Africa, together with fear of her armed potency, resulted in their forming the aforementioned ties.
South Africa's isolation in sport began in the mid 1950s and increased throughout the 1960s. Apartheid forbade multiracial sport, which meant that overseas teams, by virtue of their having players of diverse races, could not play in South Africa. In 1956, the International Table Tennis Federation severed its ties with the all-white South African Table Tennis Union, preferring the non-racial South African Table Tennis Board. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF is the governing body for all national Table tennis associations The apartheid government came back by confiscating the passports of the Board's players so that they were unable to attend international games.
In 1959, the non-racial South African Sports Association (SASA) was formed to secure the rights of all players on the global field. After meeting with no success in its endeavours to attain credit by collaborating with white establishments, SASA approached the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1962, calling for South Africa's expulsion from the Olympic Games. The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games The IOC sent South Africa a caution to the effect that, if there were no changes, she would be barred from the 1964 Olympic Games. The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan The changes were initiated, and in January 1963, the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee (SANROC) was set up. The Anti-Apartheid Movement persisted in its campaign for South Africa's exclusion, and the IOC acceded in barring the country from the 1964 Games in Tokyo. The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan South Africa selected a multi-racial side for the next Games, and the IOC opted to incorporate her in the 1968 Games in Mexico. The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Mexico City Because of protests from AAMs and African nations, however, the IOC was forced to retract the invitation.
Foreign complaints about South Africa's bigoted sports brought more isolation. In 1960, Verwoerd barred a Maori rugby player from touring South Africa with the All Blacks, and the tour was cancelled. Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd ( Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 &ndash Cape Town, 6 September 1966 was Prime Minister of South Africa from This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short The All Blacks are New Zealand's national team in Rugby union, the country's National sport. New Zealand made a decision not to convey an authorised rugby team to South Africa again. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
B. J. Vorster took Verwoerd's place as PM in 1966 and declared that South Africa would no longer dictate to other countries what their teams should look like. Balthazar Johannes Vorster (13 December 1915 - 10 September 1983 better known as John Vorster ("FOUR-stir" served as the Prime Minister of South Africa Although this reopened the gate for sporting meets, it did not signal the end of South Africa's racist sporting policies. In 1968, Vorster went against his policy by refusing to permit Basil D'Oliveira, a Coloured South African-born cricketer, to join the English cricket team on its tour to South Africa. Basil Lewis D'Oliveira CBE (born 4 October 1931 is a retired Cricketer Born and raised in Cape Town, South Africa, he was classified as 'coloured' The term Cape Coloureds refers to the modern-day descendants of slave labourers imported into South Africa by Dutch settlers as well as to other groups Vorster said that the side had been chosen only to prove a point, and not on merit. After protests, however, "Dolly" was eventually included in the team. Protests against certain tours brought about the cancellation of a number of other visits, like that of an England rugby team in 1969/70.
In 1971, Vorster altered his policies even further by distinguishing multiracial from multinational sport. Multiracial sport, between teams with players of different races, remained outlawed; multinational sport, however, was now acceptable: international sides would not be subject to South Africa's racial stipulations.
Sporting bans were revoked in 1993, when conciliations for a democratic South Africa were well under way.
In the 1960s, the Anti-Apartheid Movements began to campaign for cultural boycotts of apartheid South Africa. Artists were requested not to present or let their works be hosted in South Africa. In 1963, 45 British writers put their signatures to an affirmation approving of the boycott, and, in 1964, American actor Marlon Brando called for a similar affirmation for films. Marlon Brando Jr (April 3 1924 – July 1 2004 was an Academy Award -winning American Actor, whose body of work spanned over half a century In 1965, the Writers' Guild of Great Britain called for a proscription on the sending of films to South Africa. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Writers' Guild of Great Britain, established in 1959, is a Over sixty American artists signed a statement against apartheid and against professional links with the state. The presentation of some South African plays in Britain and America was also vetoed. After the arrival of television in South Africa in 1975, the British Actors Union, Equity, boycotted the service, and no British programme concerning its associates could be sold to South Africa. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Equity (formerly British Actors' Equity Association) is the Actors Trade union in the United Kingdom Sporting and cultural boycotts did not have the same impact as economic sanctions, but they did much to lift consciousness amongst normal South Africans of the global condemnation of apartheid.
While international opposition to apartheid grew, the Nordic countries in particular provided both moral and financial support for the ANC. Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ( 30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, On 21 February 1986 – a week before he was murdered – Sweden's prime minister Olof Palme made the keynote address to the Swedish People's Parliament Against Apartheid held in Stockholm. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ( 30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician A keynote in Literature, Music or Public speaking is the principal underlying theme ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the In addressing the hundreds of anti-apartheid sympathizers as well as leaders and officials from the ANC and the Anti-Apartheid Movement such as Oliver Tambo, Palme declared:
Other Western countries adopted a more ambivalent position. In the 1980s, both the Reagan and Thatcher administrations in the USA and UK followed a 'constructive engagement' policy with the apartheid government, vetoing the imposition of UN economic sanctions on South Africa, justified by a belief in free trade and a vision of South Africa as a bastion against Marxist forces in Southern Africa. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Constructive engagement was the name given to the policy of the Reagan Administration towards the Apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1980s and Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Thatcher declared the ANC a terrorist organisation,, and in 1987 her spokesman, Bernard Ingham, famously said that anyone who believed that the ANC would ever form the government of South Africa was "living in cloud cuckoo land" and at the Conservative Party Conference that year members of the Young Conservatives wore "Hang Nelson Mandela" teeshirts. Sir Bernard Ingham (born 21 June 1932) is a journalist best known as Margaret Thatcher 's Chief Press Secretary whilst she was Prime Minister The Young Conservatives was the youth wing of the United Kingdom 's Conservative Party until the organisation was replaced in 1998 by Conservative Future Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative 
By the late 1980s, however, with the tide of the Cold War turning and no sign of a political resolution in South Africa, Western patience with the apartheid government began to run out. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the By 1989, a bipartisan Republican/Democratic initiative in the US favoured economic sanctions (realized as the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act), the release of Nelson Mandela and a negotiated settlement involving the ANC. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act () sponsored by US Representative Ron Dellums in 1972 was the first United States anti-apartheid legislation Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Thatcher too began to take a similar line, but insisted on the suspension of the ANC's armed struggle. 
Britain's significant economic involvement in South Africa may have provided some leverage with the South African government, with both the UK and the US applying pressure on the government, and pushing for negotiations. In Negotiation, leverage is a measure of which side at any given moment has a greater ability to influence the other side However, neither Britain nor the US were willing to apply economic pressure upon their multinational interests in South Africa, such as the mining company Anglo American. Anglo American PLC () is a world-wide group of companies, originally founded in South Africa as a Mining enterprise but now extending into other areas Although a high-profile compensation claim against these companies was thrown out of court in 2004, the US Supreme Court in May 2008 upheld an appeal court ruling allowing another lawsuit that seeks damages of more than $400 billion from major international companies which are accused of aiding South Africa's apartheid system. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 
By 1966, SWAPO launched guerilla raids from neighbouring countries against South Africa's occupation of South-West Africa/Namibia. The South African Border War, also known as the Namibian War of Independence, refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West The Angolan Civil War began in Angola after the end of the war for independence from Portugal in 1975 Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. The South West Africa People's Organization ( SWAPO) is a Political party and former Liberation movement in Namibia. South-West Africa (Afrikaans Suidwes-Afrika; German Südwestafrika) was the name of what is today the Republic of Namibia. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast Initially South Africa fought a counter-insurgency war against SWAPO. See also Insurgency In the context of an occupation or a Civil war, counter-insurgency (abbreviated COIN is a military term for the combat This conflict deepened after Angola gained its independence in 1975 under the Communist leadership of the MPLA when South Africa and the United States sided with the Angolan rival UNITA party. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola - Partido do Trabalho is an Angolan political party The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola ( União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest Political party in Angola. By the end of the 1970s, Cuba had joined the fray, in one of several late Cold War flashpoints throughout Southern Africa. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics.  The Angolan civil war developed into a conventional war with South Africa and UNITA on one side against the Angolan MPLA government, the Cubans, the Soviets and SWAPO on the other. The Angolan Civil War began in Angola after the end of the war for independence from Portugal in 1975
By 1980, as international opinion turned decisively against the apartheid regime, the government and much of the white population increasingly looked upon the country as a bastion besieged by communism and radical black nationalists. A bastion is a structure projecting outward from the main enclosure of a Fortification, situated in both corners of a straight wall (termed curtain with the shape Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Considerable effort was put into circumventing sanctions, and the government even went so far as to develop nuclear weapons, allegedly with the help of Israel. International sanctions are actions taken by Countries against others for political reasons either Unilaterally or Multilaterally. During the 1970s and 1980s South Africa pursued research into nuclear, biological, and Chemical weapons Six nuclear weapons were assembled. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
The term "front-line states" referred to countries in Southern Africa geographically near South Africa. Front Line States (FLS was an organization established to achieve black majority rule in South Africa. Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics. Although these front-line states were all opposed to apartheid, many were economically dependent on South Africa. In 1980, they formed the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC), the aim of which was to promote economic development in the region and hence reduce dependence on South Africa. The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC which was the forerunner of the Southern African Development Community (SADC was formed in Lusaka Furthermore, many SADCC members also allowed the exiled ANC and PAC to establish bases in their countries. The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that
Other African countries also contributed to the fall of apartheid. In 1978, Nigeria boycotted the Commonwealth Games because New Zealand's sporting contacts with the South African government were not considered to be in accordance with the 1977 Gleneagles Agreement. The 1978 Commonwealth Games were held in Edmonton Alberta, Canada from 3 August-12 1978 Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. Nigeria also led the 32-nation boycott of the 1986 Commonwealth Games because of British prime minister Margaret Thatcher's ambivalent attitude towards sporting links with South Africa, significantly affecting the quality and profitability of the Games and thus thrusting apartheid into the international spotlight. The 1986 Commonwealth Games were held in Edinburgh, Scotland for the second time Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 
South Africa had a policy of attacking terrorist bases in neighbouring countries. These attacks were mainly aimed at ANC, PAC and SWAPO guerrilla-bases and safe houses in retaliation for acts of terror - like bomb explosions, massacres and guerrilla actions (like sabotage) by ANC, PAC and Swapo guerrillas in South Africa and Namibia. The country also aided organisations in surrounding countries who were actively combatting the spread of communism in Southern Africa. The results of these policies included:
In 1984, Mozambican president Samora Machel signed the Nkomati Accord with South Africa's president P.W. Botha, in an attempt to rebuild Mozambique's economy. Samora Moisés Machel ( September 29, 1933 &ndash October 19, 1986) was a Mozambican military commander revolutionary socialist The Nkomati Accord was a nonagression treaty signed on 16 March, 1984 between the Mozambican government and the apartheid government of Pieter Willem Botha (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006 commonly known as "P South Africa agreed to cease supporting anti-government forces, while the MK was prohibited from operating in Mozambique. This was an awful setback for the ANC.
In 1986 President Machel himself was killed in an air crash in mountainous terrain in South Africa near the Mozambican border after returning from a meeting in Zambia. The Mozambican presidential Tupolev Tu-134A aircraft crashed just inside South African territory on October 19, 1986. The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. South Africa was accused of continuing its aid to RENAMO and having caused the accident by using a false radio navigation beacon to lure the aircraft into crashing. Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of Radio frequencies to determining a position on the Earth. This conspiracy theory was never proven and is still a subject of some controversy, despite the South African Margo Commission finding that the crash was an accident. A conspiracy theory attributes the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually Political, Social or Historical events or the concealment The Mozambican presidential Tupolev Tu-134A aircraft crashed just inside South African territory on October 19, 1986. A Soviet delegation that did not participate in the investigation issued a minority report implicating South Africa.
The National Party government implemented, alongside apartheid, a program of social conservatism. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Pornography, gambling and other such vices were banned. At the same time, it instituted the International Freedom Foundation. The International Freedom Foundation (IFF was a self-described Anti-communist group established in Washington D Printed or filmed pornography (of even the mildest variety) was banned and its possession was punishable by incarceration.
Television was not introduced until 1975 because it was viewed as dangerous by right-wingers. Despite being the most economically advanced country on the continent South Africa was among the last countries in Africa to introduce Television broadcasting to Television was also run on apartheid lines -- TV1 broadcast in Afrikaans and English (and was geared to a white audience); TV2 in Zulu and Xhosa (and geared to a black audience); TV3 in Sotho, Tswana and Pedi (and geared to a black audience); and TV4 showed mostly African-American programmes (for an urban-black audience). All TV channels were government-owned and acted as propaganda agents for apartheid.
Sunday was considered holy. Cinemas, shops selling alcohol and most other businesses were forbidden from operating on Sundays. Abortion and sex education were also restricted; abortion was legal only in cases of rape or if the mother's life was threatened. An Sex education is a broad term used to describe Education about human sexual anatomy, Sexual reproduction, Sexual intercourse, Reproductive
During the 1980s the government, led by P. W. Botha, became increasingly preoccupied with security. On the advice of American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, Botha's government set up a powerful state security apparatus to "protect" the state against an anticipated upsurge in political violence that the reforms were expected to trigger. Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is an American political scientist who gained prominence through his " Clash of Civilizations The 1980s became a period of considerable political unrest, with the government becoming increasingly dominated by Botha's circle of generals and police chiefs (known as securocrats), who managed the various States of Emergencies.
Botha's years in power were marked also by numerous military interventions in the states bordering South Africa, as well as an extensive military and political campaign to eliminate SWAPO in Namibia. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast Within South Africa, meanwhile, vigorous police action and strict enforcement of security legislation resulted in hundreds of arrests and bans, and an effective end to the ANC's sabotage campaign.
The government punished political offenders brutally. Between 1982 and 1983, 40,000 people were subjected to whipping as a form of punishment. The vast majority had committed political offences and were lashed ten times for their trouble. If convicted of treason, a person could be hanged, and the government executed numerous political offenders in this way.
During the last years of apartheid rule in South Africa, the country was more or less in a constant state of emergency. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or order government agencies
Increasing civil unrest and township violence led to the government declaring a State of Emergency on 20 July 1985, giving it the power to deal with resistance to apartheid. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) More human rights were violated during this period than ever before. It became a criminal offence to threaten someone verbally or possess documents that the government perceived to be threatening. It was illegal to advise anyone to stay away from work or oppose the government. It was illegal, too, to disclose the name of anyone arrested under the State of Emergency until the government saw fit to release that name. People could face up to ten years' imprisonment for these offences. However, although the government increased its repressive measures, it was not enough to secure a lasting position in power.
Then-President P.W. Botha declared the State of Emergency in 36 magisterial districts. Pieter Willem Botha (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006 commonly known as "P Areas affected were the Eastern Cape, and the PWV region ("Pretoria, Witwatersrand, Vereeniging"). The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho. The PWV Megalopolis ( Pretoria - Witwatersrand - Vereeniging) is the term referring to the contiguous urban centres lying almost linearly in the South Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Witwatersrand is a low sedimentary range of hills at an elevation of 1700-1800 metres above sea-level which runs in an east-west direction through Gauteng in Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, with a population of more than 350000 Three months later the Western Cape was included as well. The Western Cape is a province in the south west of South Africa. During this state of emergency about 2,436 people were detained under the Internal Security Act. This act gave police and the military sweeping powers. The government could implement curfews controlling the movement of people. The president could rule by decree without referring to the constitution or to parliament.
Four days before the ten-year commemoration of the Soweto uprising, another state of emergency was declared on 12 June 1986 to cover the whole country. The Soweto uprising or Soweto Riots were a series of clashes in Soweto, South Africa on June 16 1976 between black youths and the South African Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) The government amended the Public Security Act, expanding its powers to include the right to declare certain places "unrest areas". This allowed the state to employ extraordinary measures to crush protests in these areas. Television cameras were banned from entering "unrest areas". The state broadcaster, the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) provided propaganda in support of the government. SABC redirects here as this is the most common use of the abbreviation in English This version of reality was challenged by a range of pro-ANC alternative publications.
In 1989, with the State of Emergency extended to a fourth year, Prime Minister Botha met Mandela and agreed to work for a peaceful solution to the conflict in the country. Talks commenced with the ANC, prominent business leaders, the Commonwealth and the Eminent Persons Group.
The state of emergency continued until 1990, when F.W. de Klerk became the State President, and lifted the 30-year ban on leading anti-apartheid groups the African National Congress, the smaller Pan Africanist Congress and the South African Communist Party. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (once known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC was a South African liberation movement that South African Communist Party ( SACP) is a Political party in South Africa. He also made his first public commitment to release jailed ANC leader Nelson Mandela, returned to press freedom and suspend the death penalty. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
Serious political violence was a prominent feature of South Africa from 1985 to 1995. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 There was virtually a civil war between left-wing and right-wing South Africans. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state From 1985-1988 the P. W. Botha government tried to crush left-wing organizations. For three years police and soldiers patrolled South African towns. Thousands of people were detained. Deaths mounted on both sides. Many of those detained by the government were interrogated and tortured; while anti-government activists used the "necklace method" (burning people alive) to kill black people suspected of supporting apartheid. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Necklacing (sometimes metonymically called Necklace) refers to the practice of Summary execution carried out by forcing a rubber Tire, filled The government banned television cameras from filming "unrest zones". A professional Video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread is a high-end device for recording electronic moving images (as opposed
The ANC and the PAC exploded bombs in restaurants, shopping centres and in front of government buildings such as magistrates courts, killing and maiming civilians and government officials in the process. A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely By 1985, it had become the ANC's aim to make black townships "ungovernable" (a term later replaced by "people's power") by forcing residents to stop paying for services. The townships duly became the focus areas in the apartheid struggle.
Throughout the 1980s, township people resisted apartheid by acting against the local issues that faced their particular communities. The focus of much of the resistance was against the community organisations and their leaders, who were seen to be supporting the government. The fact that they were also the ones responsible for rent collection merely added to their unpopularity (a common form of township protest was the rent boycott). The official governments of numerous townships were either overthrown or collapsed, to be replaced by unofficial organisations, led generally by the youth but welcoming workers and residents of all ages. People's courts were set up, and township residents accused of supporting the government were "put on trial" and dealt extreme (often lethal) punishments. Black town councillors and policemen, and their families, were attacked with petrol bombs and "necklaces", a fate suffered by many residents who resisted such tactics: they were brutally murdered by having a burning tire placed around their necks. This became known as necklacing. Necklacing (sometimes metonymically called Necklace) refers to the practice of Summary execution carried out by forcing a rubber Tire, filled
During the ANC-enforced consumer boycotts of manufacturers who were seen to be treating workers badly or supporting apartheid, residents had to eat soap powder and drink kerosene if they were alleged to have bought from white-owned shops. Kerosene, sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage is a Combustible Hydrocarbon liquid During this period an average of more than 100 people died as a result of black-on-black violence in the black townships every month with the figure increasing to as high as 259 per month between 1990 and 1993.
Much of this unrest took the ANC by surprise. Its calls to make the townships "ungovernable" were most certainly being heeded. Much of the unrest was directed at government, but a substantial quantity was between the residents themselves. Rivalries existed between members of Inkatha and the UDF-ANC faction, and many people died as a result of this violence. The Inkatha Freedom Party ( IFP) is a Political party in South Africa. It was later proven that the government manipulated the situation by supporting one side or the other when it suited it. Between 1984 and 1988, over 4,000 people died as a result of political violence.
In the early 1980s, PW Botha's National Party government recognised the need to reform apartheid. These reforms were driven by a combination of internal violence, international condemnation, changes within the National Party's constituency, and changing demographics — whites constituted only 16% of the total population and dropping, in comparison to 20% fifty years earlier. P. W. Botha told white South Africans to "adapt or die". In 1984 the Tricameral reforms were introduced. Ironically, these served only to trigger intensified political violence through the remainder of the eighties as more communities and political groups across the country joined the resistance movement. Between 1986 and 1988, all petty apartheid laws were repealed. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) In 1984, a new constitution was introduced, which gave parliamentary representation to coloureds and Indians (but not blacks, expected to remain citizens of the homelands). Of course, PW Botha's government stopped well short of reform that included releasing ANC, PAC and SACP political prisoners, with the Prime Minister often reiterating that he would negotiate only with those groups which rejected political violence.
The 1983 constitution was part of the NP government's larger plan to reform its policy of apartheid. The new constitution, in practice, hardly amounted to much of a reform: although it gave Indians and coloureds at least some form of say in government, it ensured that their political influence was decidedly limited. More importantly, though, the constitution did not grant black people, who made up the majority of the population, any such involvement.
Under the new constitution, parliament was divided into three distinctly racial houses - the House of Assembly (178 members) for whites, the House of Representatives (85 members) for coloureds and the House of Delegates (45 members) for Indians. Each House handled laws pertaining to their "own affairs". These included health, education and other community issues. All laws relating to "general affairs" were handled by a cabinet made up of representatives from all three houses - although, naturally, the whites had the majority. "General affairs" normally concerned matters such as defence, industry and taxation, but it was up to the State President, of course, to decide upon what was "general" and what was not.
The 1983 Tricameral reforms led to both a right- and a left-wing backlash, such that unrest and political violence dramatically increased, as South Africa became increasingly polarised and fragmented, the government's hold on the country steadily weakening. As a result of increased pressure both within and outside the country, the state was forced to take measures to bring an end to apartheid.
The right-wing backlash gave rise to a neo-Nazi paramilitary group, the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), led by Eugène Terre'Blanche. The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism, A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement or AWB, is a Political and Paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership Eugène Ney Terre'Blanche (born January 31, 1941) is a Boer - Afrikaner who founded the white supremacist Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging A left-wing United Democratic Front (UDF) was also formed at this time, as a direct response to the new constitution. The United Democratic Front ( UDF) was one of the most important anti- Apartheid organisations of the 1980s The UDF was a cleverly-crafted, broad-based democratic coalition of affiliated organisations, calling for everyone opposed to the Tricameral System to "join hands"; its aim was to coordinate resistance within the country. It brought together 400 anti-apartheid organisations, unifying the struggle and made it more effective. All told, the UDF had about 1,500,000 members.
The UDF called first for resistance against the 1983 constitution and later organised some more general resistance against the government. Most resistance between 1984 and '86 was UDF-organised, but the National Forum also had a role to play (albeit a comparatively insignificant one). Like the UDF, the National Forum comprised a number of organisations, but it was also different in two ways:
With so many political organisations banned at the time, the NF and UDF did important work in resistance to apartheid.
As the 1980s progressed, so more and more anti-apartheid organizations were formed and affiliated to the UDF. Led by the Reverend Allan Boesak and Albertina Sisulu, the UDF called for the government to abandon its reforms and instead abolish apartheid and eliminate the homelands completely. The Reverend is a style used as a Prefix to the names of many Christian Clergy and ministers It is correctly called a style rather Reverend Allan Aubrey Boesak ( 23 February 1945 - is a South African Dutch Reformed Church Cleric and was a Politician
Many Indians and coloureds also rejected the Tricameral system. Their lives were hardly any better, they still had to endure a battery of apartheid legislation, and they could do nothing with the limited power afforded them to make any real changes. The first Tricameral elections were largely boycotted, and there was widespread rioting.
Blacks saw the new constitution as an insult to both them and their struggle. Although they made up the majority of the population, they still found themselves, even after constitutional reforms, totally excluded from any real form of political representation. Rioting died down soon enough in the Indian and coloured areas, but it was sustained and far more violent in the black areas.
While these widespread protests were taking place, the ANC launched a series of violent attacks on the government, whose attempt with the new constitution to garner support among the non-white populace had failed miserably.
International pressure also increased as economic sanctions began to impact on the value of the rand, which all but collapsed. In 1985, the government declared a State of Emergency which was to stay in effect for the next five years. Television cameras were banned from the "unrest areas", and, by 1988, 30,000 people had been detained. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Media opposition to the system increased, supported by the growth of a pro-ANC alternative press within South Africa.
In 1987, the State of Emergency was extended for another two years, and white intellectuals met the ANC in Senegal for talks. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Meanwhile, about 200,000 members of the National Union of Mineworkers commenced the longest strike (three weeks) in South African history. Violence increased between the UDF and INKATHA supporters. 1988 saw the banning of the activities of the UDF and other anti-apartheid organisations.
International pressure on Botha's government continued to grow, with the US and UK now actively promoting the solution of a negotiated settlement with the black majority. Reforms gradually increased in number and magnitude. Early in 1989, however, Botha suffered a stroke, resigned on 13 February 1989 and was succeeded later that year by FW de Klerk. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 In his opening address to parliament in February 1990, in what has come to be known as the "unbanning speech", President De Klerk announced that he would repeal discriminatory laws and lift the ban on the ANC, the UDF, the PAC, and the SACP. South African Communist Party ( SACP) is a Political party in South Africa. The Land Act was brought to an end. Media restrictions were lifted, and De Klerk released political prisoners not guilty of common-law crimes. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment
A number of reasons have been put forward for the NP's abolishment of apartheid after having stood by it for so long:
On 11 February 1990, 27 years after he had first been incarcerated, Nelson Mandela walked out of the grounds of Victor Verster Prison as a free man, immediately calling for an even more determined effort against apartheid - affirming his commitment to a peaceful and disciplined process. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Drakenstein Correctional Centre (formerly Victor Verster Prison is a low-security Prison near Paarl in the valley of the Dwars River in the His release provoked unbridled joy and excitement throughout the country, and had a major and neigh-universal effect. Mandela had refused to be released until the other political prisoners were let out and the ANC and other such organisations unbanned.
There were, however, several problems that Mandela and the rest of the ANC faced. Much of the resistance had been disorganised and fragmentary. The ANC needed to get control over and the support of the people. There were also differences between members of the ANC who had been in exile and those who had remained in South Africa to fight apartheid.
Having been forced by the UN Security Council to end its long-standing military occupation in Namibia, South Africa had to relinquish control of the disputed territory, and it officially became an independent state on 21 March 1990. Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa on the Atlantic coast Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar)
From 1990 to 1991, the legal apparatus of apartheid was abolished. The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the De Klerk government In 1990 negotiations were earnestly begun, with two meetings between the government and the ANC. The purpose of the negotiations was to pave the way for talks towards a peaceful transition of power. These meetings were successful in laying down the plans for the negotiations - despite the considerable tensions still abounding within the country.
At the first meeting, the NP and ANC discussed the conditions for negotiations to begin. The meeting was held at Groote Schuur, the President's official residence. Groote Schuur (Dutch for "big barn" is an estate in Cape Town, South Africa. They released the Groote Schuur Minute, which said that, before negotiations commenced, political prisoners would be freed and all exiles allowed to return.
De Klerk made further political changes in 1990, calling off the long-running State of Emergency (except in Natal) and abolishing the Separate Amenities Act. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) These changes were meant to make it patently clear that apartheid was ending. Mandela, however, called on other countries to persist with their economic sanctions, but, at the second 1990 meeting of the ANC and the NP at Pretoria, he announced the ANC's bringing an end to its armed struggle. Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. However, although the Pretoria and Groote Schuur meetings had laid the foundations for peaceful negotiation, there were still ample tensions within the country.
The last major apartheid laws, the Group Areas Act and the Population Registration Act, were removed in 1991, convincing numerous countries to bring to an end their cultural, economic and sporting boycotts. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
There were fears that the change of power in South Africa would be violent. To avoid this, it was essential that a peaceful resolution between all parties be reached. In December 1991, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) began negotiations on the formation of a multiracial transitional government and a new constitution extending political rights to all groups. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. CODESA adopted a Declaration of Intent and committed itself to an "undivided South Africa". Although the talks broke down several times, they were eventually successful in getting the ANC and NP to reach an agreement.
The opening CODESA meeting was a success. The government met with major political parties (apart from the PAC and Conservative Party) at the end of 1991. They agreed that the new South Africa should be free from racial segregation and that an interim government ought to run the country until a new constitution had been drafted.
Most of the persistent violence through the country was due to impatience for change on the part of those still living under repression, and also the intense rivalry between the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and the ANC. The Inkatha Freedom Party ( IFP) is a Political party in South Africa. Political violence exploded across the country, and, although Mandela and Buthelezi met to settle difference, they could not stem the tide of violence, creating more distrust between the two factions. One of the worst cases of ANC-IFP violence was the Boipatong massacre of 17 June 1992, when 200 IFP militants attacked the Gauteng township of Boipatong. The Boipatong massacre took place on 1992-06-17 in Boipatong, South Africa when Inkatha Freedom Party members killed 46 people Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) 45 people met their end. Witnesses said that the men had arrived in police vehicles, supporting claims that elements within the police and army contributed to the general violence. There have also been claims that high-ranking government officials and politicians ordered or at least condoned these massacres. When De Klerk tried to visit the scene of the incident, he was driven away by angry crowds, on whom the police opened fire, killing thirty.
The Bisho massacre also added seriously to mounting tensions between the ANC and NP. It started off as an ANC march in protest against the leader of the Ciskei homeland, but 29 people were killed and 200 injured when, once more, the police opened fire as the marchers broke through their barriers.
The CP, meanwhile, not having taken part in CODESA, challenged the government to a general election so that white voters could decide on the future of South Africa. De Klerk responded by holding the last whites-only referendum in March 1992 to decide whether or not negotiations should continue. The South African referendum of 1992 was held on 17 March 1992 in South Africa. A 68-percent majority gave its support, and the victory instilled in De Klerk and the government a lot more confidence, giving the NP a stronger position in negotiations.
Thus, when CODESA II met in 1992, stronger demands were made. The ANC and the government could not reach a compromise on how power should be shared. The NP wanted to retain a strong position in government, as well as the power to change decisions made by parliament. Escalating violence added to the tensions, Mandela arguing that, as head of state, De Klerk ought to do something to bring an end to the bloodshed. He also accused the South African police of involvement in the ANC-IFP violence, and this was the primary reason for the ANC's withdrawal from the CODESA talks, which immediately broke down. Although De Klerk denied the allegation, they are still strongly suspected to be true today.
The ANC and COSATU, meanwhile, launched a campaign of mass action, and the fervent strike forced the NP to give in. Talks came to an official end but still continued on an unsanctioned basis. The ANC's Cyril Ramaphosa and the NP's Roelf Meyer took the negotiations forward. Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African lawyer Trade union leader activist politician and businessman Roelof Petrus (Roelf Meyer, born in Port Elizabeth on 16 July 1947 as the son of a farmer is a South African politician and businessman Both sides were willing to compromise and, accordingly, came to an agreement. Mandela and De Klerk signed a Record of Understanding, agreeing that a constituent assembly would be created to draw up the new constitution and that there would also be a five-year Government of National Unity so that all political parties would have the chance to participate in government. National governments (alternatively national unity governments or national union governments) are broad Coalition governments consisting of all parties (or The Government of National Unity was believed to be an important factor in the reduction of tensions between the political parties. To give the chance to as many political parties as possible, it was decided that any party with five per cent or more of the vote would be represented in government. Any party with more than twenty per cent would receive a deputy president position.
There were a number of attacks on white civilians by the PAC's army, the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA). The PAC was hoping to attract the support of the angry, impatient youth. In one such attack, members of the APLA entered a Cape Town church and opened fire, killing and wounding members of the congregation. Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the
Right-wing violence also added to the hostilities of this period. The assassination of Chris Hani threatened to derail talks altogether. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. Chris Hani, born Martin Thembisile Hani ( June 28, 1942 &ndash April 10, 1993) was the leader of the South African Communist Hani, the popular general secretary of the South African Communist Party (SACP), was assassinated in 1993 in Dawn Park in Johannesburg by Janusz Walus, an anti-communist Polish refugee who had close links to the white nationalist AWB. Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. Janusz Waluś (born 1953 in Zakopane) is a Polish immigrant to South Africa who assassinated Chris Hani on April 10 1993 Hani's death brought forth protests throughout the country. Soon afterwards, the AWB broke through the gates of the World Trade Centre, where, despite everything, talks were now going ahead under the Negotiating Council. An armoured vehicle was crashed through the front of the building, but even this failed to derail the process. Although final agreements were not directly attained from CODESA I or II, it was as a result of their foundations that a peaceful resolution was agreed upon.
In 1993, the Negotiating Council reached an agreement on the election date, choosing 27 April 1994. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Preparations amidst a sustained climate of terrifying unrest. It was decided that everyone over the age of eighteen would be allowed to vote. In 1993, the Interim Constitution was published and accepted, guaranteeing freedom of speech and religion, access to adequate housing and numerous other rights, as well as explicitly prohibiting discrimination on almost any ground. The Transitional Executive Council was formed to supervise the elections and an Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) set up to run them. Ballot papers were printed and election stations set up. Independent officials were appointed to supervise and ensure a free and fair process. Ironically, the army, which had only a few years before been zealously defending apartheid, was now ensuring that nothing got in the way of its peaceful dissolution.
The IFP refused to join all other parties in registering for the elections. It wanted a guarantee that the Zulu king and IFP supporters would not be subject to discrimination. After talks with Mandela and De Klerk, the IFP changed its stance, just a week before the elections. With the ballot papers already printed, the IEC now had to add IFP stickers to them.
Violence persisted right through to the 1994 elections. Lucas Mangope, leader of the Bophuthatswana homeland, declared that it would not take part in the elections. Kgosi Lucas Manyane Mangope is the former leader of the Bantustan of Bophuthatswana. It had been decided that, once the temporary constitution had come into effect, the homelands would be incorporated into South Africa, but Mangope did not want this to happen. There were strong protests against his decision, and he eventually backed down. This did not, however, bring a halt to the right-wing violence as several militants came to Mangope's aid. Three of them were killed, and harrowing images were shown on national television and in newspapers across the world.
Two days before the elections, a car bomb exploded in Johannesburg, killing nine. A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other Vehicle and then detonated. The day before the elections, another one went off, injuring thirteen. Finally, though, at midnight on 26–27 April 1994, the old flag was lowered, and the old (now co-official) national anthem Die Stem ("The Call") was sung, followed by the raising of the new rainbow flag and singing of the other co-official anthem, Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika ("God Bless Africa"). Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Die Stem van Suid-Afrika ( English: The Call of South Africa) was the National anthem of South Africa from 1957 to 1994 and shared national anthem List of South African flags The current flag of the Republic of South Africa was adopted on April 27, 1994, during the first free elections "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" ("God Bless Africa" in Xhosa) is part of the joint National anthem of South Africa. The election went off peacefully amidst a palpable feeling of goodwill throughout the country. The South African general election of 1994 was the first free election held in South Africa after the end of Apartheid, therefore also the first held on International observers agreed that the elections were free and fair.
20,000,000 South Africans turned up to cast their votes. There was some difficulty in organising the voting in rural areas, but, throughout the country, people waited patiently for many hours in order to vote. An extra day was added to give everyone the chance. People had two votes to cast - one for a National Government and another for a Provincial Government. As part of the new governmental structure, each province - there were now nine - was given a degree of political power. This meant that not all decisions were made by the national government.
The ANC won 62. 7% of the vote, less than the 66. 7% that would have allowed it to rewrite the constitution. As well as deciding the national government, the election decided the provincial governments, and the ANC won in all but two provinces. The NP captured most of the white and coloured votes and became the official opposition party. The Government of National Unity was established, its cabinet made up of twelve ANC representatives, six from the NP and three from the IFP. Thabo Mbeki and FW De Klerk were made deputy presidents, and Nelson Mandela became South Africa's first democratically-elected president. Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 The ANC won seven provinces, the NP the Western Cape and the IFP Natal. The Western Cape is a province in the south west of South Africa.
Since then, 27 April is celebrated as a public holiday in South Africa known as Freedom Day. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated A list of holidays in South Africa: determines that whenever any public holiday falls on a Sunday the Monday following it will be a public holiday Freedom Day is a South African public holiday celebrated on April 27.
In 1993, de Klerk and Mandela were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa". Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936 was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (xolíɬaɬa mandéːla born 18 July 1918 is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in fully representative The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor 
The following individuals, who had previously supported apartheid, made public apologies:
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942 is a South African politician who served as President of South Africa from 1999 to 24 September 2008 Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar)