|Anthem: Soomaaliyeey Toosoow|
Somalia, Wake Up
(and largest city)
|Recognised regional languages||Arabic, Italian, English (classed as secondary languages)|
|Government||Transitional Federal Government Semi-presidential Republic|
|-||President||Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed|
|-||Prime Minister||Nur Hassan Hussein|
|Independence||from the UK and Italy|
|-||Date||June 26 & July 1, 1960|
|-||Total||637,661 km² (42nd)|
246,201 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||1. The flag of Somalia was adopted on October 12, 1954. It was designed by Mohammed Awale Liban, intended to be used for pan-Somali The Coat of arms of Somalia was adopted on October 10 1956 The leopards which support the shield and the white star were also found on the arms used A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " Somalia Wake Up " or " Soomaaliyeey toosoo " is the National anthem of Somalia and was adopted by the Transitional Federal Government The Demography of Somalia describes the condition and overview of Somalia's peoples Mogadishu ( Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar, Hamar; مقديشو Maqadīshū An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Somali ( Af Soomaali, الصوماليه is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by ethnic Somalis A regional language is a Language spoken in an area of a Nation state, whether it be a small area a federal State or Province, or Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Somalis ( Soomaaliyeed, الصوماليون are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. The Transitional Federal Parliament of the Somali Republic ( Golaha Shacabka Federaalka Kumeelgaarka ee Jamhuuriyada Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya The semi-presidential system is a System of government in which a prime minister and a President are both active participants in the day-to-day administration A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its This page contains a list of the Presidents of Somalia. See also History of Somalia List of Prime Ministers of Somalia Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ( Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, عبدالله يوسف أحمد (born December 15 1934) is a veteran Somali Politician List of the Heads of Government of Somalia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Political Affiliations SNL - Somali Nur Hassan Hussein ( Nuur Xasan Xuseen, نور حسن حسين also known as Nur Adde, has been the Prime Minister of Somalia since November 2007 Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 6|
|-||2008 estimate||9,558,666 (89th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2004 estimate|
|-||Total||$5. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 26 billion (157th)|
|-||Per capita||$600 (148th)|
|HDI (2007)||N/A (low) (Not Ranked)|
|Currency||Somali shilling (|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|Internet TLD||.so (currently non-operational)|
|1||The World Factbook|
|3||Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic|
Somalia (Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال transliteration: aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Somali Republic (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومال transliteration: Jumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The shilling ( English) shilin ( Somali, also شلن or scellino ( Italian) has been the Currency of Somalia ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, or TFC is the principle organizing document of the Somali Republic, written and approved in February Somali ( Af Soomaali, الصوماليه is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by ethnic Somalis Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Different approaches and methods for the Romanization of Arabic exist Somali ( Af Soomaali, الصوماليه is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by ethnic Somalis Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Different approaches and methods for the Romanization of Arabic exist The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya on its southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen on its north, the Indian Ocean at its east, and Ethiopia to the west. Djibouti ( جيبوتي Jībūtī, Somali: Jabuuti) officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south The Gulf of Aden (خليج عدن transliterated: Khalyj 'Adan Somali: Khaleejka Cadan) is located in the Arabian Sea between Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page
Italian Somaliland gained its independence from Italy on 1 July 1960. Italian Somalia (also known as Italian Somaliland) was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy ( Regno d'Italia) from the 1880s until 1942 in the territory "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On the same day, it united with British Somaliland, which gained independence on 26 June 1960, to form the Somali republic. British Somaliland was a British Protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Somali state currently exists largely in a de jure capacity; Somalia has a weak but largely recognised central government authority, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), but this currently controls only the central region of Somalia, and before the end of 2006 controlled only the city of Baidoa. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. The Transitional Federal Government (TFG of the Somali Republic ( Dowladda federaalka kumeelgaarka) is the present internationally recognized government of Somalia Baidoa ( Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu.
De facto control of the north of the country resides in the local authorities; of these Puntland, Maakhir, Galmudug, acknowledge the authority of the TFG and maintain their declaration of autonomy within a federated Somalia, while Southwestern Somalia and Jubaland in the south have largely abandoned the idea of autonomy. Puntland is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe ( Nugaal region whose leaders declared it to be an autonomous state in 1998 Maakhir ( Gobolka Maakhir; ماخر) officially the Maakhir State of Somalia ( Maamul Goboleedka Maakhir, ولاية ماخر الصومال Galmudug, is a secular decentralized state in the central region of Somalia. Autonomy ( Greek: Auto- Nomos - nomos meaning "law" one who gives oneself his/her own Law) is the right to Self-government Southwestern Somalia ( Koonfur-Galbeed Soomaaliya) was an ostensibly autonomous self-proclaimed state in Somalia founded by Hasan Muhammad Nur Jubaland (Jubbaland or Juba Valley (Dooxada Jubba formerly Trans-Juba (Oltre Giuba is the southwesternmost part of Somalia, on the far side of Their political capital, Baidoa, is currently the TFG capital, and their commercial capital, Kismayo, is being disputed. Kismayo or Kismayu (Kismaayo كيسمايو; Chisimaio is a Port On the other hand, Somaliland in the north, with its capital in Hargeisa, has declared independence and does not recognise the TFG as governing authority. History Prehistoric inhabitants The city is home to Neolithic Cave paintings recently discovered named Laas Geel.
Continuously inhabited for the last 2,500 years by numerous and varied ethnic groups, some Afar or other Cushitic-speaking populations, and the majority Somalis. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known as the The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa. Somalis ( Soomaaliyeed, الصوماليون are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula. From the 1st century numerous ports including Hafun and Mosylon-Bandar Gori were trading with Roman and Greek sailors. Hafun ( Xaafuun) is a 40 km long low-lying peninsula in the Bari region of northern Somalia. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca
The northwest was part of the Aksumite Empire from about the 3rd century to the 7th but between 700 AD and 1200 AD Islam became firmly established, especially with the founding of Mogadishu in 900. The Aksumite Empire or Axumite Empire (sometimes called the Kingdom of Aksum or Axum ( Ge'ez: አክሱም was an important trading For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The period following, 1200 AD to 1500 AD, saw the rise of numerous Somali city-states and kingdoms. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty. In northwestern Somalia, the Sultanate of Adal (a multi-ethnic state comprised of Afars, Somalis and Hararis) with Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi as their leader in 1520, successfully conquered three-quarters of Ethiopia before being defeated by a joint Ethiopian-Portuguese force at the Battle of Wayna Daga on February 21, 1543. The Adal Sultanate ( Somali: Adaal, Ge'ez: አዳል ʾAdāl, Arabic: عدل (c Afar (Afar alphabet Qafár Feera ዐፋር ʿāfār, عفار Amh Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (c 1506 - February 21, 1543) ("the Conqueror" was an Imam and General of Adal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Battle of Wayna Daga (Amharic for "Grape-cultivating altitude" occurred 21 February 1543 east of Lake Tana. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland
The Ajuuraan Sultanate flourished from the 14th to the 17th centuries. See also Somali clan The Ajuran (also Ajuuraan or Ujuuraan) is a Somali clan. Following the collapse of Adal and Ajuuraan in the 17th century, the region saw the emergence of new city states such as the Sultanates of eastern Sanaag, of Bari, of Geledi-Afgoye, of Gasar Gudde-Lugh Ganane, of Mogadishu and the Benadir coast, and of Hobyo. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Sanaag ( Somali: Sanaag) is a region ( gobol) in northern Somalia. Benadir ( Somali: Banaadir; بنادر Banādir, the Arabic broken plural of the Persian term bandar "moorage" "port" Hobyo (also spelled Obbia and Hobyaa) is an ancient harbor city in the Mudug region of Somalia.
Competition between the Somali clans that lived in these states persisted through the colonial period, when various parts of the region were colonised by Britain and Italy. See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This era began in the year 1884, the end of a long period of comparative peace. At the Berlin Conference of 1884, the scramble for Africa started the long and bloody process of the imperial partition of Somali lands. See also Congress of Berlin (1878 and Berlin Conference of 1954 (Cold War The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New The French, British, and Italians came to Somalia in the late 19th century. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The British signed treaties with the clans in what was known after as British Somaliland which was a protectorate in 1886 after the withdrawal of Egypt. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Egypt sought to prevent European colonial expansion in Northeast Africa. The southern area, was colonised by Italy in 1889, became known as Italian Somaliland. Italian Somalia (also known as Italian Somaliland) was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy ( Regno d'Italia) from the 1880s until 1942 in the territory
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan, Sayyid), born in the north of the Somali peninsula, was a religious, nationalist and controversial leader. Sayyīd Muhammad `Abd Allāh al-Hasan ( Sayid Maxamed Cabdille Xasan or Sayyid Mahammad Abdille Hasan, محمّد Known to the British as the "Mad Mullah", he spent 20 years leading armed resistance to the British, Italian, and Ethiopian forces in Somalia. Born into the Ogaden sub-clan of the Darod, Hassan grew up in among the Dhulbahante pastoralists who were good herdsmen and warriors and who used camels as well as horses. See also Somali clan The Ogaden ( Ogaadeen, أوجادين is one of the Somali clans and the largest Darod subclan See also Somali clan The Darod ( Darood or Daarood, بني داوود is a Somali clan. Pastoralism or pastoral farming is the branch of Agriculture concerned with the raising of Livestock. A herder is a worker who lives a possibly semi- Nomadic life caring for various domestic Animals in places where these animals wander Pasture lands According to the Random House Dictionary, the term warrior has two meanings Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Young Hassan's hero was his maternal grandfather Sade Mogan who was a great warrior chief.
Between 1900 and 1907, the Italian leaders tried several times to negotiate a land deal with the Geledi Sultan based in Afgoye and his Biyo-maal and Digil warriors. Geledi is a Somali sub-clan. They form part of the Digil clan Geledi members primarily inhabit the Shabbele region they are almost living See also Somali clan The Rahanweyn ( Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxanweyn, الراحانوين is a Somali clan, composed In 1905 more than 1,000 Biyo-maal and Tunni warriors, along with a large number of Italians, were killed when the Italian army attacked in an attempt to gain their objectives. Though many Somali warriors were killed during the war, they still defeated the enemy and succeeded in protecting the Benadir coast. After a long and bloody battle, the Italian leaders allied with other Somali tribes and their combined strength finally destroyed the Sultan's forces.
Sheikh Uways al-Barawi of the Tunni sub-clan of the Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle) in Barawa, lived at the same time as Hassan and led the Qadiriyyah sect. Sheikh, also rendered as Sheik, Cheikh, Shaikh, and other variants ( Arabic:, shaykh Sheikh Uways Al-Barawi (1847-1909 was a Somali scholar credited with reviving Islam in 19th century East Africa. See also Somali clan The Rahanweyn ( Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxanweyn, الراحانوين is a Somali clan, composed Barawa or Brava ( Baraawe, المدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭﻱ is a Port town in the south eastern coast of Somalia. Qadiriyyah ( Arabic: القادريه, Turkish: Kadirilik) (also Transliterated Kadri, Elkadry, Kadray He resisted the Italian occupation in a non-violent method. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. He was murdered in Biyoley, in today's Bakool region, by the Dervish in 1920 as Hassan was seeking to recruit forces from Italian Somaliland. Bakool (Bakool is a region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Its capital is Xuddur. Darvesh or Dervish ( Arabic and Persian: درویش) as it is known in European languages refers to members of Sufi This was after the British used aircraft to destroy Hassan's base in Taleex. Taleex or Taleh ( Taleex) is a small town and administrative center of the district of the same name located in northeast Somalia. Sheikh Aweys rejected violence and Hassan's ways were based on violent resistance.
As a result of Hassan and his followers being chased by the followers of Sheikh al-Barawi, Hassan had to escape through the thick forest along the Jubba River until he reached Imi, Ethiopia, where he died of influenza, and, reportedly, wounds inflicted on him during his escape. The Jubba River (Webi Jubba is a River in southern Somalia which begins at the border with Ethiopia where the Dawa and Gebele Imi was a king of the Akkadian Empire from 2257 to (unknown BC
To this day the annual pilgrimage to Sheikh al-Barawi's grave in Biyoley is held where people of the Qadiriyyah sect and admirers of al-Barawi attend.
Sheikh Hassan Barsane of the Gugundhabe, a sub-clan of the Hawiye, and a member of the Ahmadi, was another Somali religious leader who resisted the Italian rule in a non-violent manner. Gugudhabe ( Gugundhabe) is a Somali clan, part of the larger Hawiye clan See also Somali clan The Hawiye ( Hawiiye, هاويي is a Somali clan whose members live in central and southern Somalia, in the Ahmadiyya ( احمدیہ Ahmadiyya) is a movement that arose out of mainstream Islam towards the end of the 19th century He, like al-Barawi, rejected Hassan's approaches.
Fascist Italy, under Benito Mussolini attacked Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), with an aim to colonize it, in 1935. The Somali Youth League (SYL was the first political party of Somalia. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920
On August 3, 1940, Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somalia and by August 14 succeeded in taking Berbera from the British. Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Italian conquest of British Somaliland was a campaign in the Horn of Africa which took place in the summer of 1940 and was part of the East African Campaign Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures History The city was first described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea written by a Greek merchant in the first century CE
A British force, including Somali troops, launched a campaign in January 1942 from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland. The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought in East Africa during World War II. By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea. The British Empire forces operating in Somaliland comprised three divisions of South African, West and East African troops. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. They were assisted by Somali patriot forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali clans. See also Somali clan The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak) ( Reer Sheikh Isaxaaq, اسحاق is one of the main Somali clans The See also Somali clan The Dhulbahante is a Somali sub clan of the Harti part of the Koombe and of Kablalax, of the The Warsangali (also Warsengeli or Warsingeli) ("Son of Mohamoud Harti" is a Somali clan of the Harti group part of the Darod
Following the war the United Nations gave Somalia as a protectorate to Italy in 1949. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Ogaden province of Somalia was given to the re-established Ethiopian government by the British Empire, which kept British Somaliland under its protection/rule. Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn ]] is the international name of the Somali Regional State in Ethiopia. The French also kept Djibouti under colonial administration, until eventual independence in 1977. France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world Djibouti ( جيبوتي Jībūtī, Somali: Jabuuti) officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the
Though Somalis and other Africans fought hard on the Allied side in World War II, they were re-subjugated soon after the conflict. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The bitterness of lost hope strengthened the long struggle against colonialism, and in most parts of Africa, including Somalia, independence movements began. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising
The major political parties that fought for Somalia's independence were Somali Youth Club (SYC) which later became Somali Youth League (SYL); Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) which later became Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali HDMS; and the Somali National League (SNL). The Somali Youth League (SYL was the first political party of Somalia.
The independence of the British Somaliland Protectorate from the United Kingdom was proclaimed on 26 June 1960 and unification with the former Italian Somaliland took place 5 days later. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Now most of the Somali clans were independent and the country of Somalia was formed, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.  A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967-1969). Abdullahi Issa Mohamud ( Cabdullahi Ciise Maxamuud, عبد الله عيسى محمد (1922-1988 was the first Prime Minister of Somalia. Aden Abdulle Osman Daar ( Aaden Cabdulle Cismaan Daar (Aaden Cadde, عدن عبد الله عثمان دار (1908 &ndash June 8, 2007) was a This page contains a list of the Presidents of Somalia. See also History of Somalia List of Prime Ministers of Somalia Abdirashid Ali Shermarke ( Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي ( October 16 1919 - October 15 List of the Heads of Government of Somalia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office Political Affiliations SNL - Somali
However inter-tribal rivalry persisted with many clans claiming to have been forced into the state of Somalia. In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, appointed by Shermarke (Egal was later to become President of the breakaway independent Somaliland). Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal ( Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, محمد الحاج ابراهيم ايغال (born August 15 1928 in Odweyne,
In late 1969 following the assassination of President Shermarke a military government assumed power in a coup d'état led by General Siad Barre and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre محمّد سياد بري) (b Barre became President and Korshel vice-president. The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programmes and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate from 5% to 55% by the mid-1980s. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen,
However, struggles continued during Barre's rule. At one point he assassinated a major figure in his cabinet, Major General Gabiere, and two other officials.
It was in July 1976 when the real dictatorship of the Somali military commenced with the founding of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed, XHKS). Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (in Somali: Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed, XHKS) was the governing Political party in It was the single party that ruled Somalia until the fall of the military government in December 1990 - January 1991. It was violently overthrown by the combined armed revolt of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement (SNM), and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG). Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF (in Somali: Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, and initially known as the Democratic Front for Salvation The United Somali Congress (USC is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. The Somali National Movement ( Dhaq dhaqaaqa wadaniga soomaliyeed, Arabic الحركة الوطنية الصوماليه was a 1980s Somali rebel group The Somali Patriotic Movement is a Political party and Paramilitary organization in Somalia, and a key faction in the Somali Civil War. Over the course of the Somali Civil War, there have been many Revolutionary movements and Militia groups run by competing Warlords which have held de Over the course of the Somali Civil War, there have been many Revolutionary movements and Militia groups run by competing Warlords which have held de
In 1977 and 1978 Somalia fought with its neighbour Ethiopia in the Ogaden War, in which Somalia aimed to liberate and unite the Somali lands that had been divided and subjugated under colonialism and to win the right of self-determination for ethnic Somalis in those countries. The Fakr ad-Din Mosque is the oldest Mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia The Ogaden War was a conventional conflict between Somalia and Ethiopia in 1977 and 1978 over the Ogaden region of Ethiopia Somalia first engaged Kenya and Ethiopia diplomatically, but this failed. Somalia, already preparing for war, created the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF, then called the Western Somali Liberation Front, WSLF) and eventually sought to capture Ogaden. The Ogaden National Liberation Front ( ONLF) (ኦጋደን፡ ብሔራዊ፡፡ነጽነት፡ግንባር( Somali: Jabhadda Wadaniga Xoreynta Ogaadeenya Somali guerrilla activity in the Ogaden and in the Haud area east of Harar flared sporadically after Somalia gained its independence in Somalia acted unilaterally without consulting the international community, which was generally opposed to redrawing colonial boundaries, while the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, refused to help Somalia, and instead, backed Communist Ethiopia. The international community is a vague term used in International relations to refer to all the countries of the world or to a group of them The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based For most of the war, Somalia appeared to be winning in most of Ogaden, but with Somali forces at the gates of Addis Ababa, Soviet and Cuban forces and weapons came to the aid of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa (sometimes spelled Addis Abeba, the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority Amharic The Somali Army was decimated and Somalia sought the help of the United States. History Historically Somali society accorded prestige to the warrior (waranle and rewarded military prowess The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Although the Carter Administration originally expressed interest in helping Somalia he later declined, as did American allies in the Middle East and Asia. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Americans perhaps did not want to engage the Soviets in this period of détente. Détente is a French term meaning a relaxing or easing the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s
By 1978, the moral authority of the Somali government had collapsed. The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988 Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship and the regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The government became increasingly totalitarian, and resistance movements, encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988
1991 saw great changes in Somalia. President Barre was ousted by a combined northern and southern clan based forces all of whom were backed and armed by Ethiopia. And following a meeting of the SNM and northern clans' elders, the northern former British portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland in May 1991; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognised by any foreign government. 
In January 1991, President Ali Mahdi Muhammad was selected by the manisfesto group as an interim president for the whole of Somalia until a conference between all stakeholders to be held in Djibouti in February of the same year to select a national leader. See also Somali Civil War, United Somali Congress Ali Mahdi Muhammad ( Cali Mahdi Maxamed, علي مهدي محمد (born 1938 was president of However, United Somali Congress military leader General Mohamed Farrah Aidid, the Somali National Movement leader Abdirahman Toor and the Somali Patriotic Movement leader Col Jess refused to recognize Mahdi as president. The United Somali Congress (USC is one of the major political and paramilitary organizations of Somalia. General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (محمد فرح عيديدمحمد فرح عيديد December 15 1934 – August 2 1996 was a controversial Somali leader often described The Somali National Movement ( Dhaq dhaqaaqa wadaniga soomaliyeed, Arabic الحركة الوطنية الصوماليه was a 1980s Somali rebel group The Somali Patriotic Movement is a Political party and Paramilitary organization in Somalia, and a key faction in the Somali Civil War. This caused a split between the SNM, USC and SPM and the armed groups Manifesto, Somali Democratic Movement (SDM) and Somali National Alliance (SNA) on the one hand and within the USC forces. The Somali National Alliance ( SNA) was a political alliance formed in June 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head This led efforts to remove Barre who still claimed to be the legitimate president of Somalia. He and his armed supporters remained in the south of the country until mid 1992, causing further escalation in violence, especially in the Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower Shabelle, Lower Juba, and Middle Juba regions. The armed conflict within the USC devastated the Mogadishu area.
The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in southern Somalia. The basis of most of the conflicts was clan allegiances and competition for resources between the warring clans. James Bishop, the United States last ambassador to Somalia, explained that there is "competition for water, pasturage, and. . . cattle. It is a competition that used to be fought out with arrows and sabers. . . Now it is fought out with AK-47s. " The resulting famine caused the United Nations Security Council in 1992 to authorize the limited peacekeeping operation United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I). UNOSOM I (United Nations Operation in Somalia was the first part of a United Nations (UN sponsored effort to provide facilitate and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia UNOSOM's use of force was limited to self-defence and it was soon disregarded by the warring factions. In reaction to the continued violence and the humanitarian disaster, the United States organised a military coalition with the purpose of creating a secure environment in southern Somalia for the conduct of humanitarian operations. This coalition, (Unified Task Force or UNITAF) entered Somalia in December 1992 on Operation Restore Hope and was successful in restoring order and alleviating the famine. Unified Task Force (UNITAF was a United States led United Nations sanctioned multinational force which operated in the Republic of Somalia from 9 Unified Task Force (UNITAF was a United States led United Nations sanctioned multinational force which operated in the Republic of Somalia from 9 In May 1993, most of the United States troops withdrew and UNITAF was replaced by the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II). UNOSOM II (United Nations Operation in Somalia was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia.
However, Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June 1993 his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, (see Somalia (March 1992 to February 1996)) in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties. The Pakistan Army ( Urdu:) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders the security of administered UN peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan covers a long and cherished history of Pakistani involvement with the United Nations. Fighting escalated until 18 American troops and more than 1,000 Somalis were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October 1993. The Battle of Mogadishu (also referred to as the Battle of the Black Sea) or The UN withdrew Operation United Shield in 3 March 1995, having suffered significant casualties, and with the rule of government still not restored. Operation United Shield was the name given to the US military operation of evacuating all remaining 6200 UN peacekeeping troops from Somalia from January Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995
In June 1996, Mohamed Farrah Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.
Following the civil war the Majeerteen clan declared a self-governing state in the northeast, which took the name Puntland, but maintained that it would participate in any Somali reconciliation to form a new central government. See also Somali clan The Majeerteen, Majerteen or Macherten (Majerteen ماجرتين Muhammad Harti Amaleh Abdi Muhammad Abdirahman Puntland is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe ( Nugaal region whose leaders declared it to be an autonomous state in 1998
Then in 2002, Southwestern Somalia, comprising Bay, Bakool, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Juba), Gedo, Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabele) and Jubbada Hoose (Lower Juba) regions of Somalia declared itself autonomous. Southwestern Somalia ( Koonfur-Galbeed Soomaaliya) was an ostensibly autonomous self-proclaimed state in Somalia founded by Hasan Muhammad Nur Bay (Baay is an administrative region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia. Bakool (Bakool is a region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Its capital is Xuddur. Middle Juba (Jubbada Dhexe is an administrative region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia in the historical region of Jubaland. Gedo ( Geedo) is an administrative region ( gobolka) formerly part of the historic Upper Juba Region, Somalia. Lower Shabele ( Somali: Shabeellaha Hoose) is an administrative region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia. Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose is an administrative region ( gobolka) in the traditional region of Jubaland in southern Somalia. Although initially the instigators of this, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, which had been established in 1995, was only in full control of Bay, Bakool and parts of Gedo and Jubbada Dhexe, they quickly established the de facto autonomy of Southwestern Somalia. The Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA also known as the Reewin Resistance Army is an autonomist militant group operating in the two southwestern regions of Somalia, Although conflict between Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud and his two deputies, weakened the Rahanweyn militarily from February 2006, the Southwest became central to the TFG based in the city of Baidoa. Colonel Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud ( Somali: Xassan Maxamed Nuur Shaati-Gaduud, حسن محمد نور شاتيغادود is a Somali warlord and chairman of the Shatigadud became Finance Minister, his first deputy Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe became Parliamentary Speaker and his second deputy Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade became Minister of Transport. Sheikh Adan Mohamed Nuur "Madobe" ( Sheekh Aaden Maxamed Nuur Aaden Madoobe'', عدن محمد نور مادوبي was a former cabinet minister and the Shatigadud also held the Chairmanship of the Rahanwein Traditional Elders' Court.
In 2004, the TFG met in Nairobi, Kenya and published a charter for the government of the nation. Nairobi (naɪˈroʊbɪ is the capital and largest city of Kenya.  The TFG capital is presently in Baidoa.
Meanwhile Somalia was one of the many countries affected by the tsunami which struck the Indian Ocean coast following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, destroying entire villages and killing an estimated 300 people and in 2006, Somalia was deluged by torrential rains and flooding that struck the entire Horn of Africa affecting 350,000 people. A tsunami ((tsuːˈnɑːmi is a series of waves created when The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea Earthquake that occurred at 005853 UTC on December 26 2004 with an Epicentre off the west coast of The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa 
The tribal rivalry continued in 2006 with the declaration of regional autonomy by the state of Jubaland, consisting of parts of Gedo, Jubbada Dhexe, and the whole of Jubbada Hoose. Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale, chairman of the Juba Valley Alliance, who comes from Galguduud in central Somalia is the most powerful leader there. Barre Adan Shire ( Barre Aadan Shire) also known as Barre Hiiraale, Barre "Hirale" Aden Shire, or Abdikadir Adan Shire, is the The Juba Valley Alliance (JVA (Somali Isbahaysiga Dooxada Jubba) is a political faction of the Somali Civil War. Galguduud (Galguduud is an administrative region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Like Puntland this regional government did not want full statehood, but some sort of federal autonomy.
Conflict broke out again in early 2006 between an alliance of Mogadishu warlords known as the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (or "ARPCT") and a militia loyal to the Islamic Courts Union (or "I. The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a Battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. The Advance of the Islamic Courts Union is the period in the Somali Civil War that began on May 2006 with the Islamic Courts Union 's (ICU conquest of Mogadishu The War in Somalia is an ongoing armed conflict involving largely Ethiopian and Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG forces versus the Somali See also Somali Civil War (2006, War in Somalia (2006–present, Disarmament in Somalia The Somali Civil War began in 1988 See also War in Somalia (2006–present The timeline of events in the '''War in Somalia''' during 2008 is set out below The Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism ( ARPCT) ( Isbaheysiga Ladagaalanka Argagaxisadda) was a Somali alliance created by various The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service The Islamic Courts Union ( ICU, Somali: Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga Arabic: اتحاد المحاكم الإسلامية Ittihād al-mahākim C. U. "), seeking to institute Sharia law in Somalia. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Social law changes, such as the forbidding of chewing khat, and even the prohibition against watching movies and football in public, were part of moves by the ICU to change behaviours and impose strict social morals. KHAT (1210 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Sports format
The Union was led by Sheikh Sharif Ahmed. Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed ( Sheekh Shariif Sheekh Axmed; الشيخ شريف شيخ أحمد; born July 25, 1964) is the Commander in When asked if the ICU plans to extend its control to the rest of Somalia, Sheikh Ahmed responded in an interview:
"Land is not our priority. Our priority is the people's peace, dignity and that they could live in liberty, that they could decide their own fate. That is our priority. Our priority is not land; the people are important to us. "
Several hundred people, mostly civilians caught in the crossfire, died during this conflict. Mogadishu residents described it as the worst fighting in more than a decade. The Islamic Courts Union accused the U. S. of funding the warlords through the Central Intelligence Agency and supplying them with arms in an effort to prevent the Islamic Courts Union from gaining power. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The United States Department of State, while neither admitting nor denying this, said the U. S. had taken no action that violated the international arms embargo of Somalia. A few e-mails describing covert illegal operations by private military companies in breach of U. N. regulations have been reported by the UK Sunday newspaper The Observer. The Observer is a British Newspaper published on Sundays In about the same place on the political spectrum as its daily sister paper The
By early June 2006 the Islamic Militia had control of Mogadishu, following the Second Battle of Mogadishu, and the last A. The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a Battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. R. P. C. T. stronghold in southern Somalia, the town of Jowhar, then fell with little resistance. Jowhar (Jowhar is the capital town of the Shabeellaha Dhexe region of Somalia (located at) and along with Baidoa, used to form the The remaining A. R. P. C. T. forces fled to the east or across the border into Ethiopia and the alliance effectively collapsed.
The Ethiopian-supported Transitional Government then called for intervention by a regional East African peacekeeping force. Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace The I. C. U. meanwhile were fiercely opposed to foreign troops — particularly Ethiopians — in Somalia.  claiming that Ethiopia, with its long history as an imperial power including the occupation of Ogaden, seeks to occupy Somalia, or rule it by proxy.
Meanwhile the I. C. U. and their militia took control of much of the southern half of Somalia, normally through negotiation with local clan chiefs rather than by the use of force. However, the Islamic militia stayed clear of areas close to the Ethiopian border, which had become a place of refuge for many Somalis including the Transitional Government itself, headquartered in the town of Baidoa. Ethiopia said it would protect Baidoa if threatened. On September 25, 2006, the I. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. C. U. moved into the southern port of Kismayo, the last remaining port held by the transitional government.  Ethiopian troops entered Somalia and seized the town of Buur Hakaba on October 9, and later that day the I. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. C. U. issued a declaration of war against Ethiopia. 
On November 1, 2006, peace talks between the Transitional Government and the ICU broke down. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The international community feared an all-out civil war, with Ethiopian and rival Eritrean forces backing opposing sides in the power-struggle. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in 
War erupted on December 21, 2006 when the leader of ICU, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys said: "Somalia is in a state of war, and all Somalis should take part in this struggle against Ethiopia", and heavy fighting broke out between the Islamic militia on one side and the Somali Transitional Government allied with Ethiopian forces on the other. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys ( Sheekh Xasan Daahir Aweys) (born in 1935- aged 71 in 2006, was the head of the 90-member Shura council of the Islamic 
In late December 2006, Ethiopia launched airstrikes against Islamic troops and strong points across Somalia. An airstrike is a Military strike by Air forces on either a suspected or a confirmed enemy ground position Ethiopian Information Minister Berhan Hailu stated that targets included the town of Buurhakaba, near the Transitional Government base in Baidoa. Buurhakaba ( Buurhakaba) is a city located in the administrative region ( Gobolka) of Bay in southwestern Somalia. An Ethiopian jet fighter strafed Mogadishu International Airport (now Aden Adde International Airport), without apparently causing serious damage but prompting the airport to be shut down. Aden-Adde International Airport, (formerly Mogadishu International Airport) is the international Airport for Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia Other Ethiopian jet fighters attacked a military airport west of Mogadishu.  Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi then announced that his country was waging war against the ICU to protect his country's sovereignty. Meles Zenawi Asres (Ge'ez መለስ ዜናዊ አስረስ meles zēnāwī, b "Ethiopian defence forces were forced to enter into war to the protect the sovereignty of the nation and to blunt repeated attacks by Islamic courts terrorists and anti-Ethiopian elements they are supporting," he said. 
Days of heavy fighting followed as Ethiopian and government troops backed by tanks and jets pushed against Islamic forces between Baidoa and Mogadishu. Both sides claimed to have inflicted hundreds of casualties, but the Islamic infantry and vehicle artillery were badly beaten and forced to retreat toward Mogadishu. On 28 December 2006, the allies entered Mogadishu after Islamic fighters fled the city. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi declared that Mogadishu had been secured, after meeting with local clan leaders to discuss the peaceful hand-over of the city. Ali Mohamed Gedi or Mohammed Ali Ghedi ( Cali Maxamed Geedi, علي محمد جيدي (born 1951 was the Prime Minister of the Transitional  Yet as of April 2008, the Transitional Federal Government and its Ethiopian allies still face frequent attacks from an Islamic insurgency.
The Islamists retreated south, towards their stronghold in Kismayo, fighting rearguard actions in several towns. They abandoned Kismayo, too, without a fight, claiming that their flight was a strategic withdrawal to avoid civilian casualties, and entrenched around the small town of Ras Kamboni, at the southernmost tip of Somalia and on the border with Kenya. Ras Kamboni (Raaskambooni is a town in the Badhaadhe district of Lower Juba region Somalia, which lies on a Peninsula near the border In early January, the Ethiopians and the Somali government attacked, resulting in the Battle of Ras Kamboni, and capturing the Islamic positions and driving the surviving fighters into the hills and forests after several days of combat. The Battle of Ras Kamboni was a battle in the 2006-2007 Somali War fought by the Islamic Courts Union (ICU and affiliated militias against Ethiopian On January 9, 2007, the United States openly intervened in Somalia by sending Lockheed AC-130 gunships to attack Islamic positions in Ras Kamboni. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Lockheed AC-130 Gunship is a heavily-armed ground attack airplane Dozens were killed and by then the ICU were largely defeated.
As of November 30, 2007, the fighting continued in Mogadishu between transitional government Somali and Ethiopian official troops, on one hand, and Islamic militants, on the other. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Somalia has had no effective national government since 1991. The politics of Somalia are defined by the state of Civil war which since 1991 has divided the country into various warring entities and autonomist and seccessionist Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ( Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, عبدالله يوسف أحمد (born December 15 1934) is a veteran Somali Politician The internationally recognized Transitional Federal Government, controls only parts of Southern Somalia from its base in the town of Baidoa, and is not recognized by most Somalis. Baidoa ( Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. On October 14, 2004, the Somali Transitional Federal Parliament elected Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, previously president of Puntland, to be president of Somalia. Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The Transitional Federal Parliament of the Somali Republic ( Golaha Shacabka Federaalka Kumeelgaarka ee Jamhuuriyada Soomaaliya; often Baarlamaanka Federaalka Soomaaliya Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ( Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, عبدالله يوسف أحمد (born December 15 1934) is a veteran Somali Politician Because of the situation in Mogadishu, the election was held in a sports centre in Nairobi, Kenya. Yusuf was elected with 189 of the 275 votes from members of parliament.
Many other small political organisations exist, some clan-based, others seeking a Somalia free from clan-based politics. Many of them have come into existence since the civil war. The political situation therefore remains unstable; for example, on September 18, 2006, Abdullah Yusuf barely survived a suicide attack on his convoy in Baidoa, although twelve other people were killed. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
In the northwest, there is the secessionist region of Somaliland with its capital in Hargeisa that declared its independence in 1991. History Prehistoric inhabitants The city is home to Neolithic Cave paintings recently discovered named Laas Geel. This Isaaq-dominated governing zone is not recognized by any major international organization or country, although it has remained more stable and certainly more peaceful than the rest of Somalia, neighboring Puntland notwithstanding. See also Somali clan The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak) ( Reer Sheikh Isaxaaq, اسحاق is one of the main Somali clans The Puntland is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe ( Nugaal region whose leaders declared it to be an autonomous state in 1998 
Puntland in the northeast also remains autonomous but supports the Transitional Government and, unlike Somaliland, still considers itself a part of the Somali Republic. Puntland is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe ( Nugaal region whose leaders declared it to be an autonomous state in 1998
Sanaag Region and some parts of Bari region there is newly declared state of Maakhir which is a self-proclaimed autonomous state within Somalia on an area disputed by Somaliland and Puntland. Sanaag ( Somali: Sanaag) is a region ( gobol) in northern Somalia. Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Maakhir ( Gobolka Maakhir; ماخر) officially the Maakhir State of Somalia ( Maamul Goboleedka Maakhir, ولاية ماخر الصومال Declared in July 1, 2007, it remains unrecognized by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Transitional Federal Government (TFG of the Somali Republic ( Dowladda federaalka kumeelgaarka) is the present internationally recognized government of Somalia
Maakhir is mainly inhabited by the Warsangali clan, a member of the Harti confederation of clans (along with the Dhulbahante and Majeerteen) and a clan of the Darod tribe. Maakhir ( Gobolka Maakhir; ماخر) officially the Maakhir State of Somalia ( Maamul Goboleedka Maakhir, ولاية ماخر الصومال The Warsangali (also Warsengeli or Warsingeli) ("Son of Mohamoud Harti" is a Somali clan of the Harti group part of the Darod See also Somali clan Harti (also Haarti, meaning "strong man" ( Xaarti, هارتي is a name used to denote on the one hand a conglomeration See also Somali clan The Dhulbahante is a Somali sub clan of the Harti part of the Koombe and of Kablalax, of the See also Somali clan The Majeerteen, Majerteen or Macherten (Majerteen ماجرتين Muhammad Harti Amaleh Abdi Muhammad Abdirahman See also Somali clan The Darod ( Darood or Daarood, بني داوود is a Somali clan.
In the southwestern interior, Jubaland and Southwestern Somalia have both recognised the TFG and local leaders are part of the government. Jubaland (Jubbaland or Juba Valley (Dooxada Jubba formerly Trans-Juba (Oltre Giuba is the southwesternmost part of Somalia, on the far side of Southwestern Somalia ( Koonfur-Galbeed Soomaaliya) was an ostensibly autonomous self-proclaimed state in Somalia founded by Hasan Muhammad Nur
The southern half of the country, with the bulk of the population, as of November 2007, is unstable, following the 2006 Civil War between the Transitional Government and the Islamic Courts Union.
Westerners and those working for western organisations continue to be targets of the violence. Two aid workers, one British and the other Kenyan, were abducted in Puntland on 8 May 2007 and a western nurse and her escort were shot dead in Mogadishu on 17 September 2006. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
The inhabitants of Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions of the Northern Somalia have announced formations of a new political party – Northern Somali Unionist Movement (NSUM) as a grass roots Somali organization whose members and supporters hail from Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions in the Northern regions of Somalia(formerly British Somaliland) and whose clan in these regions do not identify with the Somaliland secession. NSUM stands for the promotion of peace and unity among all people of Somalia.
Mogadishu is the capital of Somalia. Mogadishu ( Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar, Hamar; مقديشو Maqadīshū However, during the conflict in 2006, Mogadishu became part of the territory controlled by the Islamic Courts Union, while the Transitional Federal Government had its seat in Baidoa. Baidoa ( Baydhabo) is a city in south-central Somalia, situated 256 kilometers (159 miles by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. The Government returned to Mogadishu in December 2006 with the help of Ethiopian troops.
Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa with the Gulf of Aden to the north and the Indian Ocean to the east. The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa The Gulf of Aden (خليج عدن transliterated: Khalyj 'Adan Somali: Khaleejka Cadan) is located in the Arabian Sea between The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on the continent. The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. 
Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall with recurring droughts. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C to 40 °C (85–105 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast. Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 °C to 30 °C (60–85 °F). The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season at Mogadishu. The December-February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant. The "tangambili" periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid.
Prior to the civil war, Somalia was divided into eighteen regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which were in turn subdivided into districts. The regions are:
On a de facto basis, northern Somalia is now divided up among the quasi-independent states of Puntland, Somaliland, Galmudug and Maakhir. Awdal (Awdal is a region in northwestern Somalia. Its capital is Boorama. Bakool (Bakool is a region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Its capital is Xuddur. Benadir or Banaadir ( Somali: Banaadir; بنادر is a region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia. Bay (Baay is an administrative region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia. Galguduud (Galguduud is an administrative region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Gedo ( Geedo) is an administrative region ( gobolka) formerly part of the historic Upper Juba Region, Somalia. Hiiraan (Hiiraan is an administrative region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose is an administrative region ( gobolka) in the traditional region of Jubaland in southern Somalia. Lower Shabele ( Somali: Shabeellaha Hoose) is an administrative region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia. Mudug (Mudug is an administrative region ( gobolka) in central Somalia. Middle Juba (Jubbada Dhexe is an administrative region ( gobolka) in southern Somalia in the historical region of Jubaland. Middle Shabele ( Somali: Shabeellaha Dhexe) is an administrative region ( Gobolka) in southern Somalia. Nugaal (Nugaal is one of the smaller administrative regions ( gobol) of Somalia. Sanaag ( Somali: Sanaag) is a region ( gobol) in northern Somalia. Sool ( Somali: Sool) is a province located in the northeastern interior of the Horn of Africa. Togdheer ( Togdheer) is an administrative region in northwestern Somalia. Woqooyi Galbeed (Woqooyi Galbeed is a region in northwestern Somalia. Puntland is a region in northeastern Somalia, centered on Garowe ( Nugaal region whose leaders declared it to be an autonomous state in 1998 Galmudug, is a secular decentralized state in the central region of Somalia. Maakhir ( Gobolka Maakhir; ماخر) officially the Maakhir State of Somalia ( Maamul Goboleedka Maakhir, ولاية ماخر الصومال The south is at least nominally controlled by the Transitional Federal Government, although resistance by Islamic groups continues in many areas. Under the de facto arrangements there are now 27 regions. principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Despite being caught up in a civil war for over 15 years now, Somalia still surprisingly has one of the lowest HIV infection rates in all of Africa. Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome This is attributed to the Muslim nature of Somali society and adherence of Somalis to Islamic morals. 
The breadth of the AIDS pandemic has led to the idea in the West that the entire continent is ravaged by the disease. But Somalia — isolated for 14 years since the civil war began and populated by devout Muslims — has an infection rate of perhaps only 1. 5 or 2 per cent of the adult population.
– Stephanie Nolan
With the collapse of the central government in 1991, the education system is now private. History Prehistoric inhabitants The city is home to Neolithic Cave paintings recently discovered named Laas Geel. Primary schools have risen from 600 before the civil war to 1,172 schools today, with an increase of 28% in primary school enrollment over the last 3 years. See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory  In 2006, Puntland, an autonomous state, was the second in Somalia (after Somaliland) to introduce free primary schools with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration.  In Mogadishu, the Benadir University, the Somalia National University, and the Mogadishu University are three of the eight universities that teach Higher education in Southern Somalia. Benadir University, or University of Benadir, abbreviated as BU, is a university located in Mogadishu. Jaamacada Ummada Soomaaliyeed or the Somali National University (SNU is the national University of the Northeast African nation of Somalia. Mogadishu University ( جامعة مقديشو) is non-governmental university in the Somali capital of Mogadishu. In Puntland, higher education is provided by the Puntland State University and East Africa University. Puntland State University is a University located in Garowe, in Puntland, a state of Somalia. In Somaliland, it is provided by Amoud University, University of Hargeisa and Burao University. Amoud University is a University located in Boorama. It was officially inaugurated on November 4th, 1998. The University of Hargeisa (UOH also known as Hargeisa University is a University located in the city of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia. The University of Burao is an independent university established in 2004 in Burao, Somalia. Three Somali Universities are currently ranked in the top 100 of Africa. Qur'anic schools (also known as duqsis) remain the basic system of instruction for religion in Somalia. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran They provide Islamic education for children, thereby filling a clear religious and social role in the country. This is a sub-article to Religious education, Academic discipline, and Islam. Known as the most stable, local, and non-formal education providing basic religious and moral instruction, their strength rests on community support and their use of locally made and widely available teaching materials.
The Qu'ranic system, which teaches the greatest number of students relative to the other education sub-sectors, is the only system accessible to nomadic Somalis compared to the urban Somalis who have easier access to education. In 1993, a survey by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was conducted in which it found, among other things, that about 40% of pupils in Qu'ranic schools were girls. The United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 
Since the collapse of the state, Somalia has transformed from what Siad Barre referred to as "Scientific Socialism" to a free market economy. Somalia has a free market economy Somalia has meager natural resources (or untapped resources such as Oil) and recent economic reverses has left its people increasingly dependent History Prehistoric inhabitants The city is home to Neolithic Cave paintings recently discovered named Laas Geel. Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre محمّد سياد بري) (b Scientific Socialism is the term used by Friedrich Engels to describe the socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx. A market economy is a realized Social system based on the Division of labour in which the prices of Goods and Services are determined in a
Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Nomads and semi-nomads, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that After livestock, bananas are the principal export; sugar, sorghum, maize, and fish are products for the domestic market. For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two The small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of GDP.
Somalia's public telecommunications system has been almost completely destroyed or dismantled. However, private wireless companies thrive in most major cities and actually provide better services than in neighbouring countries. Wireless service and Internet cafés are provided. Somalia was the last African country to access the Internet in August 2000, with only 57 web sites known as of 2003.  Internet usage in Somalia grew 44,900% from 2000 to 2007, registering the highest growth rate in Africa.  Somalia has the cheapest cellular calling rates in Africa, with some companies charging less than a cent a minute. A cellular network is a Radio network made up of a number of radio cells (or just cells) each served by a fixed transmitter known as a Cell  Competing phone companies have agreed on interconnection standards, which were brokered by the United Nations funded Somali Telecom Association. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
Companies providing telecommunication services are:
Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 2% arable land. Golis Telecom Somalia ( Somali Language: Shirkadda Isgaadhsiinta ee Golis Soomaaliya Somali Telecom Group (STG is a Telecommunications company based in Somalia. Telcom is a telecommunications network operator in Somalia. Telcom is the first major privately owned company providing Telecommunications to Somali cities NationLink Telecom is a Mobile phone operator in Somalia. NationLink Telecom came into being on September 1997 Netco Ltd, sometimes referred to as North Eastern Telecommunications Company is a Telecommunications company established in 1993 in Bosaso Bari region Somafone Telecommunications Service Company (operating as Somafone) is Somalia 's leading mobile telephone operator A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual Rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for The civil war had a huge impact on the country’s tropical forests by facilitating the production of charcoal with ever present, recurring, but damaging droughts. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF also known as tropical moist forests, are a Tropical and Subtropical Forest Charcoal' is the blackish residue consisting of impure Carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from Animal and Vegetation Somali environmentalist and Goldman Environmental Prize winner, Fatima Jibrell, became the first Somali to step in and do a much-needed effort to save the rest of the environment through local initiatives that organised local communities to protect the rural and coastal habitat. The Goldman Environmental Prize is a prize given annually to grassroots environmental activists from six geographic areas Africa, Asia, Europe Fatima Jibrell (Somalia is founder of the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Organization (Horn Relief. Jibrell trained a team of young people to organise awareness campaigns about the irreversible damage of unrestricted charcoal production. Jibrell also joined the Buran rural institute that formed and organised the Camel Caravan program in which young people loaded tents and equipment on camels to walk for three weeks through a nomadic locale and educate the people about the careful use of fragile resources, health care, livestock management and peace. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing
Fatima Jibrell has consistently fought against the burning of charcoal, logging and other man-induced environmental degradation. Fatima Jibrell (Somalia is founder of the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Organization (Horn Relief. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Her efforts have born fruits to the local communities across Somalia and international recognition when she won the prestigious Environmental Goldman award from San Francisco. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Jibrell is also the executive director of Horn Relief and Development Organisation. 
Somalia has a population of around 10. 7 million according to U. N. estimates in 2003, 85% of which constitute ethnic Somalis. Somalis ( Soomaaliyeed, الصوماليون are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula.
There is little reliable statistical information on urbanisation in Somalia. Somalis ( Soomaaliyeed, الصوماليون are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula. However, rough estimates have been made indicating an urbanisation of 5% and 8% per annum with many towns rapidly growing into cities. Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Annum is one form of the Latin noun meaning Year, not a form normally used for derivatives in modern languages the accusative singular Currently, 34% of the Somali population live in towns and cities with the percentage rapidly increasing. 
Because of the civil war, the country has a large diaspora community, one of the largest of the whole continent. The Somali civil war led to the Somali Diaspora, where most of the best educated Somalis left for Northern Europe, The Middle East, and North America Millions of Somalis live abroad, and this excludes those who inhabit the Ogaden region of Ethiopia, Yemen, northeastern Kenya, and Djibouti.
Somali is the national language of the Somali people and is used virtually everywhere by almost all ethnic Somalis as well as a few minority groups. Languages in education and government See also The language and literacy issue In the pre-revolutionary era English became dominant in the school system Somali ( Af Soomaali, الصوماليه is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by ethnic Somalis Minority languages do exist, such as Af-Maay, which is spoken in areas in South-Central Somalia mainly by the Rahanweyn. Maay (also known as Af Maay Afmaay Af-Maay Tiri Af-May Af-Maymay Rahanween Rahanweyn is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family See also Somali clan The Rahanweyn ( Somali Maay: Reewing; traditional Raxanweyn, الراحانوين is a Somali clan, composed Variants of Swahili (Barawe) are also spoken along the coast by Arabs and some Bantus (Jareer). Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches The Bravanese language (also called Chimwiini, ChiMwini, Mwiini, or Mwini) is spoken by the Bravanese people, who are the traditional The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Somali Bantu (also called Jareer or Gosha by ethnic Somalis are a minority ethnic group in Somalia, a country largely inhabited by ethnic
A considerable number of Somalis speak Arabic due to close ties with the Arab World, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language English is also widely used and taught. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Italian used to be a major language but now because of the civil war and lack of education, it is most frequently heard among older generations. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy.
The Somalis are entirely Sunni Muslims. Nearly all Somalis are Sunni Muslims Practicing Islam reinforces distinctions that further set Somalis apart from their immediate African neighbors many of whom are either Christians Mogadishu ( Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar, Hamar; مقديشو Maqadīshū Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Christianity's influence was significantly reduced in the 1970s when church-run schools were closed and missionaries sent home. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. There has been no Archbishop of the Catholic cathedral in the country since 1989; the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged in the civil war of January-February 1992. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral The Somali constitution discourages the promotion and propagation of any religion other than Islam. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. This sets Somalis apart from their immediate African neighbours, many of whom are either Christians (particularly the Amhara and others of Ethiopia) or adherents of indigenous faiths. Amhara ( Amharic: አማራ Ge'ez: አምሐራ is an Ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia.
The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and it encompasses different styles of cooking. One thing that unites the Somali food is its being Halal. Halal (حلال ḥalāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. Therefore, there are no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten and no blood is incorporated. Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Somali people serve dinner as late as 9 pm. During Ramadan, it is often eaten after Tarawih prayers – sometimes as late as 11 pm. Ramadan or Ramadhan or Ramazan ( Arabic: ar رمضان is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. This is a sub-article of Sunnah salat and Ramadan. Tarawih ( تراويح) is an Arabic phrase referring to extra prayers Cambuulo is one of Somalia's most popular dishes and is enjoyed throughout the country as a dinner meal. The dish is made out of well-cooked azuki beans, mixed with butter and sugar. The azuki bean (also spelled adzuki or aduki) is an annual vine widely grown throughout East Asia and the Himalayas for its small The beans, which by themselves are called digir, are often left on the stove for as many as five hours, on low heat, to achieve the most desired taste.
Somalia produced a large amount of literature through Islamic poetry and Hadith from Somali scholars of the last centuries. Somalia produced a large amount of literature through Islamic Poetry and Hadith from Somali scholars of the last centuries to modern Fiction Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic With the adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1973 numerous Somali authors have released books over the years which received widespread success, Nuruddin Farah being one of them. Nuruddin Farah (born 1945 is a Somali Novelist particularly concerned with Women's liberation in postcolonial Somalia Novels like From a Crooked Rib and Links are considered important literary achievements which earned him the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. The Neustadt International Prize for Literature is a biennial award for literature sponsored by the University of Oklahoma and its international literary publication
Somalia has the distinction of being one of only a handful of African countries that are composed almost entirely of one ethnic group, the Somalis. This is a list of prominent and notable writers from Africa, including Poets Novelists Children's writers Essayists and Scholars listed Somalia has the distinction of being one of only a handful of countries in Africa that are composed almost entirely of one ethnic group the Somalis Traditional bands like Waaberi Horseed have gained a small following outside the country. Others, like Maryam Mursal, have fused Somali traditional music with rock, bossa nova, hip hop, and jazz influences. Maryam Mursal (born January 1, 1950) is a famous Musician from Somalia. Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Bossa nova ( is a style of Brazilian music popularized by Antônio Carlos Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes and João Gilberto. Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Most Somali music is love oriented.
Toronto, where a sizable Somali community exists, replaced Mogadishu (because of the instability) as the centre of the Somali music industry, which is also present in London, Minneapolis, and Columbus. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Columbus is the Capital and the largest city of the US state of Ohio. One popular musician from the Somali diaspora is K'naan, a young rapper from Toronto, whose songs talk about the struggles of life in Somalia during the outbreak of the civil war. K'naan (ˈkeɪnɑːn born Kaynaan Warsame in 1978 is a Canadian Poet and hip hop artist from Somalia.